When was the oxygen cylinder discovered?

Everything about oxygen

oxygen is the most common and widespread element on our planet. Almost every living being and most plants are existentially dependent on it. You can usually take it from the air by breathing or in dissolved form from the water. In high concentrations it is poisonous to most living things.

Oxygen (also called Oxygenium; from Greek oxys “sharp, pointed, sour” and gen “generate, give birth”, together “I generate acid”) is a chemical element with the symbol O and the atomic number 8. Oxygen is the most common element the earth.

Atomic oxygen, i.e. oxygen in the form of free, individual oxygen atoms, only occurs in a stable manner under extreme conditions, for example in the vacuum of space or in hot stellar atmospheres. However, it is of essential importance as a reactive intermediate in many reactions in atmospheric chemistry. Elementary oxygen occurs predominantly in the form of a covalent homodimer, i.e. a combination of two oxygen atoms and with the empirical formula O2, referred to as molecular oxygen, dioxygen or dioxygen. It is a colorless and odorless gas that is 21% of the air. It is involved in many combustion and corrosion processes. The metastable, high-energy and reactive allotropic form made up of three oxygen atoms (O3) is called ozone.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1771 and Joseph Priestley in 1774 independently discovered oxygen in connection with research into combustion processes. The German-Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele made experiments. When brownstone (manganese dioxide) or potassium permanganate was heated with concentrated sulfuric acid (vitriol), it produced a colorless gas. This gas promoted combustion and Scheele called it "fire air" or "Vitriolluft" after its origin. Two years later, the Englishman Joseph Priestley was able to produce oxygen gas completely independently by heating mercury oxide.

In 1883, Karol Olszewski and Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski were the first to succeed
To produce oxygen in the liquid state.

In its elemental state, oxygen is found dissolved in the form of O2 in the atmosphere and in water bodies. Oxygen is mostly found in its compounds on and in the earth. Almost all minerals and therefore rocks in the earth's shell contain oxygen. The most important are the silicates such as feldspars, mica and olivines, the carbonates such as calcium carbonate in limestone and oxides such as silicon dioxide as quartz. In space, oxygen is the third most abundant element after hydrogen and helium. The mass fraction of oxygen in the solar system is about 0.8%.

How is oxygen technically produced?

Technically today, oxygen is obtained almost exclusively by the rectification of air. The process was first developed in 1902 by Carl von Linde (Linde process) and made economically viable by Georges Claude. Small amounts arise as a by-product in the production of hydrogen through the electrolysis of water.

Molecular oxygen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas, which at -182.97 ° C condenses to a colorless liquid. In thick layers, gaseous and liquid oxygen show a blue color. Below -218.75 ° C, oxygen solidifies into blue crystals. Oxygen is not very soluble in water. The solubility depends on the pressure and the temperature. It increases with decreasing temperature and increasing pressure.

Oxygen reacts directly with most of the elements in the periodic table. Elemental, gaseous oxygen is relatively inert, many reactions do not take place at all or only slowly under normal conditions. The reason for this is that oxygen is metastable and the reactions with other substances are kinetically inhibited. Either a high activation energy or very reactive radicals are required for the reaction. This barrier can be exceeded by increasing the temperature, light or catalysts. Even in the presence of water or water vapor, many oxidations with oxygen proceed more easily.

What is the normal oxygen level?

Lack of oxygen can be fatal. It usually arises when the person concerned cannot breathe enough, either due to illness or the effects of medication or drugs. In healthy adults there are values from 95 percent normal.

How can the oxygen content be measured?

The oxygen content in the blood can easily be measured using a pulse oximeter.

W.he is allowed to S.administer oxygen?

Oxygen for use in human medicine is subject to strict controls due to legal regulations. The medical oxygen filled in bottles marked in white is considered in Germany as a finished medicinal product within the meaning of the Medicines Act (AMG). You can find the manufacturing license for Oxyparat® on our Downloads page.

Caution is advised when administering oxygen if patients suffer from chronic lung disease with increased CO2 partial pressure. With them, the sudden "oversupply" of oxygen can lead to CO2 anesthesia with respiratory arrest.

According to a study, if infants and toddlers are ventilated with pure oxygen after cerebral hypoxia, this could increase the brain damage even further.

When is oxygen given?

Injuries and many diseases of the lungs as well as some heart diseases and especially shock states can lead to a lack of oxygen (hypoxia) in the arteries and in the tissues of vital organs. For this reason, patients in emergency and intensive care medicine are very often given additional oxygen. In the case of patients who breathe independently, the ambient air is enriched with oxygen with the help of various probes and masks; in the case of artificially ventilated patients, the oxygen is added in the ventilator. In diseases with a severe chronic oxygen deficiency in the blood, a long-term supply of oxygen for several hours every day (long-term oxygen therapy) improves both quality of life and survival time. The 100% oxygen can lead to problems during ventilation due to the displacement of carbon dioxide from the vessels and to an undesirable increase in brain activity in the hypothalamus, the insula and the hippocampus. These negative consequences are avoided by adding carbon dioxide.

In the wellness and food industries, products that are enriched with oxygen have recently been promoted more and more. For example, water is sold that is said to have an increased oxygen content. However, it is controversial that such products can have a positive effect on well-being. Oxygen only dissolves in small amounts in liquids and is absorbed far more poorly through the stomach than through the lungs.

What is Oxygen Poisoning?

If pure oxygen or air with a higher proportion of oxygen is inhaled over a long period of time, the lungs can be poisoned, the so-called Lorrain-Smith effect. The alveoli of the lungs are prevented from swelling in their normal function.

The Paul Bert effect describes oxygen poisoning of the central nervous system. This can occur when breathing any oxygen-nitrogen mixture at high pressure, but the risk increases as the oxygen content and total pressure increase. At partial oxygen pressures above 1.7 bar, poisoning occurs within a relatively short time. This plays a role in diving, for example, as it limits the maximum diving depth depending on the oxygen partial pressure.

When is oxygen required for corona virus SARS CoV-2?

The newly discovered SARS CoV-2 corona virus causes a respiratory infection (COVID-19), which is mild in 80% of cases. In a minority of those affected, on the other hand, pneumonia develops, which severely affects the body's oxygen absorption - here medical oxygen is used as a therapeutic agent.

Depending on the severity of the disease, there are different therapy options:

Oxygen via oxygen administration

In mild cases, administering oxygen through a small tube in the nose usually helps. The increased oxygen supply in the inhaled air also facilitates the uptake of oxygen in the lungs.

Oxygen via mouth and nose mask

If the administration of oxygen does not have a sufficient effect or if breathing is too strenuous for the patient, a mouth and nose mask can help with breathing. The pressure in the breathing air can be regulated via the mask. The mask acts like an additional respiratory muscle that does part of the work. To work properly, it has to be as close as possible. However, it never reaches 100% density.

Oxygen via the tracheal tube

In severe cases, ventilation via a ventilation hose (tube) is therefore necessary. After the tube has been inserted into the lungs via the windpipe, the pressure in the lungs and thereby breathing can be regulated. In this case, one speaks of an invasive procedure, since an intervention is carried out in the patient's body. The patient is not conscious.

How can medical Soxygen C.chandelier Ksacrificial painen help?

Inhaling 100% oxygen through a face mask is effective in 60 to 70 percent of patients with cluster headaches.

In many cases, people who suffer from cluster headaches can relieve or eliminate the symptoms by inhaling oxygen. The therapy is highly effective in treating acute attacks and can thus also help to reduce the use of other medications.

By the way, you will find details on cluster headaches HERE in our blog entry on the subject.

Source directory:
1.) https://ains.umg.eu
2.) https://www.neurologen-und-psychiater-im-netz.org