How did WWII submarines handle rough seas?


Wolfgang Elz

To person

Dr. phil., born 1956; Academic senior counselor at the history seminar of the Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz.
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From the beginning, foreign policy and its basis, the peace order of the Versailles Treaty, played an important part in the failure of the republic.


On June 28, 1919, Germany signed the Versailles Treaty under the ultimate pressure of the victors. [1] The German Reich had to cede about 13 percent of its territory; the greatest losses were in Alsace-Lorraine in the west and Posen and parts of West Prussia in the east, which went to the newly formed Poland. The Saar area fell under the administration of the League of Nations, which left it to France for 15 years to exploit the coal mines. A territorial clause also indirectly represented the "connection ban" anchored in the treaty for "German Austria", which had emerged from the collapsed Habsburg Empire. And at least temporarily, Germany lost its sovereignty over further imperial territory: on the left of the Rhine and with bridgeheads on the right bank, three became allies Zones of occupation established, which - from north to south - were to be evacuated in five, ten and fifteen years at the earliest - provided Germany fulfilled all other obligations of the Versailles Treaty.

The Rhineland and a 50-kilometer-wide strip to the right of the Rhine were demilitarized; the army was only allowed to consist of 100,000 long-serving soldiers. The fleet was limited to a few ships of limited tonnage, and an air force was banned entirely. All new and militarily important war equipment of the World War - tanks, airplanes, submarines - were forbidden: This Reichswehr was intended "only for maintaining order within German territory and for the border police".

The reparations question proved to be particularly burdensome. It was legally attached to Article 231, the "War Guilt Article": Germany was to blame for the outbreak of war - consequently Germany was liable for all "losses and damage" suffered by the war opponents. After all, the opponents recognized that Germany could not pay this sum, which according to the theory would have included the cost of every bullet and the pension of every war half-orphan. But the amount of the reparations was not stipulated in the Versailles Treaty, but transferred to a later determination by the victors.