How did Hitler remove all political parties

The establishment of the Nazi regime

Hitler fights for sole power

After his appointment, the new Chancellor Adolf Hitler initially had only one goal: He wanted to eliminate his political opponents - above all the Social Democrats and Communists. At that time, they represented the second and third strongest force in the Reichstag. This gave them decisive political influence, for example on the passing of laws. In theory, they had the power to jointly block Hitler's political plans.

Hitler was aware of this fact. Only two days after taking office, he therefore demanded the dissolution of the Reichstag. His goal: new elections. Through this he hoped for an absolute majority of his party, the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP).

Reich President Hindenburg complied with Hitler's request. On February 1, 1933, he officially dissolved the Reichstag. For Hitler and his party comrades, this was the start of a ruthless election campaign against the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).

The Reichstag fire and the abolition of basic rights

Hitler had a decisive advantage in this election campaign: with Wilhelm Frick as Reich Interior Minister and Hermann Göring as Prussian Interior Minister, his party had power over the police. The National Socialists made clever use of this fact. On February 17, 1933, they obtained the so-called shooting decree. This authorized the police to use firearms against Nazi opponents.

Goering deployed around 50,000 auxiliary police officers to support them. They were organized in the newly established Sturmabteilung (SA), Schutzstaffel (SS) and the Stahlhelm. Together they arrested more than 25,000 members of the SPD and KPD by the end of the election campaign.

On February 27, 1933, the National Socialists had the opportunity to make another move in the fight against the opposition. The Reichstag building was hit by an arson attack. The people were insecure. Hitler and his supporters used this to stir up people's fear of a communist uprising. They blamed the communists for the fire.

Under this pretext, they issued the so-called Reichstag Fire Ordinance. The ordinance came into force the day after the attack. It abolished the basic rights of the Weimar Constitution: people were no longer free to express their opinions or to meet. Resistance against the Nazi regime was now prohibited by law. By the time the Reichstag elections on March 5, 1933, numerous members of the SPD and KPD had been arrested or fled.

Hitler had achieved his goal: the people no longer had a choice. Even so, the NSDAP only got 43.9 percent of the vote. In order to achieve an absolute majority, it had to form a coalition with the black-white-red front.

Laws consolidated Hitler's position

About two weeks after the election, Hitler opened the newly elected Reichstag with the "Day of Potsdam". It was a perfectly staged propaganda event. During the celebrations, Hitler bowed to the incumbent Reich President Hindenburg.

It was a symbolic act. With this Hitler wanted to demonstrate that the old conservative Empire and the new National Socialist Germany belonged together. The action was a complete success. The people celebrated their new Chancellor Hitler.

At the height of his popularity, Hitler passed the so-called Enabling Act - with the approval of the Reichstag. Through this he authorized himself to pass laws without the consent of the Reichstag. He now had sole decision-making power. The Reichstag had, so to speak, abolished itself.

Hitler used his newly won power to restructure the country according to his ideas. Everything that was different he found disturbing. His goal was a unified society - without diversity, without lateral thinkers.

Political opponents and Jews in particular were a thorn in Hitler's side. On April 7, 1933, he passed a law that prohibited the employment of opposition and Jewish officials. The Professional Civil Servants Act was the first in a series of such acts.

After a few months, almost every area of ​​life was oriented towards National Socialism. Any kind of resistance to the regime was crushed: there were no more unions. The multi-party system was abolished. Opponents of the regime and Jews had left the country or were deported to concentration camps.

On August 2, 1934, the still incumbent President Paul von Hindenburg died. This removed the last obstacle on the way to dictatorship. Hitler dissolved the office of the Reich President and appointed himself "Führer and Reich Chancellor".

Hitler's real goal: war

In his new position as sole head of state, Hitler was able to pursue his real political goal: he wanted to gain new living space in the East. He wanted World War II. To the outside world, Hitler demonstrated the opposite: he signed peace treaties and reached armistice agreements with the Soviet Union, the Vatican and Poland.

Internally, the signs had been pointing to war for a long time: as early as October 1933, Hitler had caused Germany to leave the League of Nations. In doing so, he wanted to circumvent international arms restrictions.

On March 16, 1935, he reintroduced compulsory military service. This represented a violation of the Versailles Treaty. In order to justify his actions before the other states, Hitler invoked Germany's right to self-determination. These accepted - for the time being.

On March 12, 1938, Hitler achieved the amalgamation of Germany and Austria. Shortly thereafter, he also sought a union with the Sudetenland. The Sudetenland ran along the border between Germany-Austria and Czechoslovakia. More than 3.5 million people lived there. The Nazis asked them to fight for their affiliation to Germany. They propagated this as a homecoming to the German Reich.

As a result, the National Socialists provoked a conflict between Czechoslovakia and the Sudetenland. This could only be defused by the so-called Munich Agreement.

Since the great powers France, Italy and Great Britain saw a war between Germany-Austria and Czechoslovakia imminent, they forced the cession of the Sudetenland to Germany on September 30, 1938.

Contrary to expectations, however, the agreement did not mark the end, but the beginning of Hitler's territorial conquest. His troops occupied more and more territories. These included Bohemia and the Memel region. Hitler had his sights set on Poland too.

The other states - above all Great Britain and France - did not want to allow Hitler any longer. They assured Poland of independence. Nevertheless, Hitler did not deviate from his plans. On September 1, 1939, the German army invaded Poland. This was the beginning of World War II.