What kills electric Pokemon

Pokémon Marine Biology: From Shore to Deep Sea Trench

introduction

Tman87:
Welcome to the latest in the Pokémon Biology series! I'm Tman87, and together with lyd, whose wealth of knowledge is almost unmatched in the area of ​​our topic today, I'm going to shed some light on the darkness of an intimidating and unknown world. Step into the world of Pokémon marine biology!

The sea is a habitat like no other: Most life forms have three-dimensional freedom of movement, which opens up a variety of hunting and defense strategies. However, once you immerse yourself in this world, you will encounter a previously unimaginable variety in adaptive abilities and survival strategies that never take on the same form between two species! The sea is also a relentless world, and its inhabitants can be just as cold-blooded ...

Coastal areas

Garstella

Tman87:
Garstella seems goofy and harmless, but don't let that impression fool you: it isn't classified as a robber for nothing. Garstella visits Alola's coasts in search of his favorite dish: Corasonn. Nobody can say exactly why it is constantly on the hunt for Corasonn's corals (with or without a Corasonn [at the other end]), but it could be because the solid components such as calcium make an important contribution to Garstellas ( and later Aggrostellas) to reinforce the outer shell. However, it does not have the greatest mobility - with only one "foot" worth mentioning - and therefore usually avoids deeper waters, in which more cruel and highly developed predators are up to mischief, a crew against which a poor Garstella would probably have no chance.

But Garstella also has to arm himself against his very own enemy: Knirfish. Its hard outer skin and poisonous spines are no obstacles for Knirfish's outstanding biting power, which is also the reason why Knirfish are often found near the coast and not further out. The idea that Knirfish gained the psycho-types through evolutionary adaptation in order to gain an even better advantage over Garstella and Aggrostella is currently hotly debated: Some scientists argue that the tooth structure already does a good job and is completely sufficient, while others hold against it that psychokinesis was a great help in hunting down Garstella who would be out of the water and therefore out of reach for a pure water knirfish.

But let's not stray too far from Garstella. Its sluggish outward appearance and slow movements only serve the purpose of concealing one of the animal world's most brutal predatory strategies. Usually this Pokémon crawls around the bottom and feeds on fallen Corasonn horns; However, as soon as it discovers potential prey, it develops an unbelievable aggressiveness, especially for its size: It rushes headlong at the opposing Pokémon in the hope of poisoning it with its large poisonous sting. If this was successful, Garstella has already won the game, it just has to wait for the poison to take effect and then finish off its victim with its ten prickly tentacles. Once the upcoming meal is done, Garstella can consume it without worry. If Garstella fails to inject the poison, it will either try to escape or try again; this depends on a variety of factors, such as the size and weight of the opposing Pokémon, whether it just missed or ricocheted off unexpectedly hard armor, and probably many other variables that may still be unknown today. However, since Garstella is not exactly nimble, it will rarely be able to escape an angry Pokémon, but usually the poisonous spikes are reason enough for most Pokémon to leave them.

Last but not least, Garstella shares one ability with the Sterndu family: the ability to regenerate your body. While this is not quite as extreme as Sterndu, since it loses its ability in head injuries, Garstella can regrow any lost limbs (i.e. mainly tentacles) overnight. This helps it both offensively, as it can attack even more ruthlessly without worrying too much about its body, and as a defensive skill, since this Pokémon doesn't mind "sacrificing" a part of its body in order to flee can.

Gufa

Lyd:
Gufa have developed a very unusual defense strategy by expelling their internal organs in case of danger and using them to beat potential predators. The internal organs can take on very different shapes, but the most common shape is curiously similar to a fist. The most common hypothesis explains this with the fact that the format of a fist with its mediocre aerodynamic properties and the large contact area allows for increased pressure to be built up. This is further underpinned by the fact that the evolutionary ancestors of Gufa followed a similar tactic, but only used the released organs to deter predators. Another interesting ability of Gufa is the production of an enzyme-rich secretion that helps most Pokémon heal status changes. The enzymes from Gufa accelerate the healing process immensely. This is particularly evident in his signature attack: purification. As is well known, the attack can also help to purify the water, but there is still a lack of meaningful research results into exactly how completely the pollutants are broken down. In the future, many cities hope to use Gufa to get a grip on the increasing pollution problems caused by the growing number of poisonous Pokémon in urban areas.

Regardless, Gufa was one of the first Pokémon with a real inner skeleton. This revolutionary invention would later gain even greater prominence in the chordata group, which also includes us humans. Although Gufa and other representatives of the Echinodermata are more similar in appearance to the Cnidaria such as Corasonn, they are genetically much closer to the Chordata. But if you keep in mind that you can imagine the first chordata to be something like the now-known Liliep, the close relationship to Gufa seems at least a little more plausible. A major source of confusion is that the echinodermata have secondarily lost the bilateral symmetry that we know from insects and most chordata. Thus, despite their close relationship with the groups mentioned, the Echinodermata instinctively seem strange. But even the early chordata have temporarily lost their bilateral symmetry, as can be seen in the example of Liliep. It was only rediscovered in the group when a species similar to the modern Zapplarang appeared. According to more recent theories, Liliep's larvae may already have returned to bilateral symmetry, but in the absence of detailed fossil records and despite the revolutionary resuscitation techniques, this is difficult to prove.

Shallow water

Tandrak

Tman87:
At just under 2 meters, Tandrak looks unusually large for being found in shallow waters. However, this Pokémon was able to adapt to its surroundings and hides stealthily in large fields of algae that can be found in various parts of the sea. Admittedly, due to its size, its predevelopment Algitt can hunt closer to coastal areas, but Tandrak still feels at home in shallow water, where it can effortlessly hide under sand and silt, making it almost invisible to potential victims.

Tandrak is likely a close relative of the Seeper family; they share the same upright swimming posture, which is extremely unusual for other sea-dwelling Pokémon, as well as the dragon types of the last development stage. Thus, the existence of a common ancestor is fairly close, with the Tandrak family evidently evolving into a more offensive hunter, while Seeper's evolution appears to have favored a more defensive behavior: Seemon's poisonous scales (which are said to cause deafness and, in some cases, fainting) are mainly used as a protective mechanism, and its outstanding agility is also more often displayed when escaping from aggressive opponents than when hunting for prey. There is another very promising candidate for a place in the family tree: Moruda. While this might sound quite surprising given the large morphological differences between the two species, Tandrak and Moruda appear to coexist very well, with some suggesting a former symbiotic relationship. In addition, Tandrak's algae mimicry and Moruda's external appearance are very reminiscent of each other, so it is entirely plausible that the two creatures were one and the same Pokémon one day. Even if we still have no solid evidence at the time of writing, one could definitely assume that thousands of years ago a certain moruda gave birth or mutated into a prehistoric tandrak, using its seagrass appearance differently than before . Perhaps it even took possession of a floating Seemon or Sea Draking, whereupon the genes eventually merged and the first Tandrak was created.

Let's get back to the subject from the hypotheses, however, because Tandrak would certainly not be such a scary predator if only it had its stealth ability. Its deadliest weapon, which it can use to kill its victims on the spot, is its incredibly powerful poison, which it can excrete like a breath. According to some impressive reports, this toxin can even break down certain metals, which explains why it is immediately fatal for any small to medium-sized marine Pokémon. This, however, led to a mystery: if the toxin was really that potent, why weren't many of the coastlines near Tandrak hunting grounds the only poisonous swamps in which one would lose parts of the body while bathing? The answer lies once again in evolutionary adaptation and a simple logical explanation. Tandrak would not be able to benefit from such a potent poison if it continued to float in the water for ages after it served its purpose - killing its prey: the Pokémon would risk wiping out every living thing in its vicinity, which would not only affect its food sources, but also the algae forests that enable it to be so highly effective as camouflage.

For this reason, Tanderk's poison is very strong, but also quickly neutralized, as the active ingredient reacts with the salt water of the sea within a few seconds after it is released and breaks down into harmless, non-toxic molecules. This allows Tandrak to hunt down a wide variety of prey and repel possible predators while keeping collateral damage to a minimum.

Seeper

Lyd:
My colleague and fellow biologist TMan87 has already mentioned the vertical swimming posture of the Seeper and Algitt families, and I want to add in the following how it actually came about. Surprisingly, it was found that Seeper is genetically closely related to Schmerbe of all places. The evolutionary approach to this comes from a fossil missing link that connects these two unusual families; a being very similar to Schmerbe seemed to have trained a prehensile tail, as seen at Seeper, to cling to rocks and get along better with rapids. The fossil record also shows the formation of the bone plates that ring the body of Seeper and his relatives. At some point, a Pokémon was created that was almost identical to Seeper, but in contrast to Seeper retained a horizontal swimming position. The generally accepted theory describes the straightening of the posture as an adaptation to coastal habitats, in which seaweed pretends to be seaweed (it may not look like it at all, but one has to take into account the limited eyesight of its predators). With Algitt one can observe a similar adaptation in a much more pronounced form; However, it is still controversial whether the Algitt family is more closely related to Seeper and thus belongs to the animal kingdom, or whether it is more to be assigned to the algae as a relative of Moruda. The main reason for the debate is that Algitt and Tandrak hardly left any fossils that would enable a well-founded reconstruction of their tribal history.

But let's get back to Seeper. The severely limited mobility in the water, which is associated with the aforementioned vertical swimming posture, made some additional survival strategies necessary. This is probably also the background for the development of his inkjet system. Seeper can expel ink and thereby distract its predators, whereupon it can easily hide behind algae in the middle of the coral reefs of its habitat, while the confused predator remains behind the cloud of ink. Another interesting detail of the Seeper family can be found in its breeding behavior, because in contrast to all other known Pokémon species, here the male takes responsibility for the eggs. By means of this ingenious evolutionary trick, the offspring experience the support of the father, while the mother can concentrate her resources on the production of new eggs. Finally, a few words should be said about Seeper's developments. Since Seemon is easier to spot due to its size, it has developed a special poison that few predators can overcome. Its larger fins also dramatically increase mobility and make it amazingly fast. For its part, seedraking is able to conjure up huge vortices that can capsize even the largest ships, making it easy to hold its own against most opponents in the marine environment.

Seabed

Thump

Tman87:
Boom is a very interesting Pokémon because its hunting method is unique in the Pokémon world. This Pokémon doesn't have to rely on immense speed, razor-sharp teeth, or deadly poison to grab its prey. It just relies on a bit of camouflage ... and its amazing right scissors (though some Wummer are left scissors too). Obviously, Wummer's scissors got stronger and stronger over time, until they got even bigger than the rest of the body!

Boom usually rests on the ocean floor, often in caves, from where it can easily spot victims swimming by. As soon as that happens, it's time for the scissors: Since his scissors are made almost entirely of muscle tissue, Wummer can contract them at an explosive rate. This causes the scissors to close so quickly that the water in the scissors is brutally compressed, causing cavitation. A temperature of several thousand degrees Kelvin is briefly reached in the cavitation bubble, while the pressure generated triggers a shock wave. Needless to say, no matter who or what is at the other end of the scissors, in the best of cases the cavitation bubble is numb, which means that Wummer can easily do it, or was killed instantly by it.

When the strength was scientifically examined, it turned out that the pressure generated would even be sufficient to tear steel apart, which testifies to the terrifying power that lies in these scissors. Wummer himself is not injured thanks to the heavy armor of this part of the body; probably again a product of evolution, since self-harm with one's own hunting method would not be a really efficient method.

Wummer is truly defined by its scissors, and fortunately, these also prove useful outside of the hunt. While studying this Pokémon, it was discovered that the scissors have a small opening in the back. A lot of water can escape through this opening at tremendous speed if the contraction of the scissors is weak enough not to cause cavitation. This allows Wummer to dart around in the water, which on the one hand can quickly escape a predator and on the other hand can quickly catch up with one of its own victims; although that would mean it would have to "reload" again before it can fire its claws again. Thus, the propulsion helps Wummer mainly in an escape situation, when it has moved far from its cave, into which it can otherwise simply retreat in order to be out of the reach of larger predators. On the other hand, Wummer is usually left alone near his apartment, as few smaller Pokémon would dare to challenge a Wummer with the devastating power of his claws unless they have a surprise element on their side.

Last but not least, it is not uncommon to see a Wummer accompanied by a Finneon (and more rarely Lumineon), as the latter takes care of the remains of a meal of Wummer and thus cleans the scissors; Wummer cannot do this without outside help.

Moruda

Lyd:
Hopefully it shouldn't come as a surprise to anyone that Moruda's body is the seaweed, not the anchor. In fact, this marine Pokémon often changes its anchor whenever it encounters a new shipwreck. The anchor plays a huge role in Moruda's life as it is his primary means of attack and defense. Moruda also endeavors to collect two compants that it can use as eyes while looting a shipwreck. Little is known about how ghost-type Pokémon work, but there is actual evidence that Moruda can see using a compass. To get back to the subject of shipwrecks: Moruda loves to find them more than anything, as they not only promise brand new anchors, but can also be navigated underwater by Moruda as if by magic. There are numerous reports by divers of a shipwreck suddenly picking up speed during its exploration, thanks to a local moruda. Moruda often try to get Apoquallyp to sink new ships because they are too heavy to swim by themselves and can only slide a few inches above the seabed.

Since Moruda can gain relatively little energy from photosynthesis, especially due to the poor lighting conditions in their living space, they have developed another, very unusual method to meet their energy needs, according to a recent study. They are able to track down objects and Pokémon with a strong emotional bond with a person and steal their vitality and soul. The energy gained is fed into their complex metabolism, which cannot be sustained through photosynthesis alone.

Deep sea

Apoquallyp

Lyd:
Despite their outward appearance, Apoquallyp are among the more intelligent Pokémon of the seas, which makes them stand out from their relatives Tentacha and Anego. Most of Apoquallyp's organs are relatively simple, but their nervous system is one of the most developed. Apoquallyp can thus track ships, for example, and induce sailors to guide the ships to specific locations. They then sink the ships in an exact configuration with thousands of previous ships to create a kind of submarine fortress made of shipwrecks that have already been detected several times in the depths of the ocean. Another curious habit of Apoquallyp is to imitate diverse human ways of life. Since they can also float in the air, Apoquallyp often wander into cities and watch people in their daily life, in order to then imitate this underwater. The strong sexual dimorphism is probably explained by the fact that they have adapted their bodies to human characteristics and have probably exaggerated a bit. Apoquallyp also like to steal clothes and jewelry from shipwrecks. Male Apoquallyp love accessories like top hats and monocles, while female Apoquallyp prefers to steal necklaces, earrings and bracelets.

Despite their hostility towards humans, Apoquallyp could offer significant opportunities for us in the future. Because Apoquallyp carry the key to biological immortality. Their life cycle begins as a larval form safely inside their egg before they hatch as a quabbel. After accumulating sufficient energy reserves, quabs develop into apoquallyp. So far as unspectacular, but here is the specialty: If an apoquallyp suffers from excessive environmental pollution, illnesses or old age, it can turn back into a quabble and start the cycle again and again. This is the only known example of a systematic "reverse development" of a Pokémon. Using this special ability, Apoquallyp can theoretically stay young forever and live forever unless, of course, they fall prey to a predator. The basis of the ability is the so-called transdifferentiation of their cells, as they drastically change their gene expression and thus transform themselves back into quabble cells. This process also renews the telomeres, which protects the DNA from decay in the long term. No other Pokémon can. Current studies are trying to get to the bottom of this biological trick, but it will be a while before people can use this technique for their own eternal youth.

Tohaido

Tman87:
Tohaido doesn't really need an introduction. Probably one of the most terrible predators of the sea, Tohaido's entire existence is geared towards one goal: hunt, kill, devour.

Thanks to its shape and skin, its body is the epitome of optimal hydrodynamics. Tohaido has a particularly low drag coefficient thanks to its pointed and streamlined body, which means less friction and thus higher maximum speeds. Its skin probably owes it to countless years of evolution, which resulted in a bizarre property: On the one hand, it is so rough that with enough force it can also damage the skin of others (which this Pokémon can also use when hunting, but more on that later more), but it has almost no friction in the water. Scientists who have studied Tohaido's skin claim that it is hydrophobic, meaning that water can simply roll off of it; thus Tohaido's speed increases even further ... but that is still not all! To ensure that prey can't escape, Tohaido has another trick up his sleeve in case it needs a sudden boost in speed: it can take in water (most likely through its mouth) and, not unlike a boom, it through a narrow nozzle on its rump eject powerfully. All of these features allow Tohaido to reach top speeds of up to 120 km / h (75 mph), which far surpasses any other marine life - and also most of the technical travel options available to the average human, which explains why so many coaches the Alola region choose a Tohaido as a means of transport ... The disadvantage, however, is that Tohaido is more of a sprinter than a long-distance swimmer, as it cannot maintain such high speeds for long and is quickly exhausted when trying.

So Tohaido is fast, we already know that much. However, this speed is only a mere aid to hunting prey, for which Tohaido relies on his sense of smell, eyes and fangs.

Tohaido's sense of smell is so fine that it can pick up a drop of blood from miles away. The hunt for weakened or injured Pokémon are his preferred alternative to get a meal, as the pitiful prey has nowhere to hide from the hungry Tohaido once it has noticed its blood. Even if they hide in small caves or the like, Tohaido will patiently wait for the victims to show up, as long as the hunter does not see any other prey in the immediate vicinity. This is particularly dangerous for swimmers who are injured in the water: they risk being attacked by one - or, Arceus forbid, several - Tohaido.

If it doesn't find injured prey, Tohaido will likely still be able to fill its stomach; Even if his eyes are not on the same level as his nose, the ability to see is always sufficient to spot potential victims. As with most predators, Tohaido's eyesight is based on the perception of movement; as it would have difficulty locating smaller prey, it mainly uses it to find either large prey like Wailord, which is slow but difficult to miss, or medium prey Pokémon like Saganabyss, Lumineon, Golking and in some cases even Octillery , depending on the region.

Tohaido's fangs are downright deadly: they are razor-sharp and their surface is littered with hook-shaped structures, which ensures that prey has even less chance of escape. Tohaido's jaw is powerful enough to even sever iron with ease, making skin and bones a breeze. Even the hardest bowls like that of a Perlu are not up to this monster! If Tohaido loses a tooth during or after a fight, it can grow it back in a very short time, so that it practically never has to lose its effectiveness. So apparently an unlimited number of fangs works as a hunting method.

I would like to say something about Tohaido's skin and especially its usefulness in hunting: it could be that the roughness has something to do with a better success rate of his hunt. Tohaido's skin can injure his victim just by scraping past his prey at high speed, so that Tohaido has two advantages: The potential wound could prevent the victim from escaping, and even if this is not the case, at least it will blossoms. As we already know, once it gets into your blood, you have to be faster than a tohaido to escape it ... and that is something most of its victims cannot. It has to be mentioned, however, that more field studies need to be done on this theory before we have final clarity.

Last but not least, it should be remembered that Tohaido, brutal, deadly and threatening as it is, has suffered badly from overfishing and its population has been steadily declining for a while. National Pokémon security agencies like the Aether Foundation have been warning about this phenomenon for a long time, and hopefully these efforts will pay off in the next few years.

Deep sea trench

Lanturn

Tman87:
As we venture into the Abyssopelagial, I warn you: the rules down here are a lot stricter than the rest of the wildlife. First of all, there is little, if any, light here, which turns the food chain upside down: without light, only a few plants can survive, which means that herbivores can find little food, which puts carnivores on a diet too. One of the few light sources is Lanturn. Well, Lanturn's luminescence is the result of a symbiosis, a subject that my colleague Lyd is an excellent expert on. Lanturn houses various bacteria in its luminous bodies. These normally feed on the Pokémon's energy reserves when it has "switched off" its light, for lack of a better name, and they consume just enough to survive and reproduce. In this case, their metabolism (especially carbon metabolism) is similar to that of other bacteria, only comparatively slow. The bacterial population thus never reaches a critical mass, and should it do, Lanturn uses a special muscle group to expel parts of the population into the sea. Why is the critical mass not allowed to be reached? Because that would activate the bioluminescence. Don't worry, I'll explain: When Lanturn injects a special body fluid into its luminous bodies, it has been proven that the bacterial activity and reproduction rate increases immensely. Once that critical mass is reached, their metabolism changes and they begin to produce luciferin, causing Lanturn's luminaries to glow brightly. It is believed that Lanturn's special body fluid is a nutrient-rich fluid such as glycogen that activates the anabolic pathways of bacteria and thus drives reproduction.

Obviously, Lanturn also benefits from the coexistence: Even if the Pokémon is mostly peaceful and will sometimes use its light in a helpful way, it is mainly used as a hunting tool. As mentioned before, light is a rarity in the depths of the sea, which means that most Pokémon either don't have eyes there (such as Relicanth, for example), or they have eyes that are adapted to function in almost total darkness. For such eyes, even minimal amounts of light are completely dazzling - and Lanturn's light can even be guessed from three miles! However, before we go into detail about how this Pokémon hunts small and medium-sized Pokémon, we need to talk about one more ability of its own: the ability to sense electromagnetism. Lanturn is partly of the Electro-type, as this Pokémon has the innate ability to register electromagnetism, which is a real asset in a world in which it is difficult to make out one's surroundings. Sensing electromagnetic waves emitted by other living beings is extremely helpful for both hunting and avoiding hunters, as each wave is different and Lanturn can decipher them most efficiently. Every living being sends out an electromagnetic field thanks to its nerve impulses, something that can be intercepted and deciphered. These waves are registered in a small region of Lanturn's brain and then converted into visual information, similar to what Golbat or other echo sounder users do. Thus the Pokémon "sees" a three-dimensional image of its immediate surroundings, including all life forms in the immediate vicinity.

So this is what a day on the hunt looks like for Lanturn: It swims around without lighting and tries to use electromagnetic waves to register possible prey and at the same time to avoid other hunters. Once it has registered prey, it locates it as inconspicuously as possible, which is made possible by this very sense of electromagnetism. When it gets close enough to its victim, it injects its nutrient fluid into the luminous bodies, which leads to rapid bacterial growth.

The bacteria in the luminaries reach the critical mass and then start to emit light. The whole process of enlightenment only takes a fraction of a second! Since the prey lives in the Abyssopelagial, it is not used to such blinding light and is therefore numb while it tries to process this overstimulation. Lanturn then has two options for ending it: either the prey is small enough to be devoured completely (Lanturn can expand its mouth and stomach to devour deceptively large prey), or it can kill the victim with an electric shock in case the prey is really too big. In both cases the hunt was successful.

Calamanero

Lyd:
Calamanero is a pretty terrifying Pokémon. Because of many of its quirks, one should think twice before approaching one. Calamanero is primarily a deep sea dweller who usually resides at depths of over 600 m. During the night, however, they often go on a steep hike all the way to the coast, so nocturnal excursions, even in shallow water, can lead to dangerous encounters with this Pokémon. There are many reasons for this danger, but first and foremost are the infamous hypnotic abilities of this Pokémon. Calamanero has several organs with which it can change its body color. A specialty is the production of light in certain cells using chemical reactions known as bioluminescence. A molecule called luciferin uses the enzyme luciferase to oxidize, creating a bright light around Calamanero's body. Normally, especially when hunting, Calamanero shows an alternation of red and white light (from which Calamanero's name in the vernacular, “Red Devil”, goes back), but it can also shine in other colors. As is known, it can perform a rapid color change that cannot be perceived differently by the human eye and only appears as a bright flash. This blinding lightning bolt forms the core of his hypnotic powers. Light emissions are also used by Calamanero for communication, which is why they probably use a certain signal color for hunting, and a similar behavior can be assumed for other activities. Accordingly, Calamanero does not like to see electronic devices such as cameras under water and deliberately disengages them with a strong flash of light. In fact, most of the Calamanero and human incidents are related to cameras or similar devices.

Calamanero is known to be a very aggressive Pokémon. It attacks everything from humans to medium-sized Pokémon, usually moving in swarms in the process. Another behavior that Calamanero displays is his stunning intelligence. Calamanero is by far one of the most intelligent Pokémon in the world and is only surpassed by beings like Simsala, Laschoking, Metagross and the deity of knowledge itself, Selfe. The evolutionary background of Calamanero is also very interesting; they once split off from the group of ammonoids (Amonitas and Amoroso are among the best-known representatives) by giving up the characteristic exoskeleton of this group. At the end of the Cretaceous period, the ammonoids finally died out when their offspring could not cope with the acidic seawater.Squids and octopods, which at that time still lived in the depths of the oceans, could ascend into shallower waters and possibly produce the species Calamanero.

Closing words

Lyd:
I hope this article has given you a fresh look at the marine life of Pokémon. As a land-dwelling species, we will never get as close to the aquatic beings as the creatures around them, so that many of their idiosyncrasies can be astounding. And truly there are many unique Pokémon out there, from the coastal areas to the depths of the oceans!