How has emo culture influenced hipster culture

Youth subculture and its types. Subcultures: Where did you disappear from the streets? Why is it not in fashion?

Our regular reader Tatjana from St. Petersburg is interested: “Literally 5 years ago there were so many subcultures. especially in big cities. There were goths, punks, emos, and other "non-standard" teenagers. today there are no subcultures as such. not really! Every third person today is covered with tattoos, wears rock'n'roll clothing (as fashion dictates) and dyes hair in all the colors of the rainbow. and there are practically no specifically shaped subcultures. That's why?) Thanks! "

We asked our expert, experienced psychologist, Olga Stadnitskayathat influenced people's mentality. This is discussed in our publication.

Where did the subcultures go in Russia?

Another five or seven years ago there were many strange looking people in the beautiful city of St. Petersburg. At almost every step there was a group of comrades in puberty and post-puberty who stood out clearly against the general background. We will not delve into the typology or classification of sub and counter cultures. Much has been written about it without us.

Emo girls

Emo is a young man


The question is, where did they go? Why are mohawks, corsets and balls not visible?

That said, sometimes freaks with varying degrees of neglect still run into metrosexuals who sometimes meet. But against the backdrop of rampant democracy that is characteristic of modern fashion trends, external attributes of subcultures somehow faded.

After a quick poll among friends and acquaintances of different age groups, the author outlined two main versions.

Version 1: Everyone fled to the network

Young people tend to believe that the reason lies in the network. Until recently, a young man had to go out and look around to find like-minded people and solve problems of self-identification. Now the need for it is gone. Go online and become someone without getting up from your chair. You can be an elf, a troll, a hikkimori, a fan of any musical group, or an entire genre of music. If you can't sit in a chair, find people with similar interests or worldviews and get to know them in real life. In this context, the author is personally of great interest for flash mobs and profiles. The abundance of internet communities really offers unlimited opportunities for young people.

We will not evaluate this phenomenon. We only notice one thing: young people who are online do not attract attention.

Version 2: nothing to fight

Another point of view that the author would like to hold on to, but without denying the Internet version, goes something like this: In addition to external attributes, subcultures have a certain ideology. Here, too, we will not go into the characteristics of value systems and the degree of aggressiveness of different subcultures. Not about that.

Nor will we concern ourselves with the psychological requirements of young people's desire to protest. More has been written about this than about subcultures. Note the following: The ideology and system of group values ​​of a subculture almost always contradicted the leading official ideology.


Let us try to imagine Russia in the period of "developed socialism" and "building communism" as such a great parent. In addition, this parent knows exactly what their children need and strictly enforces the values ​​and ideas required in the context of the time.

And we will represent individual subcultures in the form of a child. Children protest as expected. From the "Wild West" ideologically damaging suggestions smuggle themselves: hippies, rock, punk etc. etc. Children have the choice of the form in which to express protest reactions.

The choice of an alternative ideology is determined by the temperament, aggressiveness and intellectual status of a teenager.

The parents punished, banned, re-educated, the children left "home", licked their torn ears, but did not give up.

But then what happened happened. Perestroika suffered from Russia. A unified state ideology ordered a long life and gave way to the absolute upswing of democracy and pluralism. This process has been accompanied by the rapid growth of the most aggressive and challenging subcultures. The more expressive their external attributes became, the less ideological was the value fulfillment in them. It's understandable when cooking, tinder is always the first thing to do.

At the moment, the author could not see any progress in the creation of the state - the mother of a new, unified value system. Accordingly, young people simply had nothing to fight against, which they should protest against. The hopes of the current authorities in the Russian Orthodox Church are not yet justified. Orthodoxy cannot cope with the task of creating a uniform state value system.


And the movement of Pastafarians with Seven, which arose as a result of an attempt to revive spiritual values, has to be accepted, has not yet referred to the subculture either.


Yes, some young citizens are still trying to express themselves by giving way to so-called "teenage reactions" with dreadlocks, painted in all colors of the rainbow, stabbing the most unexpected parts of the body. But somehow inappropriately fragmented. It has become problematic to attract attention in such a way.

The author does not undertake to predict the future fate of subcultures even on the territory of his hometown St. Petersburg, let alone all of Russia.

But it's even more interesting. However, it is believed that the internet will provide more and more opportunities for adolescents to adapt and socialize in real adult life. Or to escape reality - there were hippies, steel hickeys. Well, wait and see.


Hickey spends most of his life in his room studying information. They live mainly from dependent or remote part-time jobs.

Everyone remembers, and many of them were themselves - back in our lost year 2007. What about modern youth? We say who else sets the tone apart from the 2010 generation.

Alfa-Bank decided to advertise based on the outstanding images of modern subcultures (if not just the youth).

How do we differ?

Youth subcultures as we know them emerged after World War II when teenagers finally raised money and time to search for self-identification. In the 50s and 60s there was a real boom in subcultures, many of which today (for example) exist in one form or another.

However, a lot has changed with the advent of the internet. Before the real rocker was always and everywhere, now a subculture is a mask that you can put on and take off. Tonight you are discussing a new novel by Palanika with hipsters - and tomorrow you put on a leather jacket and beret to go to a rock concert in the basement bar with punks - and nobody will judge you, because the fragmented entry into the subculture is the one today Standard.

Information about subcultures has become available to everyone, and their image is often the subject of parodies

And the internet is also blurring age limits. Previously it was possible to get “sick” with a subculture in the ten-year period between the end of childhood and the final onset of adulthood. Now even a child has almost unlimited access to information and can choose the model of behavior that is closest to him, and adults do not want to give up their usual images. As a result, the subculture includes not only teenagers, but also children and very mature people.

New subcultures do not match the list of characters that subcultures previously defined. This even gives some researchers reason to believe that subcultures no longer exist and have been replaced by “cultural mixes”. Still, we'll try to find out what hasn't had time to die out.

Vanilla (vanilla)


This specific subculture emerged in the early 2010s and is mostly common among teenage girls. The name comes either from a love for vanilla-colored clothes or from a love for sweets or goes back to the name "Vanilla Sky". Your worldview is based on three ideas. First, it emphasizes femininity, tenderness, weakness (love of lace, pastel colors, heels and light makeup). Perhaps this was a response to imposing the image of a strong woman on girls. Or maybe the girls who grew up in Soviet-influenced families (where the mother first worked at eye level with her father in the factory and then cooked the same amount of borscht at home) felt that the new era gave them the opportunity to to lead a different life than her mother.


A common picture of a vanilla girl

The second trait is a love of depression, a hidden tragedy. Every subculture rebels against society in one way or another, but among the Vanilla people it is a "silent rebellion" - withdrawal into oneself, distance from society. And finally, Vanilla chooses a special type of clothing. Often this is a print with the British flag or the words "I love NY", more glasses, a sloppy topknot. Vanilla is considered a pioneer of well-known hipsters.


The word "vanilla" has become a household word and means anything that is sugary. And the vanilla Vanilla is an invariable subject of jokes on the internet.

Tumbler Girl (Webpunk)

They are called the Tamber Girl because they copy and distribute their style on the Tumblr website. Black crosses against the backdrop of space, thin black collars, high-heeled shoes, short black sun skirts, wide-brimmed hats - you must have seen more than one picture like this. Unlike previous subcultures, they don't have to worry about sewing clothes by hand or dropping by exotic locations - there are plenty of themed VKontakte stores serving Tumblr girls. And since webpunk is a combination of real and virtual, the photo should be decorated with pixel drawings, glitter, unicorns, rainbows and the background of windows.


If vanilla thinks it is depressing to make its "otherness" too depressing, then Webpunk says: - An absolutely normal state in this world full of pain. You can (and should!) Make funny jokes about your depression. All of your talents boil down to eating pizza, watching TV shows, and sleeping? Nice that you have been accepted into this company.


Of course, like any other subculture, webpunk is stereotypical, and you most likely won't find any really funny jokes, interesting images, and deep thoughts. And on top of everything else, the Tumblr girl is often criticized for romanticizing passivity, laziness and other bad things.


The Tumblr girl's way of taking pictures with inscriptions on a beautiful background has become the subject of countless parodies on the Internet

Korean wave

The Korean wave is a subculture made up of fans of South Korean music groups. The name "Korean wave" was coined in China, where of course this wave occurred much earlier. We saw a friend of yours post a picture on the wall with multiple Asian faces indistinguishable for an unprepared look and the caption “Someone is so cute! And someone insults him again! Nothing, someone will show them! “? That's it


What is the secret of the worldwide popularity of Korean groups? First, they are composed much larger than we are used to: from five to ten people. And there is a complicated relationship between all of the participants, more confused than on your favorite series. Everything is complicated by the fact that they often live in the same apartment - and everyone has a blog. "Home" pictures of idols among fans are very much appreciated.


Subculture representatives use the word "oljan" to refer to models with large eyes, a small nose, and lips. Such a doll appearance is achieved thanks to plastic surgery, makeup, and Photoshop.


Pakulenko Anastasia Yuryevna, grade 11

Abstract on social sciences. The material can be used to study the topic "Culture and Spiritual Life of Society".

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MUNICIPAL BUDGETARY EDUCATIONAL

Establishment of Lyce "Rhythm"

Social Studies Section

SUMMARY

"Youth subculture and its role in modern society"

Completed: 11th grade students

Pakulenko Anastasia Yurievna

Head: History and Social Studies Teacher

Kuryakina Natalya Leonidovna

Khabarovsk

2012 year

Plan

1. Introduction

2. The history of the concept, the meanings of the concept

3. The main characteristics of the youth subculture

4. Chance and the emergence of youth subcultures

5. Examples of subcultures (musical subcultures)

5.1 Hippies

5.2. Rastman

5.3 Metal lists

5.4 punks

5.5 Gothic fashion

5.6 Emo

6. Japanese subcultures

6.1 Akihabad Kei and Anime Culture

6.2 Cosplay

6.3 Visual kei

6.4 Gyaru (Ganguro)

6.5. Fruits

7. Conclusion

Literature and sources

1. Introduction

Modern society is not homogeneous. Each person is a special microcosm with their own interests, problems and concerns. At the same time, many of us have similar interests and desires. Sometimes it is necessary to unite with other people in order to satisfy them, because together it is easier to achieve the goal. This is the social mechanism of the formation of subcultures - associations of people according to their interests, which do not contradict the values ​​of traditional culture, but complement them. And youth subcultures (which are often based on hobbies of different genres like music, sports, literature, etc.) are no exception.

Teenagers have always represented a particular socio-demographic group, but in our time a specific youth culture has developed which, along with other social factors, plays a large role in the development of the modern teenager. Sociologists first looked at this topic in the 1960s. In Russia, since the late 1980s, researchers' attention has increased to the subcultures of youth. Much more attention has been paid to the youth subculture in recent years.

The aim of my work is to look at the main characteristics and aspects of youth subcultures, to highlight their characteristics, to show their relationship and influence on the fashion formation, tastes and moral attitudes of the younger generation. While working on the topic, I came across different positions, the authors' viewpoints.

It was very interesting to work with internet sources, the work of domestic and foreign sociologists and psychologists. I have devoted a whole chapter of my work to Japanese musical subcultures because they are very peculiar and unusual.

In my work I have mainly used the articles in Theory of Fashion magazine (No. 10, 2008-2009) by the authors Dick Hebdij, Dmitry Gromov, Joe Tern and Anne Pearson-Smith. I was also interested in a lecture by a professor of sociology Dugin. I used the resources of the internet to prepare a presentation on this topic.

2. The history of the concept, the meanings of the concept

In 1950, the American sociologist David Risman concluded in his research the concept of subculture as a group of people who consciously choose the style and values ​​preferred by the minority. A more in-depth analysis of the phenomenon and concept of subculture was carried out by Dick Habidge in his book Subculture: The Importance of Style. In his opinion, subcultures attract people with similar tastes who are not satisfied with generally accepted standards and values.

French Michelle Mafessoli In his writings he used the term "urban tribes" to refer to youthful subcultures. Victor Dolnik in the book "Naughty Child of the Biosphere" used the concept of "clubs".

In the USSR, the term "informal youth organizations" referred to members of youth subcultures, hence the slang "informal". The slang word "party" is sometimes used to denote a subcultural community.

Youth subculture - a system of values ​​and norms of behavior, tastes and forms of communication that differ from adult culture and characterize the life of adolescents, adolescents aged around 10 to 20 years.

The youth subculture developed significantly in the 1960s and 1980s for a number of reasons: expanding education, forced non-employment, acceleration. The youth subculture plays a controversial role as one of the institutions relevant to the socialization of school children and has an ambiguous effect on youth. On the one hand it alienates, separates young people from the general social culture, on the other hand it promotes the development of values, norms and social roles.

Youth subcultural activity depends on a number of factors:

  1. From the level of education. For people with a lower level of education, for example students from vocational schools, it is much higher than for university students.
  2. From old age. The peak of activity is at 16-17 years of age, at the age of 21-22 it drops significantly.
  3. From the place of residence. The informal movement is more characteristic of the city than of the village, as the city, with its abundance of social ties, offers a real opportunity to choose values ​​and behaviors.

The problem is that young people's values ​​and orientations are mainly limited by the sphere of leisure: fashion, music, entertainment, often meaningless communication. The youth subculture is entertaining - leisure and consumer in nature, rather than informative, creative and creative.

In Russia and around the world, Western values ​​are central: the American way of life in its lightweight version, popular culture rather than national culture values. The aesthetic tastes and preferences of school children are often quite primitive and are mainly shaped by television, music, etc. These tastes and values ​​are supported by magazines and modern mass art that are demoralizing and dehumanizing.

The growth of amateur youth groups is associated with the peculiarities of the intellectual development of personality in youth and youth, when the youth's active desire for recognition of their role in society is manifested in an insufficiently educated social position, which is manifested in the desire for more spontaneous Reflects group communication.

We are talking about the desire for self-organization, for the assertion of their independence, which is characteristic of social maturity in adolescence and adolescence. This trend manifests itself in fashion for clothes, music, etc. In addition, these secondary moments are often given a special meaning, which on the one hand reinforces the young person's feeling of imaginary independence and on the other hand the desire to protest, sometimes even unconsciously.

Modern young people have rest and free time - the key form of life. Satisfaction with leisure time now depends on overall satisfaction with life. In the youth subculture there is no selectivity in cultural behavior, stereotypes and group conformity (mediation) predominate. The youth subculture has its own language, particular fashion, art and behavior. It is increasingly becoming an informal culture, supported by informal youth groups. The youth subculture is largely a surrogate culture - it is full of artificial substitutes for real values. One way to escape reality and realize the desire to be like adults is through drug use.

Sociologists today are sounding the alarm: first, among the most important sources of information for young people - a computer, second - a television. And only then - the school and beyond as a living space and not as a place of communication. At the bottom of the list is a family.

Youth culture is also characterized by the presence of a youth language- slang This role also plays an ambiguous role in the education of young people and forms a barrier between them and adults.

One of the manifestations of youth culture are informal youth associations, a special form of communication and the life of youth, society and peers united by interests, values ​​and sympathies. Informal groups usually do not arise in the classroom, not in business relationships, but with them outside of school. They play an important role in the lives of adolescents, satisfying their informative, emotional and social needs: they offer the opportunity to learn something that is not so easy to talk to adults, offer psychological comfort and learn how to fulfill social roles.

For many young people, association in informal groups and an anti-social way of life are one of the forms of protest against the usual way of life, the guardianship of the elders. The youth group is a new kind of emotional contact that is not possible in the family.

Most informal groups are few in number, bring together young people of different ages, genders, and social backgrounds, and tend to function beyond the control of adults. Their structure depends on many factors, but above all on stability, functional orientation and the relationships between the members.

With increasing age, the conformity of the youth decreases, the authoritarian influence of the group decreases and the choice of the life path depends on the personal characteristics of the young man and the social environment outside the group.

Relationships in a subculture are not based on sympathies or antipathies, but on a certain position that their members take in the system. It should be emphasized that the need for positive assessment by others is a major need in adolescence. Therefore, the teenager desperately needs a positive assessment of his personality. This explains the urgency of the need to recognize the worthy position of a teenager in a peer group. In this regard, the facts of deviant and even illegal behavior by seemingly quite wealthy teenagers from "good" families become clear.

4. Chance and the emergence of youth subcultures

Fandom (English fandom - fanaticism) - a community of fans, usually of a specific topic (writer, artist, style). A fandom can have certain characteristics of a single culture, such as: B. “Party humor” and slang, similar interests outside of fandom, its publications and websites. Some signs of fanaticism and various hobbies may acquire the characteristics of a subculture. For example, it happened with punk rock, gothic music and many other interests. However, most of the fandom and hobbies don't subculture, just focus on the topic that interests you.

When fanaticism is most often associated with individuals (musical groups, musical artists, famous artists) looking at their role models, the subculture does not depend on explicit or symbolic leaders, and one ideologue replaces another. Communities of people with a common hobby (gambler, hacker, etc.) can form a stable fandom, but at the same time have no signs of subculture (common image, worldview, common taste in many areas).

Most often, subcultures are closed and tend to isolate themselves from mass culture. This is due both to the origin of subcultures (closed interest groups) and to the desire to separate from the main culture in order to oppose it to the subculture. Subcultures that come into conflict with the main culture can be more aggressive and sometimes even extremist in nature. Such movements that contradict the values ​​of traditional culture are called counterculture. Youth subcultures are characterized by both protest and escapism (escape from reality), which is one of the phases of self-determination.

Subcultures develop a uniform style of clothing (picture), a uniform language (jargon, slang), attributes (symbolism) and a common worldview for their members. The characteristic image and behavior is a marker that separates "their" (representatives of the subculture) from strangers. This shows the similarity between the new subcultures of the 20th century and traditional folk cultures. Therefore, the methods of studying subcultures are similar to the methods of studying traditional cultures. This is namely a historical-linguistic analysis, an analysis of cultural objects and a mytho-poetic analysis.

Subcultures eventually develop their own language. Partly it is inherited from the subculture of the ancestor and partly developed independently. Many elements of slang are neologisms.

From a cultural point of view, symbol and symbolism are crucial for the description of a certain culture and cultural work. Symbols of subcultures are on the one hand the self-determination of a subculture among many other cultures, on the other hand a connection to the cultural heritage of the past. For example, the sign of the ankh is ready in the subculture - it is, on the one hand, a symbol of eternal life, like the heritage of Egypt, and, on the other hand, a symbol that currently defines the culture.

5. Examples of subcultures (musical subcultures)

5.1 Hippies

One of the most prominent and well-known subcultural communities is the youth movement, which has been associated with certain musical genres. The image of musical subcultures is largely imitated by the stage design of the performers popular in this subculture.

One of the first musical youth cultures of our time were hippies.

Hippies are a philosophy and subculture that originally emerged in the United States in the 1960s. The heyday of the movement was in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Initially, hippies protested the Puritan morality of some Protestant churches and also promoted the desire to return to natural purity through love and pacifism. One of the most famous hippie slogans: "Make yourself free, not war!", Which means: "Make love, not war!".

Hippie believes:

  1. that a person should be free;
  2. this freedom can only be achieved by changing the inner structure of the soul;
  3. that the actions of an inwardly relaxed person are determined by the desire to protect their freedom as the greatest treasure;
  4. that beauty and freedom are identical and that the realization of both is a purely spiritual problem;
  5. that all who share the foregoing form a spiritual community;
  6. that the spiritual community is an ideal form of coexistence;
  7. that anyone who thinks differently is wrong.

Hippie symbolism

The hippie culture has its own symbolism, affiliation marks and attributes. Representatives of the hippie movement are characterized by the introduction of ethnic elements into a costume according to their worldview: pearls, woven from pearls or threads, bracelets ("balls"), etc., as well as the use of textiles, which in the technique of "Tai Dai" (or colored in a different way - “shibori”).

One example is the so-called balls. These pieces of jewelry have a complex symbolism. Balls in different colors and patterns show different wishes, expressions of musical preferences, life situations, etc. A black and yellow striped ball means the desire for a good hitchhiking, and red and yellow means a declaration of love. It should be noted, however, that this symbolism is arbitrarily and completely differently interpreted in different places and on different parties and that "hippies with experience" do not attach any importance to it.

60s hippie slogans:

  1. "Make love, not war" ("Make love, not war")
  2. "Off The Pig!" ("Wortspiel" - the M60 machine gun, an important attribute and symbol of the Vietnam War)
  3. "Give Peace A Chance" (song title by John Lennon)
  4. "Hell no we won't go!" ("Damn, we're not going!")
  5. "All you need is love!" ("All you need is love!") (The Beatles song title)

5.2 Rastmans

Followers of Rastafarianism are traditionally called Rastamans in the world.

At the beginning of the 1990s, a special youth subculture was formed in the post-Soviet space, whose representatives also call themselves Rastamans. In addition, they are often not true adherents of the original religious and political doctrine of African superiority, but rather consider themselves in this group primarily because of marijuana and hashish.

Some of them are sufficient to call themselves Rastafans, others are closer to the Rastafarian concept - many listen to Bob Marley and reggae music in general, use a color combination "green-yellow-red" (e.g. in clothes), to identify some wear dreadlocks. Few sincerely advocate the return of American blacks to Africa, watch the Rastafarian post "aytal" etc. However, many truly loyal Russian Rastamans believe that repatriation and pan-Africanism are simply meaningless since Russian Rastamans have no relationship with blacks and have in fact Africa has not. In the CIS countries, Pan-Africanism has been replaced by the idea of ​​“Zion in itself”, which reads as follows: “Zion is not a place in the physical, material world. Not in Africa or Israel or anywhere else. Zion is in everyone's soul. And you don't have to strive for it with your feet, but with deeds, thoughts, kindness and love. "

However, in the Russian-speaking world, the word "Rastaman" is firmly associated with this group (but not entirely identical). A word on a similar principle can be used in other languages ​​to simply refer to marijuana lovers with no religious background. In Spanish-speaking countries, the word "dasthas" can be referred to as dreadlocks.

5.3 Metal lists

Metalworkers are a youth subculture that was inspired by metal music of the 1970s.

The subculture is quite widespread in Northern Europe - in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, North America there is a significant number of representatives in South America, Southern Europe and Japan. With the exception of Turkey and Israel, few metal workers (like many other "informals") in the Middle East are persecuted.

The word "metalworker" is Russian and is derived from the word "metal" with the borrowed Latin suffix "-ist". In the beginning it meant tinsmiths, metal workers. The metalist in the sense of "Heavy Metal Fan" came into use at the end of the 1980s.

In English, the analogue of the Russian "metalhead" is metalhead - "metalhead", "obsessed with metal". Metallers are also known as the slang words Headbanger - "Head Jerk" and Mosher - "Pushing", according to the behavior of fans at concerts.

Clothing style

  1. A typical fashion among metalworkers can be described as follows
  2. Long hair in men (loose or ponytail)
  3. Mostly black in clothes
  4. Leather motorcycle jacket "leather jacket", leather vest.
  5. Bandanas
  6. Black t-shirts or hoodies with the logo of your favorite metal band.
  7. Bracelets - leather bracelets with rivets and / or spikes (whipping), spiked, riveted belts, chains on jeans. There can also be a buckle with the logo of a metal band on the belt.
  8. Patches with logos of your favorite metal bands.
  9. Short or high boots with chains - "cossacks". Heavy shoes - "Camelots", "Curls", "Grinder", "Martins", "Styles", "Bastards", ordinary high boots. Shoes (usually pointed, "Gothic" boots).
  10. Lederhosen, army pants, jeans
  11. Rivets and spikes on clothing and accessories
  12. Often - long-sex clothing in black (raincoats, coats)
  13. Motorcycle leather gloves without fingers (Appendix 1).

Worldview

Unlike some other subcultures, the Metaller subculture lacks a distinct ideology and it only focuses on the music. Nevertheless, there are some features of the worldview that can be described as typical of a substantial part of the metalworker.

The texts of metal groups spread independence, independence and self-confidence, the cult of the "strong personality". For many metal workers, subculture serves as a means of escape, alienation from the "gray reality", a form of youth protest.

Studies have appeared in the press claiming that the intellectual level of metalworkers is often quite high, from which it is concluded that enthusiasm for metal can be a sign of intelligence. According to a survey of 1000 gifted teens conducted in 2007, many of them responded that they listen to metal and other rock music with harsh directions to relieve stress.

Some researchers claim that listeners to hard rock and metal have higher cravings for aggression and depression. However, psychologists agree that this is not a consequence, but the reason for the passion for heavy music. Also, respondents who showed negative trends felt better and more confident after listening to their favorite music. According to them, heavy aggressive music helps them release negative emotions, not build them up within themselves. Some metal workers therefore consciously or unconsciously use metal as a means of psychotherapy.

5.4 punks

Punks (born punk - peren. Razg.Bad, trashy) - youth subculture that emerged in the UK, US, Canada and Australia in the late 60s - early 70s.

Origins and Influences

Punk originated in the 1960s, when many young rock and roll bands emerged under the influence of the Beatles and the Rolling Stones.

Relatively raw sound based on just a few chords can be found in such classic things of the time as "You Really Got Me" bands The Kinks. Towards the end of the 1960s, the American team The Stooges began to cultivate the defiantly primitive sound in combination with the vulgar way of acting on stage. Their leader, Iggy Pop, rejected musical refinements, appreciated the unbridled urge to rock and roll, performed at concerts smeared with his own blood, and ended the atrocities on stage by "diving" into the crowd.

ideology

Punks hold onto various political views, but for the most part they are adherents of socially oriented ideologies and progressivism. Common beliefs are the pursuit of personal freedom and complete independence (individualism), non-conformism, the principles of "not for sale", "rely on yourself" (DIY) and the principle of "direct action" (direct action). Other areas of punks politics are nihilism, anarchism, socialism, anti-authoritarianism, anti-militarism, anti-capitalism, anti-racism, anti-sexism, and anti-nationalism.

literature

Punk culture has produced a significant amount of poetry and prose.

Among the famous punk poets, it is worth mentioningPatty Smith, Richard Hell, John C. Clark, the Medway poets, and Jim Carroll, whose autobiographical works are considered to be the first in punk prose.

A lot of fanzines (the so-called punk zines), which include Maximum Rock-n-Roll, Punk Planet, CometBus, Flipside, Search and Destroy. The first of these publications was the magazine itself, Punk, based in 1975 on Mr. Legs McNeill, John Holstrom, and Head Dunn.

Many fiction and documentary books have been written about punk. Literary genres such as punk are also closely related to cyberpunk, diesel punk and steampunk.

The appearance of punks

Many punks dye their hair in unnatural colors, comb and fix it with varnish, gel or beer so that it stands upright. In the 80s, the mohawk hairstyle became fashionable among punks. They wear torn jeans in heavy boots or under short heavy boots (benches) and sneakers. Soak some jeans in a bleach solution to get red stains on them. The Ramones group began wearing sneakers and adopted the style from Mexican punks (also known as "Latinos").

Jacket - was adopted as a rock'n'roll attribute from the 50s, when motorcycle and rock'n'roll were inseparable. First wave punks sought to return to rock music with the same deliberate arrogance and drive that mass commercialization of music over time did away with.

Also, punks wear various attributes of rocker subcultures - collars, bracelets (mainly leather with spikes), etc. (Appendix 1).

5.5 Gothic fashion

Goths are representatives of the youth subculture that emerged in the late 1970s as a result of post-punk. The Gothic subculture is very diverse and heterogeneous, but in one way or another it has certain characteristics: a certain gloomy image, as well as an interest in Gothic music, horror literature and mysticism.

The Goths have developed a fairly recognizable picture in two decades. Although there are numerous trends in Gothic, they have something in common.

The main elements of the Gothic image are the dominance of black in clothing, the use of metal jewelry with symbols of the Gothic subculture and the characteristic makeup.

Typical attributes of the Goths - ankh (the Egyptian symbol of immortality, which is actively used after the film Hunger), skulls, crosses, direct and inverted pentagrams, bats.

Make-up is used by both men and women. It is not an everyday attribute and is usually applied before going to concerts and gothic clubs. Makeup usually consists of two elements: white powder and dark eyeliner.

Hairstyles in Gothic are quite diverse. In the post-punk era, the main hairstyle was medium length tousled hair. But in the modern subculture, many wear long hair or even mohawks. It is typical of being ready to dye your hair black or, less commonly, a red color.

Some Goths prefer clothing in the style of the 18th to 19th centuries. with the appropriate attributes: lace, long gloves and long dresses for women, tailcoats and top hats for men. There are also similarities with metalworker fashion - the frequent use of leather clothes, necklaces, and metal accessories. Sometimes sado-masochistic attributes are used, such as collars and spiked bracelets. The vamp style is particularly characteristic of readiness.

Gothic is directly related to the image of death, and even the appearance itself is reminiscent of it. The perception of death is one of the characteristic features of the Gothic worldview and one of the signs of belonging to the Goths. The image of death is extremely important in Gothic aesthetics and passes through many layers of Gothic culture. The normal state of the Goths - fear, "longing" - is a fairly comprehensive term that describes the usual Gothic state. The Goths' humor is pretty specific - that is purely black humor.

Gothic music

Gothic music comes from the English punk of the 70s. I will not describe how this birth happened - this is dedicated to kilometer frequently asked questions (FAQ) websites on gothic.ru, shadowplay.ru and similar sites. I can only say that the whole variety of Gothic music has crystallized out of Gothic-Rock.

In Tula, IHM, 69 eyes are considered Gothic, but now Gothic music is very diverse - Gothic Rock, Gothic Metal, Gothic Industrial, Dark Electro, Dark Ambient, Synth Gothic, Electro Gothic, Cyber ​​Gothic, Ethereal, Dream Pop, Gothic Folk, Apocalyptic Folk, Ethno Gothic, Tribal, Middle Ages, Neo Classic.

What do this diversity have in common? Gloomy atmospheric sound; downright decadent, depressive, romantic and somber nature of the lyrics. Many groups use horror aesthetics, female vocals and drums instead of live drums - this is kind of a calling card for Gothic music.

In the early stages of the development of Gothic subculture, goths and music were inextricably linked - back then goths were called exclusively fans of Gothic groups, and this situation lasted for a long time. At the moment the connection to music has been weakened a bit. You can be a Goth without listening to Gothic music.

The Gothic subculture includes all religions and their varieties, it has no direct relation to religion. Despite this fact, Gothic culture has a reputation for the culture of Satanists, perverts and people who bring destruction and destruction with their unacceptable freedom - this is how the narrow-minded Philistine thinks of them. Goths actively use religious imagery in songs, religious embellishments in clothes, but all of this is satirical derision or just plain fashion and has nothing to do with religion.

Cyber ​​Gods - youthful subculture, emerged in the early 90s in connection with the beginning of the mass proliferation of the Internet.

Of all the existing subcultures, Cyber ​​Gotha is the youngest and most developed. For the time being, the origins of the origin fall on the 1990th year. It should be noted that there is still no precise classification and definition of this informal direction. Of course, there are some features that set this direction apart from others, but many are deeply wrong - they have nothing to do with the usual Gotha subculture.

The origins themselves come precisely from the Gothic movement, but were completely realigned in a short time. The original direction was tightly entwined, and of new followers trying to develop their movement by all strength - that was not to their liking. Here lies the answer to the question: why is it visible now, not even with an armed look, such a radical difference.
Like most subcultures, cyber goths emerged primarily from musical trends, the noise and industrial styles, which were fundamentally different from other existing styles of the time. It is preferred as a musical basis. If you briefly tap on the description of this style, it becomes clear that in addition to the sounds of the guitar and the standard rock-style songs, it actively uses samples (sounds created with electronic instruments, i.e. a computer and other special devices for musicians).
One cannot ignore the appearance of the subculture. In general, it has nothing to do with any other species present. The main hairstyles are: dreadlocks, hair dyed in different colors, often found in representatives of this movement and Iroquois, but they have nothing to do with the punk subculture. The color scheme ranges from green to black, but mostly light colors are used. The word cyber is used for a reason. If you look closely at their appearance, you can see the microcircuits involved as an element of clothing design i.e. H. own style. Clothing is mainly made of leather or plastic.
As this is the most advanced subculture, passion for computers is included here by default. 90% of the representatives of this informal sector are now familiar with computer technology. The only thing that remains of the ideology of the Goths is the belief in the apocalypse (judgment day) which is approaching every day and will at least affect the whole world. The new Cyber ​​\ u200b \ u200bReady movement has more to do with its original alignment than it does (Appendix 2).

5.6 Emo

Emo (Eng. Emo: from emotional - emotional) is a youth subculture that is formed on the basis of fans of the same style of music. Their representatives are called emo kid (emo + English child - a young man; a child) or, depending on gender, emo boy (English boy - boy, boy), emo girl (English boy - girl, girl). .

attitude

Expressing emotions is the main rule for Emo Kid. They are characterized by self-expression, injustice, a special, sensual attitude. Often times, an emo child is a vulnerable and depressed person. There is a stereotypical view of emo as tearful boys and girls. Although the emo core appeared and developed as a subspecies of punk rock, the value orientations of these subcultures are completely different. In contrast to classic punks, emo is characterized by romance and an emphasis on sublime love. Emo is often referred to deep personal experiences rather than social events. Emo culture is completely devoid of the aggression that is characteristic of hardcore - the direct ancestor of emo.

Emo is often compared to the Gothic subculture that usually provokes both the "Goths" and the emo kids, although some agree that there is some relationship between these subcultures. Some subculture scholars have suggested that emos are at an even higher risk of suicide than goths. Graham Martin, editor of Australian mental health magazine: “For example, a website devoted to emo culture described the main difference between these categories: emo hates itself, goths hate everyone. If this self-loathing is true, it can be assumed that emo are at greater risk of harming themselves than their Goth counterparts. Identifying with an emoculture therefore carries a certain risk. It is safe to say (although no formal studies have been conducted on the subject) that self-destructive behavior is common in this group and is a key characteristic of emoculture. "

Emo picture

The traditional emo hairstyle is considered to be an oblique, jagged pony hairstyle at the tip of the nose that covers one eye and protrudes in different directions behind short hair. Stiff, straight black hair is preferred. Girls can have fun children's hairstyles - two "little ponytails", glowing "hair clips" - "hearts" on the sides, bows. To create these hairstyles, use a large amount of setting hairspray.

Emo kids often poke the ears or build tunnels. There may be piercings on the Emo Kid's face and other parts of the body (such as the lips and left nostril, eyebrows, and bridge of the nose).

Both boys and girls can paint their lips a skin color and use a light primer. The eyes are pointed close down with pencil or ink. Nails are covered with black varnish.

dress

Emo is characterized by pink and black clothing with two-tone patterns and stylized symbols. The main colors in clothing are black and pink (purple), although other shockingly bright combinations are considered acceptable (Appendix 1).

There are combinations of wide stripes. The names of emo groups, funny drawings or broken hearts are often depicted on clothes. There are features of the sports style of clothing skateboarders and BMX yerov.

The most typical dresses:

  1. A tight, tight shirt.
  2. Skinny jeans in black or ash blue, possibly with holes or stains.
  3. A black or pink belt with rivets, slack chains and a large plaque with symbols.
  4. Sneakers with light or black laces, laced in a special way.
  5. Checkered scarf-arafatka on the neck.
  6. There are rims with an arch. Striped gaiters on the hands. Unisex clothing is less common.

attribute

The following attributes are characteristic of emo:

  1. A shoulder bag with patches and badges.
  2. Badges attached to clothing and sometimes to shoes.
  3. Large glasses in light or black colors.
  4. Colorful (usually silicone) bracelets on the hands, snaps or punk utensils (bracelets with spikes) are particularly popular.
  5. Large pearls in bright colors on the neck.
  6. Plush toys in the shape of bears, with which Emo Kiddy tears open their bellies and sews them with thick threads. Such toys play the role of special talismans. They are taken for walks, to class, stay at home and sleep.
  7. Bracelets on the hands.

Characteristic gestures

  1. Tilt your head to hang your pony and place two fingers to your temple like a gun.
  2. Fold your hands together in the shape of a heart.
  3. Bend your feet inward and bend your knees slightly.
  4. Photograph your reflection in the mirror.

6. Japanese subcultures

Japanese Youth Subcultures - A series of subcultures among Japanese youth, each characterized by their own philosophy, style of dress, and musical preferences. They are inextricably linked with street fashion, which is why the term “Japanese street fashion” is often associated with subcultures, sometimes these terms replace each other. Most of the subcultures emerged in protest against traditional Japanese ideals of beauty and social foundations.

The center of Japanese youth subcultures is the Harajuku district in the Shibuya region, where the Lolita style and the mixed fruit style have emerged. Shibuya is also the birthplace of the Gyaru and the Akihabara district in the Chiyoda district is a Mecca for fans of Japanese animation (anime) and comics (manga). There are currently several main directions for typical Japanese subcultures.

6.1 Akihabara Kei and Anime Culture

"Otaku" in Japan is a person who likes something, but outside the country, including Russia, this concept is usually used in reference to fans of anime and manga. In Japan, otaku who like anime and manga use the slang term "Akihabara-kei", which means that young people spend all of their time in the Akihabara region and love the world of anime and its elements. The Akihabara neighborhood is an important center of modern Japanese culture. In the 2000s, he became closely associated with the Japanese game industry and major anime and manga publishers.

One of the central elements of otaku culture is the concept of moe, which means fetishization or attraction to fictional characters.

6.2 Cosplay

Cosplay (abbreviation from English. Costume Play - "costume play") - a form of embodiment of the action performed on the screen. Modern cosplay appeared in Japan among Japanese fans of anime and manga, so the main prototype of the action is usually manga, anime, video games, or a historical film about samurai. Other prototypes may include J-rock / J-pop groups, visual kei reps, and the like.

Cosplay participants identify with a character, are named by their name, wear similar clothing, and use similar speaking panels.A role play is often played during the cosplay. Costumes are usually sewn themselves, but can also be ordered or bought ready-made in the studio (in Japan, for example, the production of costumes and accessories for cosplay is quite widespread) (Appendix 2).

6.3 Visual kei

The music genre Visual Kei originated on the basis of Japanese rock, which was mixed with glam rock, metal and punk rock in the 1980s. Visual kei literally means visual style. It is characterized by the use of makeup, complex hairstyles, colorful costumes, its followers often resort to androgynous aesthetics.

Thanks to the fans, visual kei was able to find a fashion component as a subculture while at the same time picking up elements of lolit, fruts and more traditional Japanese ideas about male beauty. There are also metalheads among visual kei fans.

In the appearance of the musicians of visual kei bands, the characteristics of "Gothic Lolit" appeared (Appendix 2). In return, the second wave of visual kei with representatives such as Malice Mizer enriched the Gothic & Lolita subculture, influenced its development and made this fashion popular with fans of visual kei with its appearance. The use of lolit robes became known for the appearance of visual kei musicians. Many visual kei musicians have expressed an interest in this fashion trend.

Fashion "Lolita" - a subculture based on the style of the Victorian period, as well as on costumes of the Rococo period, and partly on the elements of Gothic fashion. “Lolita” is one of the most popular subcultures in Japan and shapes fashion, music and the visual arts. The Lolita costume usually consists of a knee-length skirt or dress, hat, blouse, and high heels (or platform shoes).

The prototypes of the future Lolit fashion can already be seen in the Rococo fashion, for example in the fashion of Europe at that time. Lolita combined elements of the Victorian era and Rococo, and inherited western traditions and elements of the most Japanese street fashion. Although Lolita fashion imitates typically European images, it has become a purely Japanese fashion and culture trend. The ancestor of the style was the Gothic Lolita subculture.

6.4 Gyaru

Gyaru is a Japanese transcription of gal from a distorted English girl. The term can refer to both the Japanese subculture popular with girls, which peaked in the 1990s, and the lifestyle itself. The name is derived from the advertising slogan of the jeans brand "GALS" from the 1970s - "I can't live without men", the young girls' motto. Today's gyaru and their types of kogyaru and ganguro have earned the nicknames "oya o nakaseru" (make parents cry) and "daraku jokusei" (degenerate schoolgirls) because they violate traditional Japanese taboos and love western values. Kogyaru's motto is Biba Jibun! ("Long I live!"). They are characterized by frivolous behavior, positive thinking, love for cheerful fashionable clothes and special ideas about the ideals of beauty. Men can also belong to the gyaru subculture, the so-called "gyaru". Gyaru has become one of the most important elements of Japanese street fashion since its inception.

Ganguro is a trend in gyaru fashion. The appearance of the ganguro can be the most extreme and noticeable among the gyaru if we consider the manga as part of it. In view of the widespread confusion between Ganguro and Gyaru in general on the Russian-speaking internet, it should be noted that Ganguro is just one current among the Gyaru, such as a Chimegyaru or a Cogyar, and not the main subculture.

Ganguro emerged in the 1990s and immediately began to distance itself greatly from the traditional views of Japanese women. Her main features are a deep tan, bleached hair (from light to silver) and light-colored clothes. Like most Japanese subcultures, large-soled shoes are popular with ganguros. One of the main reasons for the creation of the Ganguro is the huge popularity of the J-Pop singer Namie Amuro. She introduced the fashion for tanning, bleached hair and the style of a skirt + boot, which largely determined the fundamentals of ganguro.

According to Japanese pop culture researchers, ganguro is a protest against traditional Japanese notions of feminine beauty. This is in response to Japan's continued social isolation and conservative rules in Japanese schools. At the same time, like tanned girls, many young Japanese women wanted to be California, which they saw in American films or hip-hop music videos. For these reasons, the media perceive the ganguro and the entire gyaru mode as a whole negatively (Appendix 2).

First, ganguros are known for their deep tan, so strong that they can often be mistaken for mulattos. For this they are often criticized by Japanese hip-hop musicians who called the ganguro "black wannabes" (Russian. I want to be black, which is close to the Russian "poseur" in meaning). For example, the Japanese rapper Banana Ice states that Japan's hip hop culture is distinctive and does not seek to copy African Americans. He dedicated several songs to this topic in which he ridiculed and criticized the ganguro and the part of the Japanese hip-hop scene that he describes as "black wannabes".

6.5 Fruits (Harajuku style)

The Harajuku district is a cult place for fans of Japanese street fashion. Firstly, this area is known for its youth subculture Harajuku Garudzu, with its typical colorful costumes, an abundance of accessories and a "combination of inappropriate" costumes that can include both gothic and cyberpunk as well as club neon colors. Separately, we can distinguish the "punk direction" typical of plaid and lederhosen, the use of chains, and other rock attributes.

The “Harajuku Garudzu” subculture emerged on the streets of Harajuku in the mid-1990s, along with the appearance of young people in suits made up of a variety of different clothing and accessories. The variety of elements in the outfits of representatives of this subculture is huge and the number of possible combinations is almost unlimited: People dressed in this way were able to mix elements of European costumes with expensive Japanese clothing, handicrafts or second-hand clothing.

This has not gone unnoticed by representatives of the fashion industry. In 1997, photographer Shoichi Aoki published the first issue of the monthly FRUITS (fruits, literally "fruits"), named after the emerging subculture, the first issue of which was photographs of teenagers from the streets of Harajuku. In the same issue of the magazine, Aoki gave his views on the movement, heralding the emergence of "fruit" as a cultural revolution and a revolt against patterned appearance. The author considered democracy to be the most important quality of the movement, a person's ability to join fashion regardless of their financial resources. Here Aoki saw the chance to deal with big brands that dictate trends in the fashion industry ... At the same time, fashion "fruits" from famous Japanese designers such as Yoji Yamamoto and Mihara Yasuhiro, thanks to them, Harajuku fashion gets an even bigger one Kick-off for further development.

The essence of the fruit ideology lies in the ability of each person to create their own ideal of modern beauty, accessible to people of all financial means, and in the rejection of stamps and templates that are imposed from above. The main role in the creation of the costume is played by imagination and practically unlimited choice. So one day a military-style teenager or young man may appear on the street - in a foreign military uniform and with a gas mask as an accessory - and the next day, put on a Pokemon costume and wear boots on very high soles. Subsequently, the fruits style was generally incorporated into Japanese street fashion and Tokyo fashion was glorified.

Gradually, the fruit fashion has become a global trend. Thanks to Aoki and several fashion brands in the US and Australia, there were fashion shows and fruit festivals. This subculture invaded Russia.

Russian fruits differ from Japanese in a few ways. For example, in Russia some tendencies can be adopted by the gyaru, although traditionally the youth of Harajuku ignore the gyaru and some - the Gothic Lolita - are their staunch opponents.

Together with the fashion of Harajuku, fruits were found in Japanese music, in the subgenre of visual kei - oshare kei. Initially, some osyare groups were also called “dekora-kei” (one of the fruts names) because of their demonstrative commitment to Harajuku fashion.

7. Conclusion

Over the past two decades, irreversible changes have taken place in society that have had a significant impact on the younger generation. The current young generation is brought up under fundamentally different conditions than the previous one. The social stratification of society, the lack of clear moral guidelines, the growing role of religion - all of these are realities to which we must adapt. Young people do this very mobile - they are involved in market relationships, for example. The dynamics of a change in consciousness is a characteristic of this social group.

According to statistics from the Ministry of the Interior, around 25% of young people between the ages of 12 and 30 are addicted to drugs. In addition, the curve of alcoholism creeps in not only in teenagers but also in children. According to the latest data, minors and adolescents make up 70-80% of drug addicts, and more and more cases of illness are observed in 7-8 year old children. According to UNESCO, in Colombia, Brazil and Russia, young people are most violent.

Young people in the current situation seemed to find themselves in the most difficult situation, as their need for communication, inclusion in society, the desire for self-assertion and self-improvement are on the one hand stimulated by the processes now taking place; on the other hand, it is harsh-minded, firstly, with a lack of understanding, failure of respect on the part of the adult community that does not emphasize the imputation of a growing person; second, in the absence of conditions for the teenager to really enter into the serious business of society. This contradiction leads to an acute conflict and an artificial delay in the personal development of young people, which deprives them of the opportunity to take an active social position.

... to forbid? This doesn't destroy subcultures, it just drives them underground and changes them beyond recognition and for the worse (after all, being told a hundred times a day that you can not only seriously hurt you, but also change your character and worldview, can also change your character and worldview are angry). .
Now the media is discussing positive and destructive subcultures, their "harmfulness" and "usefulness".

But we should probably not be talking about the destructiveness of a particular subculture, but about its individual representatives. As in any social group, one can find criminals and drug addicts in the subculture ... Not a single association is certain of this, these are the characteristics of society. However, the division of the subculture into "dangerous" and "safe" can become a trap.

Remember how in the Soviet era punks, hippies and metalheads were considered socially dangerous movements! But time passed and it turned out that these weren't bandits, just guys with their hobbies. Therefore I am categorically against the labeling and say that this subculture is good, but this one is bad. We forbid supposedly "harmful" movements, drive them underground and force them to rebel - this is a natural psychological reaction, especially for young people and adolescents.

Subculture is part of the social organism; it does not contradict the basic culture, but complements it. So let's study the subcultures first and only then try to banish them. Let's talk about it: let adults hear the young and let the young - adults hear. After all, we all have much more in common than differences, and you can always agree.

Literature and sources

1.fsselecrton.forumbook.ru/t44-topic

2.komarenko.org/

3. Lecture No. 11 Post-Community (Structural Sociology) prof. Dugin. konservatizm.org/konservatizm/sociology/

4.molodeznyi-extrimizm-rossii.com/2011/05/molodezhnye-subkultury/

5. Youth festivals and subcultures / coolreferat.com/

6.stud24.ru/sociology/molodjozhnaya

7.turbopro.ru/itk/web/istoria.html

8. "Theory of fashion." No. 10, winter 2008-2009. Dick Hebbage Chapter from the book "Subculture: The Importance of Style".

9. "Theory of fashion." No. 10, winter 2008-2009. Dmitry Gromov. Lubera: How they became boys.

10. "Fashion Theory." No. 10, winter 2008-2009. Joe Turnie. A look through the surveillance camera: unsocial knitwear and "those terrible guys in hoods".
11. "Theory of fashion." No. 10, winter 2008-2009. Anne Pearson-Smith. "Goths", "Lolita", "Darth Vader" and a box of costume: a study of the cosplay phenomenon in Southeast Asia.

subculture - These are behaviors, lifestyles, specific values ​​and their symbolic expression of a social group.

Not only age cohorts and special youth groups have their own subcultures, but also professional groups. Subcultures Doctors, astronauts, actors, television people, teachers have it ... The usual teacher words "window", "clock", "little girl", "extension" are anything but clear for all representatives of other professions. And try to decipher the slang used by TV reporters: "bricks", "canned food", "life", "ruler", "parquet" ...

Youth subculture - these are behavior patterns, clothing styles, musical preferences, language (slang), specific values ​​and their symbolic expressions that are characteristic of groups of young people (12-25 years).

Youthful subcultures have existed for a long time at least since the second half of the 20th century. In our country, they have attracted the attention of society and the media 1980s. In those years, the bearers of such particular cultural practices were commonly referred to as participants in informal youth organizations. The most famous examples are hippies, punks, rockers, metallers.

The main socio-psychological characteristic of informal youth organizations is the symbolization of appearance, lifestyle, behavior, especially clothing, and speaking style. For example, long hippie hair is not only long hair, but also a symbol of freedom; The English-speaking layer of hippie slang is based on Western behavioral patterns. the apartment where informals gather is not just a room, but an apartment where everyone is their own and which is united by the unpretentious style of everyday life.

Types of subcultures



Alternative specialists -
formed in the first half 90s. It included representatives rappers, metallers and punks. From all youth musical trends, they are characterized by friendliness towards representatives of all subcultures. In contrast to all musical movements, the alternative combined several styles at the same time, creating a completely separate subculture. The basis was taken stylistically Hardcorewere later involved Grunge and Industry.

Closer to the turn of 2000, a new style struck while mainstream and began to spread all over the world. A great impetus for the development of its popularity was given by the following groups: Linkin Park used to be Korn, Limp Bizkit.

The appearance of the alternativeists is immediately apparent, the. They are easy to distinguish from representatives of other subcultures. They wear baggy clothes and piercings. This subculture had no particular ideology, everything was based on a musical experiment that radically changed the development of world music.



Animeshniki
- came from japanese anime seriesthat was shot on a grand scale in the twentieth century. Pendants and followers are easily identified by bright things, symbolism. Animeshniki, as a rule, do not hide this, but display it. Ideology and philosophy are completely absent from this subculture. This movement is well developed in large cities, which cannot be said of settlements with a small number of people.

Of all the existing modern youth subcultures, this name is the most innocuous and poses no danger to either society or its followers. The main thing that Animeshniki does is to watch anime in large numbers and discuss it in their circle.



Bikers
- The subculture reaches far to the roots 60-70s At that point that direction took shape. The components of this class are usually men over the age of 30 who cannot imagine life without the following things: motorcycle, beer and rock music. All three elements are inextricably linked.



particularities bikeris from other types of subcultures - that motorcycle, long hair, leather, beard and beer belly. Usually they travel in groups, it is rare to meet them individually. Every self-confident biker is a member of the club. Use the stripes on his clothing to determine which of them is possible. This is the main sign of how representatives of this class stand out from each other.

They differ from other representatives of different subcultures by having a less calm character (relative), they are not the first to get into fights, they live on their own, but if you touch a motorcyclist who is in a biker club, nothing good will turn out from it.

Today the biker movement has also picked up scooter. They are usually only ridden by the younger generation who don't have the money to buy a good motorcycle. Now they are already being accepted into clubs, and there is also their own movement in individual clubs.



Vanilla girl or vanilla
- The new subculture that was born recently (compared to all youth subcultures just a few years ago). In addition, this direction only affected girls. The main differentiator of other youth movements is carry the camera all the time, (by and large mirrored), in all places. Such girls are also characterized by increased emotionality and sensuality. Vanilla uses a camera to convey their emotional mood, and that's the only way they can make it.

Glamor -is one of the youngest subcultures of our time. It was formed on the basis of club life and social parties. The main characteristic that sets glamor apart from other subcultures is compliance with the latest fashion trends. A lot of money is spent on their appearance. What do glamourists wear? - these are world brands - Adidas guchi and other. In addition, both a woman and a man can fall into this subculture. Each gender has its own dress code.



Gopnik -
Subculture arose in the last years of the existence of the USSR. Because of their ideology and behavior, they are very close to hooligans. Gopniks stand out from other youth subcultures prison jargon, increased violence, and low IQ. The term gopnik itself comes from the word Gop stop - sudden robbery. Attitudes towards other subcultures are aggressive, i. H. Long hair leads to aggression in gopnik. they wear tracksuits and a short haircut.

Goths - How every modern youth trend comes from music. They predominate in their appearance (Monotonous) black in clothing and cosmetics (when it comes to girls), and also symbols related to death - teeth, crosses, inverted crosses, pentagrams and so on. Throughout the existence of this Gotha subculture, its followers have not developed any ideology of their own that should be followed. The only thing that remains unchanged and eternal among the representatives of this movement is gloomy look and predominance of decadence in the mood.

According to current traditions, a popular place where people who own this subculture gather - graveyards (City, country, suburb, etc.).

Even after 2000, a different, more modern subculture separated from the Gotha subculture - Cyber ​​\ u200b \ u200bGoth.



Greenmen
- one of the oldest subcultures, they emerged under the influence of musical direction grunge, from where it actually stood out as an independent culture 1990-1991. Their ancestors nirvana groupwho were able not only to carry their style to the masses, but also to produce a whole generation, their followers. Visually, the Grangers differ slightly from representatives of other subcultures, they usually dress like their idol Kurt Cobain, i.e. plaid shirt, sneakers and long hair - These three elements make up the picture and the picture completely. In addition, worn clothing is preferred. Often, for the formation of the image, style and image, such things are bought second-hand.

They are completely harmless to others. The Grungeera subculture is also characterized by its conservatism and unwillingness to change its life principles, norms, philosophy or value system. There are no age restrictions. Grungeers include both 15 years of age (young people) and fully educated and established people (over 25-30 years of age). As mentioned above - this is the safest and most non-aggressive social movement in our time.

Graffiti - came from street art - graffiti, At the end 1960s. Back then this trend was called modern avant-garde. Later from USA graffiti began to spread all over the world. As a rule, young people are involved in this movement, i.e. it is very rare to meet adults with a spray can of paint. Different locations for graffiti are selected. Graffiti artists resort to abandoned buildings as well as subway cars. It is not uncommon to see works by contemporary artists on the main streets of big cities.



Cyber ​​\ u200b \ u200bGoths -
is the youngest and most developed subculture. For the time being, the origins of the origin fall on the 1990th year. The origins themselves come precisely from the Gothic movement, but were completely realigned in a short time. Like most subcultures, cyber goths were formed with a particular style due to musical trends Noise and Industrywhich differed radically from other existing styles of the time.

The main hairstyles used are: dreadlocks, hair dyed in different colors, not infrequently among representatives of this movement and irokesenBut they have nothing to do with the punk subculture. The color scheme ranges from green to blackbut mostly bright ones are used. Word cyberis used for a reason. If you look closely at how it looks, you can see microcircuits involved as an element of clothing design, i.e. own style.

As this is the most advanced subculture, passion for computers is included here by default. 90% of the representatives of this informal sector are now familiar with computer technology.

Metalworker - Subculture that emerged in the beginning1960s. This direction was generatedmusic style metaland to be precise, the styleHeavy metal. The term metal worker means all trailershard rock music and all kinds of metal, starting with the classicHeavy metal ends with thresh metal other more difficult directions. Another subculture then separated from this subculture -sataniststhat has become completely isolated and a completely independent movement. However, like the founders of the trend, modern metalworkers love a free life and live for their own pleasure. It is common in these circles to drink alcohol and attend hard rock concerts related to drugs, but this is not accepted, although there are separate cases. The main mass of this subculture are young people between the ages of 16 and 20 as well as “old” (old) representatives of this tendency, metal workers aged 45 and over.

From the picture metalworker The following can be distinguished: leather clothing (mostly black) a large amount of metal on the body (Chains, spikes, bracelets, etc.), large pierced shoes (usually in the left ear) bandanas. Of symbolism, often found skull. Followers of this trend have introduced the most popular informal gesture, called The goat.



New Age -
Its essence lies in spiritual self-improvement. HereRead booksand it is believed that ashigher intellectual and spiritual level of a personthe higher its status within the given subculture. Differences from ordinary people are not only in this, it also has an effect on religion. Standard religions, Islam, Christianity or Buddhism are completely rejected by them. On the basis of the world teachings, each member of the New Age creates his own current that interferes with the teachings of mystical vices with the rites of manism, neo-paganism or the occult movements.

Punks - As a separate subculture began to form again 1930 yearAt that time there was no rock music, but it was at this point that the lifestyle and appearance of followers of this direction began to change. The place of origin of the punks (home) is England. The first punks were people from poor areas of the city of Wales. Their conversation was Robbery, bullying, fighting, rowdy. At that time the so-called "Black Jazz." As for their ideology, practically all ideas and worldviews come down to normal anarchy, i.e. the existence of people without laws and state control.

Iroquois - a symbol of punk movement, leather jackets on a bare body or torn T-shirts, mass piercing on the face and neglect of the bath and shower - all the peculiarities of this subculture.

At rock concerts, punks behave aggressively and arrange Slamdrink large amounts of alcohol.



Pedovki
(or another name Pendovki) - recently appeared in about 2008 - 2009 Year, this term firmly entered informal parties. Camping means girl (usually young people under 20 years of age, then starting to be precise 12-17 years old- This is the climax of the age at which the wave of this youth movement is cited. For example, they try to combine the “positive” sides of different subcultures in their appearance and behavior ready to emo, punksand other. In particular, they create their image glamorous girltry to get as much attention as possible with their appearance. Of all the subcultures of youth, they are one of the youngest and most despised.

In appearance, it is easy to distinguish from representatives of other directional movements, for example, they wear modern 12 months of the year skate shoes and clothing from specialist shops (board shops), Brands are preferred Like. The hands were hung with various cheap bracelets that were bought at Makdonaldze, Euroset or Svyaznoyas well as a great abundance badge. Also draw on your own body with a black mark of various expressions or "pictures". Movement is actively distributed underneath piercingand everything that is possible is pierced.



Rastamans
- A subculture arose roughly in 1920s. Culture itself began to spread African territoryhug later Caribbean. Ideology builds up hemp cult (Kanabis), overusing this natural product and listening to songs recorded with style reggae.

The appearance is very simple, but at the same time very busy, i.e. ordinary t-shirts and hemp picture or symbolslinked manually Hats or hoodies, dreadlocks. The color scheme in clothes, utensils and symbolism consists of three colors: red, yellow, green. Often different objects are woven into the hair: balls, threads etc. Most Rastamanovwearing long dreadlocksand emphasized their attitude towards their subculture. The subculture of the Rastamans has the following meaning: Smoke marijuana, expand consciousness, understand the meaning of life, do not harm others, promote reggae in the crowd.



Ravers -
subculture is endless night partieswhich speak top DJsand from the speakers electronic dance music. Ravers - party culture subculture. The source of youth priorities is dance music, and their lifestyle comes from idols - musicians. rave translated as massive disco who are DJs.



rocker
- Subculture appeared in 1960 Year in From England. At first it was for young people who rode motorcycles.

The image of the rocker subculture is practical, in principle preserved to this day. they wear jackets (leather jackets) decorated with various stripes, iron buttons and other utensils. Rockers from all subcultures are distinguished by their friendly attitude towards others and the complete absence of aggression towards representatives of other youth trends. The only negative qualities of rockers are a strong addiction to drugs, alcohol and nakatina (to cigarettes). Nowadays this subculture practically no longer exists, as other musical directions and subcultures, such as alternative and metalworker.



rapper
- the most common youth travel destination in Russia. Mass fashion that came from the USA has firmly established itself in our country.

Apparently it's pretty easy to identify the rappers they wear clothes on several sizes are larger, i.e. it just hangs. Accepted in rap circles paphosi.e. the more pathetic a person is, the steeper his environment is for him. Modern rap dictates the rules for its followers - the emphasis is on sex, violence and harshness.

The movement is widespread among these young people basketball, beatbox, graffiti, breakdance and other areas.



Skinheads
- are one of the youngest directions. They got their name because of their appearance - bald voice (shaved). In addition, the first trailers did not go out Nazi Germanyas it is now called. It began to develop actively in Germany 1960 year. Skinheads actively spread around the world from 2000 and conquered the whole world.

Regardless of this, it should be mentioned that the skinhead subculture is generally sought after preservation of the nationand the modern political system seeks to mix all peoples and nations. This is the main reason skinheads fight so hard for the purity of their people's blood. Swastika began to be used after the era Adolf Hitleras a symbol of the movement of their ideology. In the early 1980s, representatives of this movement often adorned their bodies with swastika tattoos.



People
- was considered the Soviet movement of the second half 40s - 50syears. At that time, on the busy streets of the cities, one could see young people in defiant clothes, dressed in indecency. Proponents of the movement at the time were distinguished by their cynicism in judgments and indifference to Soviet norms of behavior and morals.

Guys from the subculture - It's kind of protest against common stereotypes of behavior, uniformity in clothing and style. After two decades of alienation between the USSR and the West, the “window” to the new world finally opened slightly in the 1940s. Fashion magazines and jazz records came from Europe, and the first foreign films were shown in cinemas. Hence the contrast that reflects the “Western way of life” in films has become a model for post-war behavior among youth.

About where the word Newfangled came from at that time "Dude" it is hard to understand now, according to one version, it was "born" on the pages of the people crocodile magazine (1949 year). The Fallonists were called dressed in this guys "listen to jazz and stroll through restaurants." Within a few years the word "dudes" came into use and indeed became the name of the new youth movement.

The style that emerged in the 1950s was very different from communist ideology. Men wore thin pants (famous "pipes"), long double-breasted jackets, brightly colored shirts, brightly colored ties, pointed boots and dark glasses. For girls it was typical: sewn bows and the spread of a large number of jewelry. Bright suits were complemented by various accessories (sticks or belts). Colors in a cage, peas, or large strips were particularly preferred.



Straight Age
(sXe) - formed from a subculture punkgradually separate as a separate direction over time. Abbreviated straight edge, written and echoed sXe. The ideology of this youth subculture is very simple - a clear, not hidden call for a healthy lifestyle, the rejection of meat and alcohol, that is, the maintenance of one's own health not only physically but also mentally. The creation date (foundation) is taken into account The 80s.

« Food instead of bombs"This is how straightforward followers interpreted themselves until 2000, but after this milestone their ideals didn't change too much unless they had a different musical preference than ordinary punk or hardcore.

From clothing and symbols, they only differ from other representatives of different subcultures Cross (X) or the use of an abbreviated abbreviation ( sXe) Later symbolism became the subject of tattoos.



Tolkienists
- Direction appeared around 1960 year, his idea, it is fully committed writer D. Tolkien. The first sources were formed in the United States. As a rule, all works and movements of the Tolkienists are scientific and research work by the languages ​​of the created fantasy world are studied, the intricacies of writing a series of books, and controversial moments in the plots that appeared as they were written.