What does an oceanographer do


oceanography, Oceanography, oceanology, the science of the sea. It encompasses a number of scientific disciplines (e.g. physical and chemical oceanography, marine biology and marine geology).

The physical oceanography deals with the structure and structure, movement and mixing of sea water. On the one hand, extensive Observation and Measuring programs on the other hand, in theoretical oceanography, the equations of motion of a fluid particle, the Navier-Stokes equations, and the laws of thermodynamics are applied to describe the circulation of the ocean. For the analysis of the data obtained and for the prediction, especially in the context of climate research, numerical ones are increasingly being used Model calculations carried out with mainframes.

Research vessels are mostly used for measurement programs, on which not only physical but also biological and chemical issues are investigated. In addition, satellite and aircraft measurements (remote sensing, Remote sensing) as well as automated unmanned measuring buoys are used. An essential branch of physical oceanography is dedicated to the measurement of State variables Temperature, salinity and depth or pressure (Hydrography) as well as the measurement of Trace substances (e.g. radioisotopes, sparingly soluble gases, tracer oceanography or environmental physics). Prediction of tides, storm surges, swell and ice cover as well as changes in currents caused by engineering structures (bunches, quay walls etc.) are further areas of application of physical oceanography. There are important overlaps with non-physical disciplines in the area of Ecosystem modeling (Biology, fisheries science, chemistry), the Paleoceanography (Geology, biology, chemistry, deep-sea drilling) and modeling the carbon cycle (chemistry, biology, geology).

Systematic exploration of the ocean began in the last century with the expedition of the HMS Challenger from 1872-1876. A worldwide measurement campaign culminated in the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). Major international programs currently running (1999) include ODP (Ocean Drilling Program), WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) and JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Studies).