Include dictionaries literary quotes Why

IV. The bibliography: How do you cite which works?

The bibliography contains all works that have been mentioned in the work in text and notes, in the following order:

  • I. Sources: If the work deals with classics or a specific author (e.g. Plato, Kant, Quine), all texts by the author concerned are listed as "sources" separately from the rest of the literature (secondary literature). In the case of systematic topics without a specific author, there is no separation between primary and secondary literature.
  • II. (Secondary) literature: The works, contributions, and articles from which you have cited in the main text are listed in alphabetical order by author. Keep a chronological order by year of publication when listing several titles by the same author.
  • III. Aids and dictionaries: Can be listed separately. "Aids" include bibliographies and dictionaries, for example.
  • IV. Media and Internet Sources: Depending on the type of work, media and / or internet sources can also be listed separately.

How you cite the works in the bibliography depends on which citation system you have chosen: Author-year system or the classic citation style. Unfortunately, an abundance of variants is common to both forms. In all cases it is crucial, firstly, that uniformity Your information and, secondly, that you can get every quoted work clearly identify and can be found in the common libraries!


A. Author-year system or classic citation?

Author-year system: Abbreviations are used in the main text (e.g. Flasch 1980, 21), the cited literature is only listed in full in the bibliography. In the bibliography, the year of publication can be placed after the name: Flasch, K., 1980: Augustin ... or: Hossenfelder, Malte (1996): Antike Glückslehren ...

General scheme in the bibliography:

Name, first name: title. Subtitle, place of publication, year of publication. OR

Surname, first name (year of publication): Title. Subtitle, place of publication.

The second variant makes it easier to find the information when several works by an author are cited.

Classic citation: Only the footnote mark is placed in the main text, all information about the work in the footnote. The full information can be found in the footnote in which the work is mentioned for the first time.

Disadvantage: If you add footnotes / quotations afterwards, the "first" occurrence can easily shift. If you work with the classic citation method, you should either use a reference management system such as Citavi, which prevents this, or, lastly, carefully review your work.

General scheme in the footnote to the first occurrence and in the bibliography:

Name, first name: title. Subtitle, place of publication, year of publication.


author: The indication of the full first name makes it easier to find the work in the alphabetical order of the bibliography (especially with names like: Schulz, Smith, Dupont etc.). Titles like "Prof.", "Dr." or "Cardinal" are omitted.

Title / Subtitle: Specify exactly, especially in the case of commemorative publications and anthologies. The printed title in the book is decisive - the cover sometimes differs from it. English titles are usually case-sensitive.

Other formatting such as fat, italic, Small caps: Uniformity is everything here. For example, set either none or all of the author names fat. To italicize titles: In the Anglo-Saxon world, only the titles and subtitles of the printed medium that you can "hold in your hand" are used. in italics. So not the article title, but the title of a volume or magazine in which the article is contained.

Place of publication: If there are more than three locations, you can specify. If no location can be determined (rarely!), Write "o.O." (without location). The location does not apply to magazines.

Publishing year: If the year cannot be determined, write "o.J." (without year). A second, third etc. edition can be given with a superscript number in front of the year: 21980.

Publishing company: In the Anglo-Saxon region in particular, it is customary to give the publisher's name in addition to the location. If you choose this option, you must contact the publisher all Specify titles.

Scheme:Name, first name: title. Subtitle, place: publisher year.

>> Each complete bibliography is accompanied by a Point completed.


B. Schemas and Examples

1. Monographs

(a)Basic scheme:Name, first name: title. Subtitle, location year. OR

Name, first name: title. Subtitle, place: publisher year.

Hossenfelder, Malte: Ancient teachings of happiness, Stuttgart 1996.

Hossenfelder, Malte: Ancient teachings of happiness, Stuttgart: Kröner 1996.

If an author cites several publications from the same year, the titles are differentiated by small letters (Kutschera 1982a, 34), (Kutschera 1982b, 30). In the bibliography you can find:

Kutschera, F. v. (1982a): Basic Questions in Epistemology, Berlin / New York. or. Kutschera, F. v. (1982b): Basic questions of ethics, Berlin / New York.

(b) Special features, additions, special cases

If the work has been published in several editions, the most recent edition is cited if possible:

Popper, Karl: Logic of Research, Tübingen 101994. or:

Ricken, Friedo: Allgemeine Ethik, 4., Erw. and revised Ed., Stuttgart 2003.

In the case of classic texts, it may be useful to include the original year of publication:

Carnap, Rudolf: The logical structure of the world, Hamburg (11928) 1998.

or: Carnap, Rudolf (1998): The logical structure of the world, Hamburg (11928).

If it is a reprint, this is marked with the note ND:

Rosenkranz, K .: Hegel as a German national philosopher, Darmstadt 1965 (ND of the edition Leipzig 1870).

Multiple authors(Places, publishers, etc.) are separated with a slash:

Kamlah, Wilhelm / Lorenzen, Paul: Logical Propaedeutics. Preschool for Sensible Speech, Mannheim 21973.

If the work was published as part of a series, the name and volume of the series can be added in brackets:

Schmidt, Josef: "Spirit", "Religion" and "Absolute Knowledge". A commentary on the three chapters of the same name from Hegel's “Phenomenology of Mind”, Stuttgart 1997 (Munich Philosophical Studies, Vol. 13).

If you have worked in two languages, the version that you primarily used is indicated:

Taylor, Charles: Sources of the Self, Cambridge 1989 (German: Quellen des Selbst, translated by J. Schulte, Frankfurt a. M. 1996).

or: Taylor, Charles (1996): Sources of the Self, trans. v. J. Schulte, Frankfurt a. M. (Orig .: Sources of the Self, Cambridge 1989).

In the case of comments and commentary anthologies, the author and his work can be treated like the title and subtitle:

Heitsch, Ernst: Plato. Apology of Socrates, translation and commentary, Göttingen 2002 (Platon Werke, Vol. I 2).


2. Edited volumes

In the case of volumes that appear under the name of an editor, the name is followed by (ed.) Or (ed.), In the case of several editors also sometimes (ed.). If the text refers to an anthology, the reference (ed.) Is usually omitted (Kambartel / Mittelstraß 1973, 55), but must be in the bibliography.

Scheme:Name of the editor (s) (ed.): Title. Subtitle, location year.

Kambartel, Friedrich / Mittelstraß, Jürgen (ed.): On the normative foundation of science, Frankfurt a. M. 1973.

Contributions within anthologies:

Scheme:Name, first name: title. Subtitle, in: Name of the editor (s): Title. Subtitle, location, year, [page number from - to].

Quine, Willard Van Orman: The nature of natural knowledge, in: Bieri, Peter (ed.): Analytical philosophy of knowledge, 2nd, through. Ed., Frankfurt a. M. 1992, 422-435.

or: Quine, W. V. O. (1992): The nature of natural knowledge, in: Bieri, Peter (ed.): Analytical philosophy of knowledge, 2., durchges. Ed., Frankfurt a. M., 422-435.

Kluxen, Wolfgang: Philosophical Perspectives in the Work of Thomas Aquinas, in: that. (Ed.): Thomas von Aquin in a philosophical conversation, Freiburg / Munich 1975, 15-37.

Indication that it is a commemorative contribution:

Honnefelder, Ludger: Ethics and Theology. Theses on their relationship determination, in: Hoffmann, T.S. / Majetschak, S. (ed.): Thinking of Individuality (FS J. Simon), Berlin 1995, 297-308.

In the case of contributions in conference proceedings, the year of the edition counts, not the date of the conference. In the text therefore: (see Erler 2000, 32).

Erler, Michael: Epicurus in Raphael's "School of Athens?", In: that. (Ed.): Epicureanism in the late republic and the imperial era. Files from the 2nd meeting of the Karl and Gertrud Abel Foundation from September 30 to October 3, 1998 in Würzburg, Stuttgart 2000, 273-294 (Philosophy of Antiquity; 11).


3. Articles in trade journals

Scheme:Name, first name: title. Subtitle, if applicable, in: Name of the journal Volume number (year), [Page number from - to].

Kahn, Charles H .: Aristotle and Altruism, in: Mind 90 (1981), 20-40.

Because of the large number of specialist journals, the usual abbreviations for journal titles can also be broken down (ZPhF = Journal for Philosophical Research). If you have worked with the abbreviation in the text or in the footnotes, you can add the abbreviation to the information in the bibliography:

Müller, Anselm W .: Acting, in: Journal for Philosophical Research (ZPhF) 57 (2003), 325-347.

If a contribution was published in a translation, you indicate the version that you primarily used yourself, and you can then refer to the other version in each case:

Rawls, John: Justice as Fairness, in: Journal of Philosophy 54 (1957), 653-662 (German in: Rawls, J .: Gerechtigkeit als Fairneß, ed. By O. Höffe, Freiburg 1977, 34-83).

or: Rawls, John: Justice as Fairness, ed. by O. Höffe, Freiburg 1977, 34-83 (Rawls, John: Justice as Fairness, in: Journal of Philosophy 54 (1957), 653-662).

Nagel, T. (1986): The View from Nowhere, New York / Oxford (Ger .: 1992, The view from nowhere, transl. and ed. v. M. Gebauer, Frankfurt a. M.).

or: Nagel, T. (1992): The view from nowhere, trans. and ed. v. M. Gebauer, Frankfurt a. M. (Orig. 1986: The View from Nowhere, New York / Oxford).


4. Lexicon and manual articles

If encyclopedias, handbooks, conference files, etc. are given as whole works, either the title of the work or (as in the case of compilations) the publisher is placed in front of it:

Historical dictionary of philosophy, ed. v. J. Ritter et al., Stuttgart 1971 ff.

Lexicon for Theology and Church (1993-2001), 10 vols., Ed. v. Walter Kasper et al., 3rd completely revised. Ed., Freiburg i.Br.

Encyclopedia Philosophy and Philosophy of Science, 4 vols., Ed. v. Jürgen Mittelstraß, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich, Stuttgart / Weimar 1980/1984/1995/1996; Special edition (paperback) 2004.

or: Mittelstraß, J. (ed.), 2004: Encyclopedia Philosophy and Philosophy of Science, 4 vols., Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich: Bibliographisches Institut (1980/1984/1995/1996); Stuttgart / Weimar.

Lexicon of Bioethics (1998), ed. v. W. Korff et al., 3 vol., Gütersloh.

or: Korff, W. et al. (ed.), 1998: Lexikon der Bioethik, 3 Bde., Gütersloh.

Articles in dictionaries and manuals do not deal with a topic of their own, but explain a keyword that can be put in quotation marks:

Brandenstein, Bela from: "Handlung", in: Handbuch philosophischer Grundbegriffe, ed. v. Krings, H., Baumgartner, H. M. and Wild, Ch., Study Edition Volume 3, Munich: Kösel, 1973, 677-685.

Ricken, Friedo: "Naturalistic Fallacy", in: Korff, Wilhelm / Beck, Lutwin / Mikat, Paul (eds.): Lexikon der Bioethik, Vol. 2, Gütersloh 1998, 733f.

Alternatively, instead of the quotation marks, the term "Art." (= Article):

Wieland, Georg: Art. Freedom of will, in: Lexikon des Mittelalters Vol. 9, Munich 1998, 208–210.


5. Newspaper articles

Böckenförde, Ernst-Wolfgang: Human dignity was inviolable, in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ), Wednesday, Sept. 3, 2003, 33-34.

or: Böckenförde, E.-W. (2003): Human dignity was inviolable, in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ), Wednesday, Sept. 3, 2003, 33-34.


6. Internet sources

Scheme:Last name, first name: title, year, (last access date).

Markosian, Ned: "Time", in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2010 Edition), Zalta, Edward N. (Ed.), 2010 (August 27, 2012).


7. Work and text editions

In the case of classic editions of works from antiquity, the Middle Ages and the modern era, numerous peculiarities often have to be taken into account. It is best to stick to the relevant specialist literature. In contrast to modern literature, sigla are usually used instead of referring to the edition with the year.

So Not (see Aristotle 1894), rather: (see NE 1164b2), Not (The Bible 2012, 2831), rather: (Mt. 5:14), Not (Kant 1911, 34), rather: (GMS 444, 28-34).

The edition used must be given in full in the source section of the bibliography. If you only deal with one work, the symbol can be placed directly after the information [= NE], if you cite many works by an author, a list of all symbols is recommended (usually at the beginning, see script, part III). Putting the year in front of the source section usually does not make sense if you do not quote it in the text.

Aristotle: Ethica Nicomachea, ed. by L. Bywater, Oxford 1894. [= EN]

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics, translated and commented by Fr. Dirlmeier, in: Aristoteles, works in German translation, founded by E. Grumach, ed. by H. Flashar, Vol. 6, Berlin 101999. [= NE]

Augustinus, Aurelius: De libero arbitrio, in: CSEL 74, recen. G. M. Green, Vienna 1956. [= lib. arb.]

Cicero, M. Tullius: De officiis. From dutiful action, Latin / German, transl., Come. and ed. by Heinz Gunermann, Stuttgart 1987. [=]

Hegel's works: Theory work edition, 20 volumes, ed. by E. Moldenhauer and K. M. Michel, Frankfurt a. M. 1969-71. [= TW]

Heidegger, M. (1946): Letter on Humanism, in: ders .: Waymarks, Frankfurt a. M., 145-194.

Hume, David (1972): Inquiry into the principles of morality, trans., Provided with an introduction and an index v. C. Winckler, Hamburg (reprint of the 1929 edition).

Johannes Duns Scotus: Ioannis Duns Scoti, Doctoris Subtilis, ordini minorum, opera omnia. Editio nova jiuxta editionem Waddingi XII tomos continentem a Patribus Franciscanis de observantia accurate recognita, 26 vols, Paris 1891/1895. [= ed. Viv.]

Kant, Immanuel: Gesammelte Schriften, ed. from the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences, Berlin 1902ff. [Academy edition: AA]

Kant, Immanuel (1785): Basis for the Metaphysics of Morals, in: AA Vol. IV, 385-463. [= GMS]

Kant, Immanuel (1788): Critique of Practical Reason, in: AA Vol. V, 1-163. [= KpV]

Kant, Immanuel: Basis for the Metaphysics of Morals, in: I. Kant: Works in ten volumes, ed. v. W. Weischedel, Vol. 6, Darmstadt 1981, 9-102.

Plato: Apology of Socrates, translation and commentary by E. Heitsch, (Platon Werke I 2), Göttingen 2002. [= Apol.]

Thomas Aquinas: Summa contra Gentiles, textus leoninus diligenter recognitus, Turin / Rome: Marietti 1961. [= ScG]

Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologiae (STh) ex recensione leonina, Turin / Rome: Marietti 1952 ff. [= STh]

Wittgenstein, Ludwig: Lecture on ethics (1930), in: Schulte, Joachim (Hrsg.): Ludwig Wittgenstein: Lecture on ethics and other smaller writings, Frankfurt a. M. 1989, 9-19. [= VE]


Fragment editions:

Arnim, Johannes v .: Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, Vol. 1-4, Leipzig: B. G. Teubner 1903-1924. [= SVF]

Huelser, Karlheinz: The fragments on the dialectic of the Stoics. New collections of texts with translation and commentary, Stuttgart / Bad Cannstatt 1987f. [= FDS]

Long, A.A. / Sedley, David N .: The Hellenistic Philosophers. Vol.1 Translations of the principal sources, with a philosophical commentary. Vol. 2 Greek and Latin texts with notes and bibliography, Cambridge 1992. [= LS]
LS is the abbreviation for "Long / Sedley".

Long, A.A. / Sedley, David N .: The Hellenistic Philosophers. Texts and comments, trans. by Karlheinz Hülser, Stuttgart / Weimar 2000.