What are the diseases related to insulin

diabetes

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs in around 10% of those affected. Type 1 diabetes mellitus used to be referred to as "juvenile (adolescent) diabetes" because it occurs more frequently in children and young adults. But he can meet people of any age.

This type of diabetes is an autoimmune disease that occurs when the immune system destroys the β cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, which are responsible for producing insulin. This leads to an absolute lack of insulin. Genetic factors play a predisposing role, with around 20% of type 1 diabetics having a positive family history, i.e. 20% of type 1 diabetics are known to have other cases within the family. At the current time, type 1 diabetes is incurable and those affected are dependent on an external supply of insulin for life.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is by far the most common form of diabetes and occurs in around 90% of those affected. In the past, the term “adult diabetes” was also common, as it usually occurs in people over 40 years of age, but it is increasingly being diagnosed in younger people who are overweight. Sufferers of this type continue to produce insulin, but either in insufficient quantities or the body's cells can no longer use the sugar effectively.

Common causes of type 2 diabetes are years of overeating combined with obesity, i.e. being very overweight. On the basis of the affluence syndrome (= metabolic syndrome), various risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, lipid metabolism disorder and sugar tolerance disorder come together. This leads to what is known as insulin resistance. Muscle and fat cells take up sugar with difficulty, so that an increased level of insulin is necessary for glucose utilization in the cells. This increases the feeling of hunger and the consequences are obesity and the accumulation of plaques in the vascular wall (arteriosclerosis).

Another form is the so-called «Gestational diabetes"Or" gestational diabetes ". Hormone changes during pregnancy lead to an increasingly higher level of insulin resistance. If the pancreas cannot meet the increased need for insulin, the result is increased blood sugar levels and gestational diabetes develops. Gestational diabetes is therefore similar to type 2 diabetes. The metabolism returns to normal in most women after childbirth, but the women affected have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on.