Why do memory people sometimes deceive

My secret


SPECIAL EDITION
The 100th anniversary of the birth of the Academician d.s. Likhacheva

About such people they say - "Nation's conscience." And Dmitry Sergeevich Likhachev was really a conscience of the nation: in the years of terrible Stalinist oppression, in the years of atheist ideology in culture and science, he defended in oblivion and destroyed the monuments of domestic culture in the era of anti-religious propaganda , opened up the spiritual legacy of previous eras of Russian stories and showed through ancient Russian literature - when our ancestors tried and knew how to live on conscience.

He was a man of astonishing destiny. Beginning of your training in Pre-Revolutionary Russia, Dmitry Sergeevich Likhachev, in his own words, studied all life: he studied from the ancient epochs, on the monuments of his hometown and the ancient, he studied wisdom in ancient Russian literature, who for dozens of years studied, studied in his own life experience - and Dmitry Sergeevich survived all the terrible events of the 20th century. But even in the toughest life tests d.s. Likhachev remained true to the highest spiritual and moral ideals. Therefore his personality itself is no less than his work on the history of Russian literature and its culture is important to us - this man has become a living "tie epoch" for us, "Communication of Times".

The old Russian literature, which D. S. Likhachev studied so carefully, treated very carefully for the experience of earlier generations and epochs, tried to carefully store this experience, to transfer it to younger generations. In ancient Russian culture there was a tradition, various teachings, collections of wise thoughts and stories, books telling the rules of life, the correct way of life, special works telling the wisdom of ancient peoples. Such books were necessarily part of the reading circle of the old Russian reader.

For the entire seven hundred years (from the X to XVII centuries) our ancestors were kept and studied not only by their own people "books of wisdom" - from the first years of his written culture - Russian people with the wisdom of ancient Eastern cultures, with books that As three and even more than three thousand years have been written, with the sayings of ancient wise men and thoughts of European Christian philosophers, ancient Russian culture carefully preserved this rich heritage. As a specialist in ancient Russian literature, Dmitry Sergeevich Likhachev knew that these works were quite well known - numerous "instructions", "to the young", etc., knew all of this teaching tradition from more than more than millennia of domestic culture.

Already in the 80s of the 20th century, an elderly person, the scientist gathered his own notes and observations, devoted to his mother culture, education and formation, and was a special message to the young generation of Russia. He just called his work: "Good and nice letters."

Dmitry Sergeevich Likhacheva, addressed to the modern reader, a young man, is not only the thoughts of a great scientist and a thinker who committed a lot in life and got world fame - for us it is also "letters" from dozens of generations of ours Ancestors, our predecessors (life and life and culture, the scientist of which the scientist did not know so well).

Finishing his work, in the last letter of Likhachev one speaks of his work: "We went together on the experiential steps to the reader, not only my only experience, but also the experience of many people. My letters are instructive, but initiated, I became myself instructed "(letter 46). In essence, this book is the voice of our own culture, its message to us; This is the wisdom and experience of the millennial Russian tradition noticed and absorbed by the Great Explorer.

Perhaps the main goal of a young man today is the assimilation of knowledge, the development of the profession or what to help in future work, to say today, a "competitive personality". In fact, early profiling, the abundance of scientific and technical knowledge and skills already in high school in high school are a memory of education in education. In such a simplified approach to the tasks that the student puts in front of him (or even the school puts in front of him), the scientist saw a great disadvantage.

Under the "letters about good and beautiful" there is a letter at number 26 that is called: "Learn learn." "We are in the century", writes d.s. Likhachev - In what education, knowledge, professional skills will play a crucial role in the fate of a person. By the way, without knowledge everything is complicated, it is simply impossible to work, to profit. For physical work, cars and robots will take up. Even the calculations are done by computers, just like drawings, calculations, reports, planning, etc. A person will make new ideas, think about what the car cannot think. This increasingly requires a person's general intelligence, their ability to create a new one, and of course the moral responsibility that the car cannot carry. Ethics, simple in the previous century, is infinitely complex in the age of science. It means that the most difficult and difficult task will fall on one person<...> A man morally responsible for everything that happens to cars and robots as they age. General education, concludes Likhachev, can create a person of the future, a man of creative, a creator of all new and morally responsible for everything that is created. "

The same thought, the scientist develops in his program article "Ecology of Culture": "At all times, the laws of the economy, the jurisprudence, the legal laws must not be operated by tyrants in any society without culture and morality (after all, every appearance) the development of society, although it may seem that "good tyranny" can bring society to a happy future). "

"In the twentieth century, the role of ethics, ethical principles became extreme, - emphasizes Likhachev. - Morality is particularly required in modern society. Why? But we do not notice that in the last few decades we have been living in a completely special world ... It has changed the planet we live on: it has become small, overcooled and extremely dependent on us.

Indeed, "the scientist writes," the world of science is incredibly complex compared to what it was three years ago. Require their ethical consideration of the aim and methods of a series of scientific experiments. Every scientist requires morality in the "thousand volt voltage". It is worth making a mistake in the experience, sometimes hundreds of thousands of thousands and millions of rubles, and hiding this mistake, asserting facts, breaking the partnership of scientists, as "flying" the conclusions of the entire scientific industry or starting for a long time. We know this in the examples of Lysenko, Marra, Vyshinsky. Do you remember the war against cybernetics, genetics, cosmopolitanism, formalism ... In science it is now not only honor, honesty instead of ambition, flattery, foal, but also caution, modesty: a complete awareness of the scales of oneself and all ... ". And in the note" About science and nonsense "Likhachev sums up:" Ways to bypass conscience are endless. The result, however, is one thing: New main names do not appear in science, science drawings. "

In his article "Ecology of Culture" Likhachev asks questions about the applicability of knowledge, about the conditions of its applications and gives examples when the applied knowledge does not lead to the fact that the user does not lead to it, and even on the contrary: "Has the creation of fertilizers harmful in nature and the Consumers harmful? Who is harmful? And in industry? The quality is becoming more and more important, not the quantity: it is the quality of concrete, metal, metal, finished products of "all circles of life", which are easily dreamed of by the circles Lies in paradise can become circles of hell. And in medicine? In the army? How many moral problems does the transport driver, the builder of the dam, the oil pipeline, an employee of nuclear power plants ...? ".

In fact, the unwanted work can even lead to disaster, turning the life of highly developed civilization into real blood pressure. Unfair job done ... this is probably a very important word to describe "situations of useless knowledge". This word: "unfair." Think of its importance versus its etymology. "Good faith" - does not simply mean "at the highest level", "qualitatively", which means: "according to conscience" and "on conscience". "With good conscience". It seems that the concepts are far from science and technology, from the realm of any high-tech development. It turns out, however, that the condition of using a knowledge is "good faith" when applied.

In other words, has the person fully complied with their job duties? And didn't they go against the body's interests, the interests of business rules, the rights of other people, countries, people, the state? Or maybe all humanity? Hasn't done the harm to other people? By conscience and how the job is done?

If, at first glance, we argue in terms of summary, knowledge, and morals, then knowledge and culture are not directly related to the concepts; However, when you think about how human knowledge works, how in what situations, in what situations, in what conditions, it becomes an obvious relationship between science, technology, politics, medicine, in general, any human activity - and "good conscience". This functional dependence of the great researcher of Likhachev's culture called "ecology of culture". As in nature, in real human activity, everything is internally connected, and knowledge without moral and cultural understanding, which is not accompanied by the acquisition of the skills of "good conscience", is "non-environmental". After all, a person applies his knowledge among other people, often for other people, and without a moral basis it is not necessary.

Inseparable from morality, it appears to the Likhachev and the sphere of aesthetics (and for the 20th century, which has often proclaimed the "immorality of art", such a look appears as a real discovery - the discovery of "well-forgotten ancient") . Most of his letters are devoted to art, the educational role of cultural monuments. It is no accident that the scientist puts the concepts of beauty and the good, invoking the book "Letters of Good and Beautiful": this is exactly what is in artistic culture in the entire aesthetic life of Likhachev. He writes: "Giving the gift in order to understand art, a person becomes morally better, and therefore happier<…> "The knowledge of reality through art is knowledge that has been warmed by a human feeling, sympathy. Art based on its own morally accurate, because it causes the reader in the viewer - in everyone who perceives it - empathy and sympathy for people, to all humanity<…> Forces me with great attention and understanding to deal with another person's pain, another's joy, makes another's pain and joy largely. It serves the unity of human souls "" (letter 32rd "Understanding Art"). Compare this with words from another letter from Likhacheva, his words about morality as a great unifying force: "Morality is extremely characteristic of a feeling of compassion," writes Likhachev in a letter 7. - In compassion there is an awareness of it Unity with other people, with a nation, the people, the country, the universe. Therefore, the forgotten concept of compassion requires its full revival and development. "Skills of moral compassionate attitude towards others, awareness and sense of their spiritual oneness with others - is this the best school of" bona fide relationships "?

Culture is the enduring experience of "good and beautiful", and this denied culture of the experience of another through religion, art and others is absorbed by us, us. At the same time, according to Lihachev, the loss of the aforementioned - the highest spheres in cultural life becomes an ecological disaster for culture. For example, one scientist called the ecological catastrophe of Russian culture to abandon the Russian language and raised one of the main reasons: the ban on the ban on teaching in the schools of God of God and the ecclesiastical Slavic language - it turns out that it is Through them the students learned a huge reservoir of the concepts of spiritual culture who were familiar with the basics of the culture of their ancestors.

The need for a moral attitude in the world, without which the normal life of the person and society is impossible, the need to grasp such a relationship is one of the most important "discoveries" that Likhachev made not only as a teacher, but also visually proven and demonstrated as a scientist.

Today to the book counter a young person is offered as textbooks in large quantities in large quantities, biographies and reflections on the life of famous business people, successful managers, who help the right thing (from the point of view, of course, career, business success) to communicate with people, relate Focus on people and so on. d. d. The choice and exotic for the Russian reader of textbooks on "happiness", "self-improvement" and "spiritual self-development". And sometimes it seems that the least known is known to the modern reader, what is the idea, what is good and what is bad, "had its own, domestic culture.

In the book "Letters of good and good"there is no huge experience, not only Likhacheva herself, but also, without exaggeration, all Russian culture, its ten centuries, and the experience that Russian culture has adopted from its predecessors - the cultures of Byzantium and the Middle East, cultivated plants that are inseparable are inseparable from the Bible.

Reading "Writing Good and Beautiful" is particularly interesting, comparing it with these books, for which our ancestors have studied the order of life for centuries. In a letter 6. ("Purpose and self-assessment") d.s. Likhachev wrote: "When a person sets himself the task of acquiring all basic material goods, he values ​​himself at the level of those material goods: as the owner of the last branded machine, as the owner of the luxurious giving as part of his furniture-headset ... If a person lives to bring good people, relieve their suffering from illnesses, to give people joy, he evaluates himself on the level of this man, setting himself a good goal worthy of men.<...> The main task of the vital should necessarily be that the task is broader than just a personal one, it should not be inferred only on our own happiness or failure. She has to reproach the friendliness of the people, the love for the family, in his city, to their people, the country, the whole universe. And in the last letter we read: "Happiness reaches one who tries to make others happy and is able to forget about their interests for at least a while. This is an" unmanned ruble "(letter 46). Traditional Russian culture knew this Idea about the "undeveloped ruble" on the Gospel aphorism: "Do not collect treasures on the earth where moles and steeds are exterminated and where thieves dug and steal, but gathering the treasures in heaven where neither moles, no Rza, whom they fraternized, and where the thieves do not dig and do not steal, because your treasure is there, your heart will give "(Matt. 6: 19-21).And the words of a scientist about what "it is necessary not to memorize hundreds of rules, but to remember one thing - the need for a valid attitude towards others", you will remember the knowledgeable reader about the only commandment to which The great teacher of Christianity, you can reduce all the moral teachings of the Bible: To the other like myself ("For the whole law in one word in one word lies: love your neighbor as yourself" (Gal. 5:14)) . And his thoughts on the need for not only physical but also moral health for longevity from Likhachev directly depicted the decaloga ("Read your father and mother, as the Lord commanded, God is you, your days too." laugh "(distance) 5:16)). And such an important key for the "letters" of Likhacheva, as "the path of good" (after all, a person's whole life should be promotion, ascent on this path!), It turns out that he was familiar to ours distant ancestors literally from the first teachings of diplomas: this is after all a key to read the image of the Psaltiri, who studied in ancient Russia, already the first psalm tells a person about the way of good and the way of evil. Such "texture" increments could be continued and continued. Lihachev's thoughts are deeply consonant with the wisdom of many generations of our ancestors - the wisdom that allowed them to achieve this unity of people, society even in these complex historical moments, when there was no political unity, and sometimes geographically , Wisdom that taught a person to look for happiness in very high love for neighbor.

Complete your own "Letters" The young generation entering life gives Likhachev an amazing thought for modernity: "In life it is necessary to have a ministry - doing some kind of business serves. Let this thing be small, it will be big if you are faithful ... and what is the greatest goal of life? I think: Increase the good in those around us "(letters 46., 3.). Along with the above words about the "main life task", this statement from Likhachev is in a truly spiritual ideal: life as a ministry, good service!

Likhachev had every right to end the book of his letters with simple words: "Believe me!" After all, he was really a happy man himself. And even by the standards of modernity, he was a successful person. He lived a deep old age. In his profession (and far beyond) he gained world recognition. But the most amazing thing is that d.s. Likhachev knew how to be happy in such dire circumstances when the question of happiness itself probably becomes pointless. His memories of the years spent in the SOOVETSKY camp for a special purpose, about the time of the Leningrad blockade and other difficult tests, show: Likhachev knew how to remember and memorize well and good among the horrors of horrors, and that's what allowed him to experience joy that made him a happy man. The principles of this "science be happy", he also tried to make the language accessible to the modern person, in his "Letters of Good and Beautiful" accessible.

From. Brewers, teacher of the Orthodox high school on behalf of Rev. Sergius von Radonezh

Letter seventh

What unites people?

Floors of care. Caring connects the relationships between people. Bashes The family that strengthens friendship, strengthens a villager, inhabitant of a city, a country.

Tracking a person's life.

A person is born, and the first concern for him - mother; Gradually (after a few days) the care of the father is entitled to a direct connection with the child (before the birth of a child, the care of him was already, but it was to some extent "abstract" - for the emergence of the Child, parents were preparing, dreamed of him).

A sense of concern for a friend appears very early on, especially in girls. The girl still does not say, but he is already trying to take care of the doll, grooming her. Boys, very small, love to pick mushrooms, catch fish. Berries, mushrooms love to collect, and girls love to collect. And yet they don't just collect for themselves, but for the whole family. Come home, harvest for the winter.

Gradually, children become objects of more and more care and they themselves begin to take care of themselves, true and widespread - not only about the family, but also about the school, where they take their parental care, about their village, the city and the country ...

Care grows and becomes more à ¢ €⠀ œtruistic. For your concern, children pay concern for the elderly when they can no longer pay for the care of children. And this concern for old men, and then for the memory of the dead parents as it was, it is brought together with the concern for the historical memory of the family and the motherland as a whole.

When worry is only self-centered, it grows an egoist.

Caring - unites people, crawled memories of the past, and focuses entirely on the future. This is not a feeling itself - this is a special manifestation of a feeling of love, friendship, patriotism. A person needs to be caring. An unloading or carefree person is most likely an unkind man and does not love anyone.

Morality is extremely characteristic of feeling compassionate. In compassion there is an awareness of its oneness with humanity and the world (not only of people, nations, but also with animals, plants, nature, etc.). The feeling of compassion (or something close to it) brings us against cultural monuments, for their preservation, for nature, separate landscapes, for the respect for memory. In compassion there is an awareness of its oneness with other people, with a nation, the people, the country, the universe. Therefore, the forgotten concept of compassion requires its full revival and development.
Surprisingly, the right idea: "One small step for a person, one big step for humanity." You can give thousands of examples: to be a kind person is worthless, but it is incredibly difficult to become a good humanity. It is impossible to fix humanity, it is easy. Feed the kid, spend across the street, an old man, give in to the tram, work well to be polite and consistent ... etc. All of this is only for one person but incredibly difficult for anyone all. So you have to start with yourself.

Good can't be stupid. A good deed is never stupid, because it is intense and does not pursue the goal of beneficial and "intelligent results". You can only call a friendly act "stupid" if it clearly failed to achieve the goal, or was a "wrong" act, wrongly, which is not good. I repeat, a really good deed cannot be stupid, it is from the point of view of the spirit or not from the point of view of judgment. That good and good.

Eleventh letter

About careerism

"Letters of good and good"

The human being evolves from the first day of his birth. It is aimed at the future. He learns, learns to set new challenges, not even to understand. And how quickly he mastered his position in life. A spoon can hold and say the first few words.

Then he learns about the tails and young men.

And the time comes to apply your knowledge to achieve what it aspires to. Maturity. We have to live for real ...

But overclocking is saved, and this instead of training comes for many measuring the mastering position in life. The movement goes on inertia. Man strives for the future all the time, and the future is no longer in real knowledge, not in the mastering skill, but in the device itself in a profitable position. Content, real content is lost. It is not currently occurring, there is still empty aspiration in the future. This is a careerism. Inner fear that makes people personally unhappy and unbearably unhappy for others.

Twelfth letter

Man should be intelligent

A person has to be intelligent! What if his job doesn't require intelligence? And if he couldn't get an education: So the circumstances? What if the environment doesn't allow it? And if the intelligence makes it a "white raven" among its colleagues, friends, relatives, will its rapprochement with other people simply interfere?

No, no and no! Intelligence is required in all circumstances. It is required for others and for the person himself.

It is very, very important, and above all, to live happily and for a long time - yes, for a long time! Intelligence equals moral health, and health is required to live long - not just physically but mentally. In an old book it was said, "His father and his mother and their mother and you will be on earth." This also applies to the entire people and to a separate person. That is wise.

But above all we define what an intelligence is and then why it is linked to the imperative of longevity.

Many people think: an intelligent person is one who has read a lot, received a good education (and even for the benefit of humanitarian aid), traveled a lot, knows several languages.

By now it is possible to have all of this and be unimportant, and you cannot be widespread about it but be an internally intelligent person.

Education cannot be mixed with intelligence. Education lives with old content, intelligence - the creation of a new one and awareness of the old as new.

Furthermore ... a truly intelligent person's disposal of all his knowledge, education, robs him of memory itself.

Intelligence not just in knowledge, but in the ability to understand the other. It manifests itself in a thousand thousands of little things: in the ability to respectfully argue, behave humbly at the table, in the ability, imperceptibly (precisely), imperceptibly to help the other to take care of nature, not to take care of yourself - don't throw yourself around, don't litter the cigarette or indulge, bad ideas (this is rubbish, too, and whatever!).


Likhachev family, Dmitry - in the middle, 1929. © D. BALTERMANZ.

I knew farmers in northern Russia who were really intelligent. They observed an amazing purity in their homes, they knew how to appreciate the good songs, knew how to "vysivshchina" (that is, what happened to them), what lived an ordinary life, were hospitable and welcoming and understood and of someone else's sorrows and someone else's joy.

Intelligence is the ability to understand oneself, to understand perception, this is a tolerant attitude towards peace and people.

Intelligently needs to be developed in oneself to train spiritual powers, how to train, and physically. And training is possible and necessary in all areas.

It is understandable that training physical strength contributes to longevity. Much less understood that for longevity it is necessary to exercise spiritual and mental strength.

The fact is that the bad and evil reaction to the environment, rudeness and misunderstanding of others is a sign of spiritual and spiritual weakness, human inability to live ... pushes on a crowded bus - a weak and nervous man, exhausted, wrong, wrong respond to all. Quarrel with neighbors - even a person who does not know how to live, deaf amiable. Aesthetically immune - humans are also unhappy. It does not know how to understand another person who only ascribes evil intentions to him, is eternally offended at others - this is also a person who sues his life and prevents life to others. Peaceful weakness leads to physical weakness. I am not a doctor, but I am convinced. Sennigious experience convinced me.

Kindness and kindness make a person not only physically healthy, but also beautiful. Yes it's beautiful.

The person's face contorted with malice becomes ugly, and an evil person's movement is deprived of grace - not willful grace, but a natural one, which is much more expensive.

Social human debt is intelligent. This is a debt and before oneself. This is the key to his personal happiness and "Auura of Goodwill" around him and him (this is addressed to him).

All I talk about to young readers in this book is a call for intelligence, physical and moral health, the beauty of health. We will be long, as human beings and as a people! And the reading of the father and mother should be widely understood - as adored in the past by all the best in the past, in the past, the father and mother of our modern day, a great modernity that belong to that - great luck.


Dmitry Likhachev, 1989, © D. BALTERMANZ

Letter twenty twenty

Love reading!

Every person is obliged (I stress - obliged) to take care of their intellectual development. This is his duty to the society in which he lives and to himself.

The main (but of course is not the only one) the method of its intellectual development is reading.

Reading shouldn't be random. This is a huge waste of time, and time is the greatest value that cannot be spent on trifles. You should read the program, of course, of course, not difficult to follow, which in addition to reading interests appear. However, with any deviations from the original program, it is necessary to create a new one, taking into account the new interests that have arisen.

Reading, to be effective, it should be interested in reading. Interest in reading in general or through specific cultural sectors needs to be developed. The interest can largely be the result of self-education.
The reading program is not that simple on its own and this should be done with advice from knowledgeable people with the existing reference advantages of various types.

The danger of reading is the development (consciously or unconsciously) in itself the tendency towards the "diagonal" view of texts or towards different types of high-speed reading methods.

The speed reading creates knowledge vision. It can only be allowed in some types of professions, are suitable for high-speed reading before the creation of habits, it leads to a disorder of attention.

Have you noticed how great an impression is made of the works of literature that are read in a quiet, cozy and illegal environment, for example on vacation or in a not very complex one, and do not distract the attention of the disease?

"The doctrine is difficult when we do not know how to find joy. It is necessary for the form of rest and entertainment, wise to teach something"

"Disadvantaged" but interesting reading is that it makes love literature and what expands people's horizons.

Why is the television partially displacing the book now? Yes, because the TV is in no rush to see some type of broadcast, it is more comfortable so that it does not disturb you, it distracts you from worries, it determines you - how to look and what to see. But try to choose a book according to your tastes, no matter what distracts you from anything in the world, continues with a book more, and you will understand that there are many books that you cannot live without, which is more important, what is more important is more interesting than many programs. I'm not saying stop watching TV. But I say: look with your choice. Wash your time on what is worthy of this spending. Read More Make your choice yourself, consistent with what role the book you have chosen has acquired in the history of human culture in order to become a classic. That means there is something important about it. Or maybe it is important that the culture of humanity is important to you?

A classic job is one that has stood the test of time. Don't waste your time with him. But the classic cannot answer all questions today. Hence, it is necessary to read modern literature. Don't just rush for every fashionable book. Don't be a vault. Suit forces people to spend the greatest and most precious capital of the way he owns is his time.

Letter twenty sixth

Learn learn!

We are in a century where education, knowledge, professional skills will play a crucial role in a person's fate. By the way, without knowledge everything is complicated, it is simply impossible to work, to profit.For physical work, cars and robots will take up. Even the calculations are done by computers, as well as drawings, calculations, reports, planning, etc. The person makes new ideas, think about what the car cannot rethink. This increasingly requires a person's general intelligence, their ability to create a new one, and of course the moral responsibility that the car cannot carry. Ethics, simple in the previous century, is infinitely complex in the age of science. All right. So, the most difficult and difficult task of being a person is laid a person and the most difficult task, and the man of science, a man who is responsible for everything that happens in the age of cars and robots. General education can create a person of the future who is creative, creator of all new and morally responsible for everything that is created.

The doctrine is that you need a very old young man now. You always have to learn. Until the end of life not only taught, but also studied all the greatest scientists. To learn - you cannot learn. For knowledge to grow and complicate. It is necessary to remember that the most favorable time to teach is the youth. It is in adolescence, in childhood, in adolescence, in his youth, a person's spirit is most vulnerable. Vulnerable to learning languages ​​(which is extremely important), to mathematics, the assimilation of only knowledge and development aesthetic, in addition to developing moral and sometimes stimulating.

Hello, so as not to waste time on trifles, to "calm", which sometimes outlines more than the toughest job, not to fill the light mind with muddy currents of stupid and aimless "information". Take care of yourself for the lessons in order to acquire knowledge and skills that are only easy and quick in youth.

And here I hear the grave sigh of a young man: what a boring life you offer our youth! Just learn. And where's the rest, entertainment? What are we doing and not happy?

No. Acquiring skills and knowledge is the same sport. Lessons are difficult if we don't know how to find joy in them. We have to love learning and education recreation and entertainment to choose Smart who can also teach something to develop some skills in USA that are needed in life.

What if you don't want to study? Not. So you have simply not opened the joy that the child brings the young man to the acquisition of knowledge and skills.

Look at the little child - with what pleasure, with what pleasure he learns to learn, to speak, in different mechanisms (boys), nurse dolls (in girls). Try to continue this joy, master the new. This largely depends on you. Don't register: I don't like learning! And you try to love all the items that go to school. If other people liked her why why don't you like her? Read the standing books, not just a fiction. Learn the history and literature. Both should know the intelligent person well. You, who give a moral and aesthetic horizon of man, make the world around the world great, interesting, emissive experience and joy. If you don't like something in any subject - strain and try to find a source of joy - the joy of acquiring a new one.

Learn to learn!

Editor thanks to Verra Sergeevna Tölz-Zilitinkevich for self-evident photos

© Ds. Likhachev, Heirs, 2017

© Design. LLC "Publisher AST", 2017

Part 1
Letters about Art.

Letters to young readers

For your conversations with the reader, I chose the shape of letters. This, of course, is the conditional form. In my letters I introduce myself to friends. Letters to friends just let me write.

Why did I arrange my letters this way? First I write in my letters about the purpose and feeling of life, about the beauty of behavior, and then I turn to the beauty of the world around us, the beauty that opens up in works of art. I do it because the beauty of the surrounding person is perceived, should be spiritually beautiful, deep, in the right positions in life. Try to hold the binoculars in trembling hands - you won't see anything.

The letter first
Big in Malom.

In the material world, you will not fit big in the small world; in the spiral of spiritual values ​​it is not: in small it can fit a lot more in small, and if you try to fit small in great, I will be easy cease to be present.

When a great goal has a man, it should manifest in everything - the seemingly most seemingly insignificant. We have to be honest in the invisible and by chance, then only you will be honest and fulfill your great debts. The great end covers the whole person, affects each of his or her actions, and it is impossible to think that the bad mean can be achieved.

The adage "the goal justifies the funds" is destructive and immoral. It showed Dostoewski well in "Crime and Punishment". The main business of this work is Rodion Raskolnikov thought that by killing a disgusting old uplovmer he would add money to which he could then achieve great goals, but he tolerates the inner wreck. The aim is far and incapable and the crime is real; It's terrible and nothing can be justified. To pursue a lofty goal of low tools. It is necessary to be honestly honest in both big and small things.

The general rule: the shoes are of a generous size - it is particularly necessary in science. Scientific truth is more expensive and must be followed in all parts of scientific research and in the life of a scientist. In science, if you strive to achieve "small" goals - to demonstrate "violence", contradict the facts, on the effectiveness of the result or forms of self-confidence, the scientist will inevitably tolerate the breakdown. Maybe not right away, but ultimately! When the exaggerations of the results of the study start to exaggerate, or even small facts of facts and scientific truth are pushed into the background, the science is no more, and sooner or later the scientist himself does not cease to be a scientist.

Observing big things in small things, it is necessary in all decisive ones. Then everything is simple and easy.

The second letter.
Youth - all life

Therefore, take care of the youth in old age. Appreciate well everything you bought at a young age, not wasting youthful wealth. None of the youth of youth goes by without a trace. Habits that were brought up in youth are stored for life. Skills at work - too. Accustomed to work - and work will bring joy forever. And how important is it for human happiness! There is no unhappy man lazy forever to avoid work, toil, toil ...

Both in youth and in old age. Good youthful skills will make life easier, bad ones will complicate it and make it difficult.

And further. There is a Russian proverb: "Take care of the honor of the Smoloda." All actions that occurred in youth will be remembered. Good will be happy, bad - not sleep!

Letter third
The biggest

And what is the greatest purpose of life? I think: Increase the good in those around us. And above all, everyone's happiness is good. It consists of a lot, and each time life brings the task that is important that it can solve. You can also do good things in the little things, you can think about a big one, but NOT a small and a big one. As I said, as I said, begins with the little things, it is born in childhood and among loved ones.

The child loves his mother and father, brothers and sisters, their family, their home. Gradually expanded, its appendix applies to schools, villages, towns and the whole country. And that is a very big and deep feeling, although it is impossible to stop and love in one person.

It is necessary to be a patriot, not a nationalist. It is impossible, there is no need to hate someone else's family because you love yours. There is no need to hate other nations because you are a patriot. Between patriotism and nationalism. Profound difference. In the first - love for his country, in the second hatred of everyone else.

The great goal of the good begins with a small one - with the desire for good in the relatives, but expanded, it increasingly encompasses an increasing issue.

It's like circles on the water. But the circles on the water, growing, are getting weaker and weaker. Love and friendship, creaking and spreading to a lot, gain new strength, get higher and higher, and man, their center, is smarter.

Love shouldn't be neat, it should be smart. This means that it must be linked to the ability to fight the shortcomings, the shortcomings, both in the loved one and in the people around them. It has to be connected with wisdom, with the ability to separate the necessary from empty and wrong. It shouldn't be blind. Blind joy (I won't even call it) can lead to dire consequences. Mother who admire everyone and encourage her child can bring a moral uroda.

Wisdom is the mind associated with kindness. The mind without kindness is a trick. Sooner or later the ruse will inevitably wake you up against the glory. Hence the trick is forced to hide. Wisdom is open and reliable. She does not deceive others and especially the wise man. Wisdom brings wisdom to a good name and lasting happiness, brings happiness reliably, long-term and this calm conscience, which is most valuable in old age.

How can you express the general that there is between my three provisions: "Big in Small", "Youth - all life" and "greatest"? It can be expressed in one word that can become a motto: "Loyalty". The loyalty to the greatest principles that the person in large and small, the loyalty of his immaculate youth, his homeland in a broad and narrow sense of this concept, the loyalty to the family, friends, city, country, the people. Ultimately, loyalty is true to the truth - truth and truth and truth.

Fourth letter
The greatest value is life

Life mainly breathes breathes. "Soul ghost"! And died - first - "stopped breathing. So Izstari thought." Spirit won! "- It means" died ".

It is stuffy in the house, "stuffy" and in moral life. It is necessary to elucidate all petty concerns, to eliminate all the hustle and bustle of everyday life, everything that pushes the movement of the thought that pokes the soul, does not allow a person not to yield life, its values, its beauty.

A person should always think about what is most important for himself and for others to throw all empty diligence.

It is necessary to be open to people, tolerant of people, to seek the best in them. The ability to seek and find the best, only good, "hidden beauty" enriches a person spiritually.

Notice the beauty in nature, in the village, in the city, not to mention - in people, through all the barriers of the little things - it means expanding the realm of life, the sphere of a habitat in which a person lives.

I searched for this word for a long time - "sphere". At first I said to myself, "We have to expand the limits of life," but life has no limits! This is not an estate that is fenced off by the fence frames. "Pushing the boundaries of life" is not a suitable way of expressing my thoughts for the same reason. "Expanding the horizons of life" is better, but something is still wrong. Maximilian Voloshin loved the good word - "OJSC". It's all he holds by the eyes that he can hug. Here, however, it interferes with the limitations of our domestic knowledge. Life cannot be reduced to daily impressions. It is necessary to be able to feel and even to be able to notice that outside of our perception the "pre-production" of the opening is or can open up anew. The greatest value in the world - life: alien, their own life, life of fauna and flora, life of culture, life along its entire length - and in the past and in the present and in the future ... And life is infinitely deep. We always meet with something that previously did not notice, what hits us with its beauty, unexpected wisdom, uniqueness.

Fifty letter
What is the attitude towards life?

It is possible to determine the purpose of its existence differently, but the goal should be - otherwise there will not be life, but stagnation.

We must have principles in life. Well, even in the diary in the diary, but in such a way that the diary was "herewith", nobody can tell - just write for yourself.

One rule in life should be everyone in his life of life, in his principles of life, in his behavior: it is necessary to live life with dignity so that it is not ashamed to remember it.

Dignity requires kindness, generosity, the ability not to be a close egoist, to be a truthful, good friend, joy in helping others, in helping others.

For the dignity of life you must be able to give up small joys and considerably ... can excuse yourself, admit another mistake - it is better than to eat and lie.

Cheats, the person is mainly mistaken, believing that he selected successfully, and people understand and the delicacy mute. Vragne is always visible. People suggest a special feeling, ventilate it, or tell the truth. But sometimes there is no evidence, but more often - I don't want to include ...

Nature created a person for many millions of years, and these creative, creative activity needs, I think respect, you must live and live life with dignity so that nature is not offended in our creation. We have to keep this creative trend in our life, the creativity of nature and in no case keep the devastating devastation that is in life. How to understand yourself how to attach to your life - each person has to answer this individually, in terms of their abilities, their interests, etc., but it is necessary to create creativity, to maintain creativity in life. Life is diverse, and therefore creation is diverse, and our aspirations for creativity in life should also be different, since we are skills and inconsistencies. How do you think?

In life there is some happiness that we count off as we perform a sea level elevation.

Starting point. So it is the task of each person, both large and small - to increase that degree of happiness. And personal happiness does not remain outside of these worries either. But mostly the surroundings, the ones closer to you, whose peak of happiness can be easily improved, simply, without a care. And besides, it means increasing the happiness of your country and all of humanity in the end.

Methods are different, but something is available for each. When the decision of state issues is not available, whatever increases the degree of happiness, if resolved wisely, it is possible to increase that happiness in their work environment in their school in a circle of their friends and comrades. Everyone has such an opportunity.

Life is first and foremost creativity, but this does not mean that every person who needs to live should be born to an artist, a ballerina, or a scientist. Creativity can also be created. You can just do a good atmosphere around yourself as it is now being expressed, aura of good guys around him. Here, for example, a person can bring an atmospheric atmosphere with him, a kind of silence, and can immediately bring joy, light. This is creativity. Creativity - it's continuous. So life is eternal creation. A person is born and leaves the memory. What will he leave a memory? It is necessary to take care not only from a certain age, but I think from the beginning, since a person can leave life at any time and at any moment. And it is very important what memory he leaves about himself.

Sixth letter
Purpose and self-esteem

At the same time, when a person consciously or intuitively chooses a certain purpose in life, he is unknowingly unknowingly giving himself an evaluation. By the fact that the person is alive, it can be judged by his or her self-esteem - low or high.

When a person rises to acquire all elementary goods, he also values ​​himself at the level of these material goods: as the owner of the last branded machine, as the owner of a luxury house as part of his furniture headset ...

When a person lives to bring people good, ease their suffering in diseases to give joy to people, he values ​​himself at that man's level. He sets himself a good goal that is worthy of people.

Only one essential purpose enables a person to live his or her life with dignity and receive real joy. Yes, joy! Think of: when a person challenges himself to increase the life of good, bring happiness, what fails, can understand him? So as not to help who should? But a lot of people don't need help? If you are a doctor, are you possibly giving the patient the wrong diagnosis? This is done to the best doctors. But in the amount you helped even more than it didn't help. Nobody is insured against mistakes. But the main mistake, an eye flaw - wrongly chosen main task in life. Did not increase in the office - chagrin. I didn't have time to buy a brand for my collection - Chagrin. Someone is the best than you, the furniture or the best car - again shagrin, and what else!

In setting up a career or acquisition endeavor, a person experiences many more chagrins than the joys and risks of losing it all. And what could a person lose who enjoyed any kind of species? It is only important that what a person does well was his inner needs, came from a wise heart, and not just from the head, it would not be a "principle" alone.

Therefore, the main life task should be one that is broader than just a personal one, it should not be concluded only on one's own happiness and failures. It should dictate the friendliness of the people, the love for the family, for his city, for its people, for the land of the entire universe.

Does this mean that a person should live as askish, not take care of themselves, care nothing, acquire nothing, and not enjoy themselves in a simple rise in office? Nobody! A person who doesn't think about himself at all - the phenomenon is abnormal, and personally I uncomfortable: there is a kind of sleeping, a kind of exaggeration of your kindness, selflessness, meaning, there is a kind of special contempt for the rest of people who Desire stands out.

Therefore, I am only talking about the main life task. And this main life work is not required to be stressed in the eyes of the rest of the people. And it is necessary to dress well (this is respect for others), but not necessarily "better than others". And the library should be joined together, but not necessarily larger than the neighbors. And the car is well earned for yourself and the family is practical. Just do not turn the secondary first and not necessary so that the main goal of life has exhausted you where it is not necessary. If it takes - another matter. We'll see who is capable.

Letter seventh
What unites people?

Floors of care. Caring connects the relationships between people. Bashes The family that strengthens friendship, strengthens a villager, inhabitant of a city, a country.

Tracking a person's life.

A person is born, and the first concern for him - mother; Gradually (after a few days) the care of the father is entitled to a direct connection with the child (before the birth of a child, the care of him was already, but it was to some extent "abstract" - for the emergence of the Child, parents were preparing, dreamed of him).

A sense of concern for a friend appears very early on, especially in girls. The girl still does not say, but he is already trying to take care of the doll, grooming her. Boys, very small, love to pick mushrooms, catch fish. Berries, mushrooms love to collect, and girls love to collect. And yet they don't just collect for themselves, but for the whole family. Come home, harvest for the winter.

Gradually, children become objects of ever greater concern and begin to show themselves real and far - not only around the family, but also through the school, through their village, the city and the country ...

Care grows and becomes more à ¢ €⠀ œtruistic. For your concern, children pay concern for the elderly when they can no longer pay for the care of children. And this concern for old men, and then for the memory of the dead parents as it was, it is brought together with the concern for the historical memory of the family and the motherland as a whole.

When worry is only self-centered, it grows an egoist.

Care unites people, the memory of the past crept and is entirely directed towards the future. This is not a feeling itself - this is a special manifestation of a feeling of love, friendship, patriotism. A person needs to be caring. An unencumbered or carefree person is most likely rude and does not love anyone.

Morality is extremely characteristic of feeling compassionate. In compassion there is an awareness of its oneness with humanity and the world (not only of people, nations, but also with animals, plants, nature, etc.). The feeling of compassion (or something close to it) brings us against cultural monuments, for their preservation, for nature, separate landscapes, for the respect for memory. In compassion there is an awareness of its oneness with other people, with a nation, the people, the country. Universe. Therefore, the forgotten concept of compassion requires its full revival and development.

Surprisingly, the right idea: "One small step for a person, one big step for humanity." You can give thousands of examples: to be a kind person is worthless, but it is incredibly difficult to become a good humanity. It is impossible to fix humanity, it is easy. To feed the child, translate the old man across the street, indulge in the tram to do a good job, be polite, polite and charged, etc. - all of this is only for one person, but for everyone but incredibly difficult for everyone. So you have to start with yourself.

Good can't be stupid. A good deed is never stupid, because it is intense and does not pursue the goal of beneficial and "intelligent results". You can only call a friendly act "stupid" if it clearly failed to achieve the goal, or was a "wrong" act, wrongly, which is not good. I repeat: Really, good act cannot be stupid, it is in the mind or out of the mind. That good and good.

Letter eight
Be funny, but don't be funny

It is said that the content determines the form. That is true, but it is true and the opposite that the content depends on the form. The famous American psychologist of the beginning of this century D. James wrote: "We cry because we are sad, but we are sad because we cry." So let's talk about the form of our behavior, what our habit should enter, and what should also be our internal content.

As soon as it was considered indecent to show yourself in all of your appearance that misfortune happened to you, that you had a grief. A person shouldn't have his depressed state imposed on others. It was necessary and in the mountain to maintain dignity, even to be with everyone, not to plunge into myself and to remain as kind and even cheerful. The ability to maintain dignity, not to impose grief on someone else's, not to spoil another mood, to always be smooth in dealing with people, always to be kind and cheerful is a great and present art that is present in society and in the Society helps.

But what kind of fun should be? Loud and obsessive fun fun for others. Eternal raking pungency The young man ceases to be worthy of being worthy. He's going to be joking. And that is the worst that can happen to a person in society, and it ultimately means the loss of humor.

Don't be funny.

Not being funny is not only the ability to behave, but also a sign of the spirit.

Funny can be in anything, including the way you dress. If the man is too thorough, picks up a tie on a shirt, a shirt with a costume - it's ridiculous. Excessive concern for his outfit is immediately apparent. It is necessary to take care of dressing, but this concern for men should not cross the known limits. Overly concerned about his outfit, a man is uncomfortable. Woman is a different matter. For men, there should only be a touch of fashion in clothing. A perfectly clean shirt, clean shoes and a fresh, but not very light-colored tie - that's enough. The costume can be old, it just shouldn't be messy.

In a conversation with others you will listen, you will be silent, you can joke, but rarely and punctually. Take up so little space. So, for lunch, do not put your elbows on the table, the restriction of the neighbor. Do not try to be overly a "soul of society". In all to observe the action, do not be obsessed with your friendships as well.

If you have your disadvantages, don't suffer for your disadvantages. If you stutter, don't think that it is very bad. Zaiki are excellent speakers and will take every word. The best lecturer, famous by the eloquent professors of Moscow University, came from Moscow University. O. Klyuchewsky. A SMALL PUSH can allow for chromoty movements on the face. And if you're shy, don't be afraid of it. Feel free to be afraid: Shyness is very cute and not funny at all. She only becomes funny if you try to overcome it too much and let it be shy. Be simple and forgiving of your shortcomings. Do not suffer from them. It is no worse when the "complex of inferiority" develops in a person, and along with it, piece of grain, Ill quality towards other persons, envy. A person loses what is good at it - kindness.

There is no better music than silence, silence in the mountains, silence in the forest. No better "music in the human" than humility and the ability to breastfeed, not move first. There is nothing more unpleasant and stupid in a person's appearance and behavior, importance or noise; There's nothing more fun in a man than excessive for your costume and hairstyle, calculation of movements, and the "fountain of sharp" and jokes, especially when they are repeated.

In behavior, be afraid of being funny and try to be humble, calm.

Don't blur, always be smooth with people, respect the people around you.

Do not be afraid of your physical shortcomings. Hold with dignity and you will be elegant.

I have a girl you know, a little hump. In all honesty, I never tire of admiring her grace on these rare occasions when I meet it in museums on the passes in Venice (everyone meets there - because they are cultural holidays).

And one more thing, and most importantly, perhaps: be true. What is desired to deceive others is deceived in the first place. He naively thinks he believed, and the surroundings were actually just polite. But the lie always gives out, the "always felt" lie, and not only will you go away, worse - you are funny.

Don't be funny! Truthfulness is beautiful even when you confess that they were deceived before every opportunity and explain why they did it. This has been corrected. You are respected and you show your opinion.

Simplicity and "silence" in man, truthfulness, lack of pretensions in clothing and behavior - this is the most attractive "form" in a person, which becomes the most elegant "content".

DEAR FRIEND!

In front of you, the book "Letters of the Good and Beautiful" one of the prominent scientists of the modern age, the chairman of the Soviet Foundation for Culture, academician Dmitry Sergeevich Likhachev. These "letters" are not addressed specifically to anyone, but to all readers. First of all, the young people who are still learning their lives learn to walk demanding paths.

The fact that the author of the letters Dmitry Sergevich Likhachev is a person whose name is known to all continents, the outstanding experts of domestic and world culture, who is honorable to a member of many foreign academies, bears other honorary titles of the largest scientific institutions doing this Book especially valuable.

And the advice that can be obtained from reading this book applies to almost all aspects of life.

This is a collection of wisdom, this is a friend of a benevolent teacher whose pedagogical tact and ability to talk to students is one of his main talents.

The book was published by our publishing house for the first time in 1985 and has already become a bibliographical rarity - this is shown by the numerous letters we receive from readers.

This book is being translated in different countries, translated into many languages.

This is what D. S. Likhachev himself writes in the preface of the Japanese publication in which he explains why this book is written:

"In my deep conviction of good and beauty there is one for all nations. One - in two meanings: true, beauty are eternal satellites, they are one with each other and the same for all nations.

False - evil for everyone. Sincerity and truthfulness, honesty and selflessness always welcome.

In his book, "Letters of Good and Beautiful", which is intended for children, I try to explain the simplest arguments that for goodness, the way is, the way is the acceptable and only one for a person. It is tested, it is faithful, it is useful - and one person alone and society as a whole.

In my letters I try not to explain what kind of good guys and why a good man is handsome internally, lives in harmony with himself, with society and with nature. Explanations, definitions and approaches can be very. I strive for another - on specific examples, based on the characteristics of general human nature.

I do not subordinate the concept of good and the simultaneous concept of beauty in a person regardless of the worldview of the world. My examples are not ideological because I want to express them in front of children when they will submit to some ideological principles.

Children are very fond of traditions and are proud of their home, their family and their village. But they like to understand not only their own, but also the traditions of others, but also other popular worldview that colors the general that all people have.

I will be happy if the reader, at what age, what he believed (because it happens that adults read children's books), will at least find in my letters how to agree.

The consent between people, different peoples is the most valuable and now the most necessary for humanity. "

Letters to young readers

For your conversations with the reader, I chose the shape of letters. This, of course, is the conditional form. In my letters I introduce myself to friends. Letters to friends just let me write.

Why did I arrange my letters this way? First I write in my letters about the purpose and feeling of life, about the beauty of behavior, and then I turn to the beauty of the world around us, the beauty that opens up in works of art. I do it because the beauty of the surrounding person is perceived, should be spiritually beautiful, deep, in the right positions in life. Try to hold the binoculars in trembling hands - you won't see anything.

The letter first

Big in Malom.

In the material world, you will not fit in small large. In the spiral of spiritual values, it's not like that: a lot more can fit into small, and if you try to fit small, I'll just stop

When a great goal has a man, it should manifest in everything - the seemingly most seemingly insignificant. It is necessary to be honest in imperceptibly and accidentally: then only you will be honest and fulfill your great debts. The great end covers the whole person, affects each of his or her actions, and it is impossible to think that the bad mean can be achieved.

The adage "the goal justifies the funds" is destructive and immoral. It showed Dostoewski well in "Crime and Punishment".The main business of this work is Rodion Raskolnikov thought that by killing a disgusting old uplovmer he would add money to which he could then achieve great goals, but he tolerates the inner wreck. The aim is far and incapable and the crime is real; It's terrible and nothing can be justified. To pursue a lofty goal of low tools. It is necessary to be honestly honest in both big and small things.

The general rule: the shoes are of a generous size - it is particularly necessary in science. Scientific truth is more expensive and must be followed in all parts of scientific research and in the life of a scientist. If you strive for "small" goals in science - to demonstrate "violence", contradict the facts, the "interest" conclusions, on their effectiveness, or any forms of self-awareness, then the scientist will inevitably tolerate the breakdown. Maybe not right away, but ultimately! When the exaggerations of the results of the study start to exaggerate, or even small facts of facts and scientific truth are pushed into the background, the science is no more, and sooner or later the scientist himself does not cease to be a scientist.

It is necessary to remain critically great in everything. Then everything is simple and easy.

The second letter.

Youth - all life

Therefore, take care of the youth in old age. Appreciate well everything you bought at a young age, not wasting youthful wealth. None of the youth of youth goes by without a trace. Habits that were brought up in youth are stored for life. Skills at work - too. Accustomed to work - and work will bring joy forever. And how important is it for human happiness! There is no unhappy man lazy forever to avoid work, toil, toil ...

Both in youth and in old age. Good youthful skills will make life easier, bad ones will complicate it and make it difficult.

And further. There is a Russian proverb: "Take care of the honor of the Smoloda." All actions that occurred in youth will be remembered. Good will inspire, bad so as not to go to sleep!

Letter third

THE BIGGEST

And what is the greatest purpose of life? I think: Increase the good in those around us. And above all, everyone's happiness is good. It consists of a lot, and each time life brings the task that is important that it can solve. You can also do good things in the little things, you can think about a big one, but NOT a small and a big one. As I said, as I said, starts with little things, it is born in childhood and near.

The child loves his mother and father, brothers and sisters, their family, their home. His attachment is gradually spreading to school, village, town, all of his country. And that is a very big and deep feeling, although it is impossible to stop and love in one person.

It is necessary to be a patriot, not a nationalist. There is no need to hate each other for loving yours. There is no need to hate other nations because you are a patriot. Between patriotism and nationalism. Profound difference. In the first - love for his country, in the second hatred of everyone else.

- Excellent defender of Russian culture. His moral image and his life path is a test of the struggle for high ideals. Likhachev brought the scientist of a philologist and a researcher of ancient Russian literature to the children's audience. Today we publish passages from the Likhachevsky letters about the good and beautiful "- a beautiful book for all generations and ages.

Letters to young readers

For your conversations with the reader, I chose the shape of letters. This, of course, is the conditional form. In my letters I introduce myself to friends. Letters to friends just let me write.

Why did I arrange my letters this way? First I write in my letters about the purpose and feeling of life, about the beauty of behavior, and then I turn to the beauty of the world around us, the beauty that opens up in works of art. I do it because the beauty of the surrounding person is perceived, should be spiritually beautiful, deep, in the right positions in life. Try to hold the binoculars in trembling hands - you won't see anything.

The letter is first. Big in Malom.

In the material world, you will not fit in small large. In the spiral of spiritual values, it's not like that: a lot more can fit into small, and if you try to fit small, I'll just stop

When a great goal has a man, it should manifest in everything - the seemingly most seemingly insignificant. It is necessary to be honest in imperceptibly and accidentally: then only you will be honest and fulfill your great debts. The great end covers the whole person, affects each of his or her actions, and it is impossible to think that the bad mean can be achieved.

The adage "the goal justifies the funds" is destructive and immoral. It showed Dostoewski well in "Crime and Punishment". The main business of this work of Rodion Raskolnikov thought that by killing the disgusting old Ullovrian, he would add money to which the great goals humanity could achieve and enjoy, but tolerate the inner wreck. The aim is far and incapable and the crime is real; It's terrible and nothing can be justified. To pursue a lofty goal of low tools. It is necessary to be honestly honest in both big and small things.

The general rule is big in small - it is especially necessary in science. Scientific truth is more expensive and must be followed in all parts of scientific research and in the life of a scientist. If you strive for "small" goals in science - to demonstrate "violence", contradict the facts, the conclusions "interest", on their effectiveness, or any forms of self-awareness, then the scientist will inevitably tolerate the breakdown. Maybe not right away, but ultimately! When the exaggerations of the results of the study start to exaggerate, or even small facts of facts and scientific truth are pushed into the background, the science is no more, and sooner or later the scientist himself does not cease to be a scientist.

It is necessary to remain critically great in everything. Then everything is simple and easy.

Letter. Youth - all life

Therefore, take care of the youth in old age. Appreciate well everything you bought at a young age, not wasting youthful wealth. None of the youth of youth goes by without a trace. Habits that were brought up in youth are stored for life. Skills at work - too. Accustomed to work - and work will bring joy forever. And how important is it for human happiness! There is no unhappy man lazy forever to avoid work, toil, toil ...

Both in youth and in old age. Good youthful skills will make life easier, bad ones will complicate it and make it difficult. And further. There is a Russian proverb: "Take care of the honor of the Smoloda." All actions that occurred in youth will be remembered. Good will inspire, bad so as not to go to sleep!

Letter third. The biggest

And what is the greatest purpose of life? I think the good will increase in those around us. And above all, everyone's happiness is good. It consists of a lot, and each time life brings the task that is important that it can solve. You can also do good things in the little things, you can think about a big one, but NOT a small and a big one. As I said, as I said, starts with little things, it is born in childhood and near.

The child loves his mother and father, brothers and sisters, their family, their home. His attachment is gradually spreading to school, village, town, and all of his country. And that is a very big and deep feeling, although it is impossible to stop and love in one person.

It is necessary to be a patriot, not a nationalist. There is no need to hate each other for loving yours. There is no need to hate other nations because you are a patriot. Between patriotism and nationalism. Profound difference. In the first - love for his country, in the second hatred of everyone else.

"The great aim of the good begins with a small one - with the desire for good in the loved ones, but expanded, it raises an increasing assortment of problems. It's like circles on water. But the circles on water, growing, will always be weaker. Love and friendship, growls and spreads over a lot, gaining new strength, getting higher and higher, and the human being, its center, smarter. "

Love shouldn't be neat, it should be smart. This means that it must be linked to the ability to fight the shortcomings, the shortcomings, both in the loved one and in the people around them. It has to be connected with wisdom, with the ability to separate the necessary from empty and wrong. It shouldn't be blind. Blind joy (I won't even call it) can lead to dire consequences. Mother who admire everyone and encourage her child can bring a moral uroda. The blind joy before Germany ("Germany above all" - the words of a chauvinistic German song) led to Nazis, blind joy in Italy - to fascism.

Wisdom is the mind associated with kindness. The mind without kindness is a trick. The Listin 'is gradual, and by definition, sooner or later it will turn against the Siegrian himself. Hence the trick is forced to hide. Wisdom is open and reliable. She does not deceive others and especially the wise man. Wisdom brings wisdom to a good name and lasting happiness, brings happiness reliably, long-term and this calm conscience, which is most valuable in old age.

How do you express the general that exists between my three provisions: "Big in Small", "Youth - always" and "the greatest"? It can be expressed in one word that can become a motto: "Loyalty". The loyalty to the greatest principles that the person in large and small, the loyalty of his immaculate youth, his homeland in a broad and narrow sense of this concept, the loyalty to the family, friends, city, country, the people. Ultimately, loyalty is true to the truth - truth and truth and truth.

Fifth letter What is the attitude towards life?

It is possible to determine the purpose of its existence differently, but the goal should be - otherwise there will not be life, but stagnation.

We must have principles in life. It is good to even write it down in the diary, but the diary is "real", it cannot be shown to anyone who does not represent anyone - write just for you.

One rule in life should be everyone in his life of life, in his principles of life, in his behavior: it is necessary to live life with dignity so that it is not ashamed to remember it.
Dignity requires kindness, generosity, the ability not to be a close egoist, to be a truthful, good friend, joy in helping others, in helping others.

For the dignity of life you must be able to give up small joys and considerably ... can excuse yourself, admit another mistake - it is better than to eat and lie.
Cheats, the person is mainly mistaken, believing that he selected successfully, and people understand and the delicacy mute.

Eighth letter Be funny, but don't be funny

It is said that the content determines the form. That is true, but it is true and the opposite that the content depends on the form. The famous American psychologist of the beginning of this century D. James wrote: "We cry because we are sad, but we are sad because we cry." So let's talk about the form of our behavior, what our habit should enter, and what should also be our internal content.

As soon as it was considered indecent to show yourself in all of your appearance that misfortune happened to you, that you had a grief. A person shouldn't have his depressed state imposed on others. It was necessary and in the mountain to maintain dignity, even to be with everyone, not to plunge into myself and to remain as kind and even cheerful. The ability to maintain dignity, not to impose grief on someone else's, not to spoil another mood, to always be smooth in dealing with people, always to be kind and cheerful is a great and present art that is present in society and in the Society helps.

But what kind of fun should be? Loud and obsessive fun with boring surrounding it. A young man's "racking" joke stops forever, perceived as worthy of behavior. He's going to be joking. And that's the worst that can happen to a person in society, and that ultimately means loss of humor.

Don't be funny.
Not being funny is not only the ability to behave, but also a sign of the spirit.

Funny can be in anything, including the way you dress. When a man carefully chooses a tie on a shirt, a shirt with a costume - it's ridiculous. Excessive concern for his outfit is immediately apparent. It is necessary to take care of dressing, but this concern for men should not cross the known limits. Overly concerned about his outfit, a man is uncomfortable. Woman is a different matter. For men, there should only be a touch of fashion in clothing. A perfectly clean shirt, clean shoes and a fresh, but not very light-colored tie - that's enough. The costume can be old, it shouldn't just be messy.
In a conversation with others you will listen, you will be silent, you can joke, but rarely and punctually. Take up so little space. Therefore, at lunch, do not put your elbows on the table, the restriction of the neighbor, but also do not overly try the "soul of society". In all to observe the action, do not be obsessed with your friendships as well.

Don't suffer your shortcomings when you have them. If you stutter, don't think that it is very bad. Zaiki are excellent speakers and will take every word. The best lecturer, famous for his eloquent professors of Moscow University historian V.o. Klyuchewsky stuttered. A SMALL PUSH can allow for chromoty movements on the face. But if you're shy, don't be afraid of it. Feel free to be afraid: Shyness is very cute and not funny at all. She only becomes funny if you try to overcome it too much and let it be shy. Be simple and forgiving of your shortcomings. Do not suffer from them. It is no worse when the "complex of inferiority" develops in a person, and along with it, piece of grain, Ill quality towards other persons, envy. A person loses what is good at it - kindness.

There is no better music than silence, silence in the mountains, silence in the forest. No better "music in the human" than humility and the ability to breastfeed, not move first. There is nothing more unpleasant and stupid in a person's appearance and behavior, importance or noise; There is nothing more fun in a man than excessive concern for your costume and hairstyle, calculation of movements, and the "sharp wells" and jokes, especially when they are repeated.

In behavior, be afraid of being funny and try to be humble, calm.
Don't blur, always be smooth with people, respect the people around you.

Here are some tips, it seems to be based on secondary education - about your behavior, your appearance, but also about your inner world: Don't be afraid of your physical deficiencies. Treat her with dignity and you will be elegant.

I have a girl you know, a little hump. In all honesty, I never tire of admiring her grace on these rare occasions when I meet it in museums on the passes in Venice (everyone meets there - because they are cultural holidays).

And one more thing, and most importantly, perhaps: be true. What is desired to deceive others is deceived in the first place. He naively thinks he believed, and the surroundings were actually just polite.But the lie always gives out, the "always felt" lie, and not only will you go away, worse - you are funny.

Don't be funny! Truthfulness is beautiful even when you confess that they were deceived before every opportunity and explain why they did it. This has been corrected. You are respected and you show your opinion.

Simplicity and "silence" in man, truthfulness, lack of pretensions in clothing and behavior - this is the most attractive "form" in a person, which becomes the most elegant "content".

Ninth letter. When should it be offended?

It should only be offended if they are trying to offend you. If they don't want to, and the resentment is caused by an accident, why take action?
Don't get angry, learn the misunderstanding - and that's it.
Well, if you want to offend? Before accepting the journey, it is worth thinking: should it descend from the offense? After all, the offense is usually somewhere, somewhere low, and before leaning, leaning to increase it.

When you've decided to be offended, do some kind of math action first - subtracting, dividing, etc. Suppose you were offended until you are only partially guilty. Remove from your emotions what doesn't apply to you. Suppose you were offended by Noble's motivations, - noble the division of your feeling on the impulse that caused an offensive remark, etc., arranged in the head of a certain necessary mathematical operation, you can respond with great dignity that you will no longer give more value, you will bother. Up to the naturally known limits.

In general, excessive syradiability - a sign of a lack of a mind or some kind of commission. Be smart.

There is a good English rule: only offended when you want to be offended, offended on purpose. On simple inattention it is not necessary to be offended on simple inattention, forgetfulness (sometimes with this person to psychological deficiencies). On the contrary, they show special care for such a "forgetful" person - it will be beautiful and noble.