What does mythology mean



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Traditional stories that deal in particular with gods, demons, heroes, the creation of the world, man, his historical beginnings, etc. A myth is a traditional material that has been and can be told and represented in many languages ​​and art genres in ever new variations.
"For the early Greeks, 'myth' was simply 'the word', 'the story', synonymous with 'logos' or 'epic', a 'mythologos' is a storyteller. Only distrust of traditional stories narrowed the meaning: Herodotus, the contemporary of the Sophistic Enlightenment, used the word for the first time only to designate unbelievable stories, and Thucydides differentiated his story, told in a new claim to truth, from the merely told story, the 'mythódes'; especially the new art of Platonic dialectic sets it in sharp terminology, contrasts the 'Mythoi', which are often lies, with the 'Logoi' as the dialectically provable statements. Hence the meaning of myths as stubbornly believed but incorrect views ('der Myth of masculinity '), which the word also has in German. " (Graf 1985, pp. 7-8)
First and foremost the totality of mythological tradition, secondly the scientific research and presentation of myths.
The material circles of sagas, legends, fables, which can hardly be clearly distinguished from the mythological in terms of definition.
The Platonic dialecticians oppose and counter the myths as unprovable statements and logical statements as provable. An even sharper contrast between myths and material reality could be asserted if such a reality could be prepared from the reality to which myths have belonged for thousands of years. A particularly stimulating definition of the myth comes from the French literary theorist and social critic Roland Barthes (1915-1980): "The myth is a depoliticized statement ... The semiologist has taught us that the myth is charged with historical intention as nature founding, chance as eternity. This approach is exactly that of bourgeois ideology. If our society is objectively the privileged area for mythical meaning, it is because myth is formally the most suitable instrument of the ideological reversal by which it defines At all levels of human communication, myth turns anti-nature into pseudo-nature. " (Barthes 1957, p. 130) Barthes sees myth as a kind of symbolic violence, as you defined Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron in their book "Basics of a theory of symbolic violence", 1970, Frankfurt 1973 in German.