What are exchange particles

What are Different Types of Forces - 2021 - News

Basically there are only four different types of forces in physics. These are strong atomic forces, electromagnetic forces, weak atomic forces and gravitational forces. You will find the description of the individual forces below.

Strong nuclear forces

This is the strongest force in comparison. According to the standard model are Gluons the exchange particles for this force. A strong nuclear force holds quarks in hadrons and is also responsible for keeping protons together in the nucleus without them flying apart due to electrostatic repulsion.

Electromagnetic Forces

Electromagnetic forces act on electrical charges. It is responsible for holding protons and electrons together in atoms. Most of the everyday phenomena observed in electricity and magnetism are governed by this force. The exchange particle for the electromagnetic force is that photon .

Weak nuclear forces

Weak nuclear forces are responsible for beta decay. The exchange particles are the W and Z bosons .

Gravitational forces

Gravity is responsible for the attraction between masses (and consequently gravity is responsible for the planetary orbits). Compared to the other three types of force, gravity is much weaker, and why it does so remains one of physics' greatest unsolved mysteries. Gravity doesn't go well with the Standard Model, which explains the other three types of forces well. Gravitons are often used in some theories to describe a basic particle that would impart gravitational forces. However, such a particle was never discovered.

When dealing with classical physical problems it is often helpful to think of other additional types of forces. For example, normal contact force or reaction force, tension, friction, electrostatic force, magnetic force, weight, etc.


When a body presses against a surface, the surface exerts a force on the body that is perpendicular to the surface. This force is called the normal force or reaction force.


When a string is attached to a body and pulled, tension is the force acting along the string in a direction away from the body.


When two surfaces move against each other, there is a force that opposes the movement and that acts on a surface against its direction of movement. This force arises because the surfaces are rough on a microscopic scale and consist of protrusions. When the objects move against each other, these protrusions can block and delay the movement of the objects.

Electrostatic force

The force of attraction or repulsion between two charged objects.

Magnetic force

The force of attraction or repulsion between two magnetic materials.


Gravity acts on a body. Is the acceleration due to gravity given by

Then the weight

act on an object with mass

is given using Newton's second law as:

Near the surface of the earth,

ms -2 .

Basically, most of the forces we encounter in everyday life (with the exception of gravity) are different forms of electromagnetic forces. For example, a normal contact force arises from the repulsion of electrons that make up the two bodies that are in contact.