Will Mangalyan take 2 humans to Mars

3. Organizations - Who wants to colonize Mars?

European Space Agency (ESA):

ESA is a European space agency that wants to explore our solar system.
This program is called Aurora and you started with him in 2011. A large part of this project deals with the realization of a manned mission to Mars.
The current plan is to use a Mars orbiter and a Mars rover on March 14, 2016 to search for traces of life and to study the biological and geological environment. In this way one could identify possible problems with the landing and settlement and, if possible, eliminate them. Since the start would have been delayed due to a lack of financial means, there was close cooperation with Roskosmus, which now made it possible to start on time. This mission is called ExoMars.
Then the project `` Mars Sample Return (MSR) '' is to start in 2020-2022. They want to bring rock samples from Mars to Earth. An orbiter with a return capsule and a landing module are to be transported to Mars on board an Ariane 5ECA. Once there, the landing module is supposed to take samples on the Mars surface and then bring them back to the Mars orbiter, where they are loaded into the return capsule. A total of 500g samples are to be taken from a depth of up to two meters and brought to earth.

In the years 2022-2035, the Human Mission Technology Demonstrator (s) and the Technology Precursor Mission new technical means, electric drives and soft landings for manned missions are tested.
Finally, an unmanned Mars mission is to start in 2033-2050, as a lead-up to the manned one in 2040-2060.
Before that, however, cargo elements are to be brought to Mars in 2037-2055.


Roscosmos

The Russian space agency plans to carry out a manned flight to Mars in the first half of the 21st century.
As early as 1971, the Soviet Union collected the first few data about Mars with the Mars 2 and 3 probes, whose landing module was the first terrestrial object on Mars. The Mars 4, 5, 7 probes provided additional data and photos.
Finally, in 2010-2011 they carried out a test simulation called `` Mars-500 '' on Earth. In this project, four volunteers were isolated and trapped for 520 days. The behavior of the test persons was examined and analyzed, while one tried to simulate the sequence of the flight to and from Mars as realistically as possible. The goal was to capture mental health problems in order to counteract them. They wanted to know how the team would react in certain emergency situations and to find out which personality types are best suited for a long-term mission.
Roskosmos is currently working on the project with ESA Exo Mars (see ESA).


National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA):

The American space agency has already laid the foundations for its first manned mission to Mars:
The space probes Mariner 4, 6, 7 and 9 were able to gather a lot of knowledge about the Martian surface through photos. With the NASA probes Viking 1 and Viking 2, spacecraft were first deposited on the surface of Mars during an American mission in 1976, which were equipped with gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, meteorological instruments, color cameras, a device for taking soil samples and instruments r biological experiments was equipped. In 1997, the Pathfinder probe and its robotic vehicle Sojourner landed on Mars and the Mars Global Surveyor (probe) entered orbit. He maps the surface of Mars and his radar data indicate water ice in the subsurface of the polar regions.

The Mars Odyssey probe also entered Mars orbit in 2001. In addition to the findings that it provided with a gamma spectrometer about the surface and mineral composition, it should serve as a radio relay to earth for subsequent land missions, just like the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2006. He also provided weather data and discovered in 2015 that there is likely liquid water in the form of salty meltwater on Mars. The two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, landed on Mars in 2004 and proved that there was at least too much liquid water there. In addition, Opportunity is still sending valuable information from Mars to this day. Finally, the NASA Phoenix probe was sent to Mars in 2008 and the NASA Curiosity rover in 2012. They were able to detect water ice in the underground. Curiosity itself found evidence of the existence of liquid water there in 2015. This is very important for colonization because water is essential for long-term colonization.
To achieve this, NASA launched the `` Constellation '' program. Your goal is to carry out a second manned mission to the moon by 2020 in order to finally be able to visit other destinations, such as Mars. They plan that the Ares 1 rocket will bring the transport ship Orion into low or near earth orbit. Meanwhile, the Ares 5 is supposed to transport the lunar lander Altair, which will later serve for the landing on the moon and the establishment of a base, and the Earth Depature Stage also in the Low Earth Orbit. After all, the Orion spaceship is supposed to fly to the moon with the Earth Depature Stage as the carrier element and the Altair lunar lander. NASA announced on September 28, 2007 that it would use this basis to conduct the first manned Mars mission in 2037. Another project called Insight had also been planned. One wanted to investigate the structure and composition of the interior of Mars with a stationary Mars lander. The actual start date in March 2016 was postponed indefinitely due to a leaky, non-repairable measuring device.

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO):

The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), which is also called Mangalyaan, is a program of the Indian space organization.
On November 5, 2013, the PLSV-XL C-25 rocket launched, which put a space probe into orbit around Mars. On September 24, 2014, the probe went into orbit around Mars. There she took color photos of the Martian surface and tested the deep space communication and navigation, which should help in the planning and implementation of a manned and unmanned Mars mission.


Mars One:

Mars One is a private, Dutch foundation that works with the University of Twente. It is financed by a television show. Your goal is to send people to Mars by 2027. Unlike the other missions, this one does not have to fly back. One wants to colonize Mars in the long term. The crew must therefore spend the rest of their lives on Mars. People from all over the world could apply to be one of the 40 astronauts. You just had to be of legal age, healthy, socially competent and have a good command of English. From the more than 200,000 applicants, the final crew will be selected from the last 100 applications by the end of 2016, who will then be trained in special training for their upcoming Mars mission. Their plan is to launch a communications satellite into orbit around Mars in 2020. The journey to Mars is to begin in 2026 with a four-man crew, which is to land on the red planet in 2027. If this were successful, four astronauts should be sent to the Mars settlement every two years.

Other organizations that deal with this topic but are less relevant in its practical implementation would be, for example, the Mars Society (promoting and researching for space travel, especially for Mars missions) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA, failed mission to Mars Nozomi ).