What is homecoming

Franz Kafka's "Homecoming". Attempt at interpretation

Table of Contents

text

1. Classification of the text in Kafka's complete works

2. First-person narrative form and personal narrative behavior

3. the literary model of the Homecoming

4. Content and formal text analysis

5. a hermeneutic possibility of interpretation

6. the Homecoming: parabolic shape, parabola or narrative?

7. Summary

Franz Kafka, homecoming

I returned, I stepped down the hall and looked around. It's my father's old farm. The puddle in the middle. Old, unusable device, interlocking, obstructs the way to the attic stairs. The cat is lurking on the railing. A torn cloth, wound around a pole once in a game, lifts in the wind. I came back. Who will receive me? Who is waiting behind the kitchen door? Smoke comes from the chimney, the coffee for dinner is brewed. Are you secret, do you feel at home? I don't know, I am very insecure. It is my father's house, but it is cold, piece by piece, as if each were busy with their own business, some of which I have forgotten, some of which I never knew. What use can I be to them, what am I to them and what am I also to their father, the son of the old farmer? And I don't dare knock on the kitchen door, I only listen from a distance, only from a distance do I listen while standing, not in such a way that I might be surprised as a listener. And because I listen from afar, I don't hear anything, I just hear a faint chiming of the clock, or maybe just think I hear it, from my childhood days. What else happens in the kitchen is the secret of those sitting there that they keep from me. The longer you hesitate in front of the door, the more strange you become. How about if someone opened the door and asked me something. If then I would not be like someone who wants to keep his secret.[1]

Franz Kafka, homecoming

1. Classification of the text in Kafka's complete works

who the Homecoming in Paul Raabes All the stories[2] reading and then studying the epilogue will find three important pointers. The editor of the paperback edition "follows [...] all of Max Brod's legible text"[3], he "follows in the chronological order [...] the dates that Malcom Pasley and Klaus Wagenbach worked out (Kafka Symposion. 1965. pp. 55-83)."[4] Raabe comments on the text itself: "Homecoming (Title by Max Brod.) - Handed down in a Blue Quartz notebook, probably also written down in late autumn 1920. - First published in B 1936, reprinted from B 1954, 139. "[5] I had to explain the symbols to my students: The abbreviation "B 1936" stands for a volume of Collected Writings in six volumes published by Max Brod and Heinz Politzer 1935-37.

"The first four [volumes appear] in Salman Schocken Verlag, Berlin (1935), the last two under license from Heinrich Mercy Sohn in Prague (1936 and 1937) - Schocken had to emigrate to Palestine in 1934 because of National Socialist censorship and persecution, in addition, Kafka's writings were banned in the Third Reich after 1935. "[6] The abbreviation sign means Homecoming can be found in volume 5 of Collected Writings, namely in Description of a fight. Novellas, sketches, aphorisms from the estate. This volume is an expanded new version of the collection published in 1931 by Brod together with Hans-Joachim Schoeps During the construction of the Great Wall of ChinaIn addition to the cover story, it contains 18 stories from the estate and the aphorism collections He and Reflections on sin, suffering, hope, and the true way.

Paul Raabe has chosen the wording of his stories based on the second edition of the work, the one published again by Max Brod Collected Works in initially five unnumbered volumes, published 1950-58 by Fischer in Frankfurt / M. I quote the text of Homecoming according to the one available to me Description of a fight.[7] While Max Brod in this third edition, which has been expanded to 29 stories, gives no indication of the time our text was written, Raabe assumes that the text of the Homecoming has come down to us in a Blue Quartz booklet and comes from, just like The city arms, Poseidon, the vulture, the helmsman and some others from the same bundle of papers. Therefore, Raabe takes over "after very careful examination"[8] the date that Malcolm Pasley and Klaus Wagenbach worked out for this bundle (Kafka Symposium 1965), and writes, at that time based on the latest state of the philological edition: "Probably written down in late autumn 1920".[9]

This dating to the late autumn of 1920 runs through almost all publications in the following period. Richard Thieberger writes in the Binder manual: “If Kafka's rhythm of life and work is determined by his relationship with women, it does not seem unimportant to see the wave crests and valleys for the three years of interest here [i. e. Kafka's writing in the first years of the illness, from 1917]. The first batch of production in 1917, followed by Poseidon (January 1918) immediately followed the illness and the official diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The hope of starting a family and probation in practical life sank. Kafka was relegated to literary existence, to the best of his knowledge, not only his most important, but the only possible one. The second group of these sketches, beginning with Homecoming (August or September 1920), was triggered by the Milena experience, in particular by the encounter in Gmünd, when it became clear that this relationship could not last either. The engagement and disengagement with Julie Wohryzeck, which took place between the second Felice phase and the Milena experience, has its literary expression in Letter to the father and the He -Aphorisms found. As long as Kafka's relationship with a woman is unbroken and seems to point to the future, he turns away from literature. This applies to the first ten months of 1919 (Julie) as well as to the first half of 1920 (Milena) and can be traced back to the early days of his relationship with Felice. "[10]

Also in the reclam tape used by my students Literary knowledge the Pasley / Wagenbach dating can be found. Carsten Schlingmann explains: “The text was written after Franz Kafka returned to Prague from a spa stay in Merano lasting several months, where he lived first with his sister Elli and then again in his parents' apartment on the Old Town Square. Here he began to write again in August 1920 after a long break. Most of it remained a fragment, noted in notebooks and on loose sheets of paper (H 163 ff.), And served him as a writing exercise, so to speak, to "loosen his tongue", as he wrote in a letter to Milena. "Schlingmann holds it Homecoming "Probably" for the first "of around a dozen shorter texts that were written at the end of 1920 and are considered to be completed [...]."[11]

"The subject of the homecoming of the (prodigal) son, entered into world literature through the parable of the Gospel of Luke (Chapter 15, 11-32), arose almost inevitably for the author from his biographical situation."[12]

This biographical interpretation approach, echoed by Schlingmann, is shared by many Kafka connoisseurs, for example by Thomas Anz: “Kafka's (the books and diaries) are stylized to a high degree in literary terms, and Kafka's (the fictional narratives and novels in particular) is to a high degree autobiographical. "[13]

In contrast, Peter Beicken stands with his assertion, "also the texts that were written in autumn 1920" [he names 13 titles, including Homecoming ], are "not poetic designs of personal problems, but prose pieces, the parable-like shortening of which anchors the reflective nature of the parabolic form in the narrative framework."[14]

In any case, it is interesting that Schlingmann and Beicken stick to the dating of Pasley / Wagenbach; For reasons I did not understand, it lasted until 2010. Monika Schmitz-Emans wrote the following in her Kafka book in a “Timeline of life and work” for the poet for the year 1920: “Niederschrift der He -Aphorisms (Jan./February). Cure in Merano. Start of correspondence with Milena Jesenská, visit to Milena in Vienna. Another leave of absence from work after a few months of office work. Work on shorter texts (Homecoming, little fable inter alia). Trip to the High Tatras (Dec.) for a stay at a spa that lasted until Aug. 1921. "[15]

I recommend Annette Steinich's contribution to anyone who would like to get an overview of the origins of the various Kafka editions Kafka editions. Estate and edition practice in the Göttingen Kafka manual[16] and Manfred Engels remarks about Expenses and resources[17] in the appendix of the Kafka manual by Metzler.

Both Kafka researchers point to Brod's sometimes questionable editorial practice and discuss in detail the "two new Kafka editions that can only be cited today."[18] For the university sector, that is the one Critical edition (KA), whose first volume with the lock Published in 1982 and today (except for the tape Hebrew Studies) is essentially complete. Our text is in one of the “two volumes with the title of embarrassment Legacy writings and fragments (NSF / KA I / II, 1993 and 1992) ".[19] Annette Steinich emphasizes for the KA: "The character of the handwriting is preserved, and the presentation in the text volume does not attempt to cleanse or smoothen through normalizations or through corrections in the presumed sense of the author." But she criticizes the volumes Legacy writings and fragments, it remains "unclear [...] what the difference should be between writings and fragments that are just as relaxed as all three texts edited as novels."[20]

In addition, since 1995 there has been the one with over 25 volumes Historically critical Franz Kafka edition (FKA), edited by Roland Reuss and Peter Staengle. Some also read the Sigle FKA as a or -Franz Kafka edition, because “the FKA does what the KA ultimately only promises: It consistently follows the shape of the tradition carriers [...], namely by she reproduced them in facsimile form. Each of these images is juxtaposed with a diplomatic transcription of the manuscript [...].[21]

Since three editions now exist side by side, the GW, the KA and the FKA, it is difficult to quickly find a text titled by Brod in the FA and FKA. "The FKA offers [erg. therefor] an excellent comparing GW, KA and FKA [...]: www.textkritik.de/findbuch/index.htm (February 20, 2010). ”In addition, there has been a“ synopsis ”since 2002 that can be found “as a tabular appendix in a monograph by Gerhard Rieck [...]. These synoptic tables make it possible to find GW texts (with Brodsche pseudo work titles) easily and reliably in the KA and FKA (of course only in their volumes published before 2002). "[22]

However, since KA and FKA have deleted the editor's titles from Brod, which are in an edition-philologically correct manner, our text can be found in their catalogs of works quoted as follows: "I have returned ..." The Kafka-Handbuch (KHb) has taken a middle course that is student-friendly: it names untitled texts with the initial words (here: I have returned ...), but because the Brod titles have become commonplace, they are also included in the index in angle brackets (also: ).

Gerhard Rieck also proceeds in a similar way in his “Order of the Kafka Texts”, where Kafka's original titles are in italics. What is more important, however, is that Rieck added a column to the dating carried out by Pasley / Wagenbach by adding a column entitled “Text origin according to critical edition”. And there one reads under “Dating according to the critical edition” that Homecoming was created in 1923/24.[23] In the indented Brod title of our text, Rieck also points out that Homecoming stands in the middle of another text; the editors of the KA have corrected the location "Blue Quartheft" in "Blue exercise book 'Im Dunkel der Gasse'" (Rieck 2002, 16).

Amazingly, the Metzler manual also contains two different dates for the creation of the Homecoming. In the chapter Life and personality writes Ekkehard W. Haring about the Years of late work: In the summer of 1919 Kafka became engaged to Julie Wohryzeck, whom he met during his four-month convalescence stay in Schelesen. However, the wedding planned for November 1919 was suspended “two days before the wedding”. Haring comments: “As with Felice, the failed marriage plans trigger a literary production surge here too. The fear-filled bond turns into a liberation, the impulse of which continued until 1920 in the He -Aphorisms and smaller attempts at storytelling. "[24]

In the spring of 1920, Kafka met 23-year-old, unhappily married Milena Jesenská, who was to become the translator of his works into the official language of the new republic; appears as early as April 1920 The stoker in Czech in the magazine Kmen. During Kafka's spa stay in Merano from 2.4. up to June 28th, 1920 "an intensive correspondence develops, which soon becomes a dialogue marked by passion and openness."[25] After the three-month, unsuccessful cure, Kafka added a stopover in Vienna on the return journey from Merano and experienced "four happy days" with Milena, after Haring, "a rare, unexpected love stroke for him."[26]

But this relationship also breaks up, as Beicken sees it, because “Milena is unwilling and also unable to end her marriage [erg. with Ernst Pollak]. "And Kafka will do what he did with Felice Bauer:" He escapes the sexual intercourse sanctioned by marriage into literature. "[27] Kafka's suggestion, after another meeting with Milena in Gmünd, “to stop correspondence is not heard for the time being, but it sends a clear signal. Once again this is followed by a major literary initiative, from which plays like The city coat of arms, Homecoming, Community, night or The exam emerge. "[28]

Manfred Engel started Kafka's late work in September 1917: "The outbreak of the lung disease in August 1917, the almost eight-month recovery stay in Zurich and the breakup of the relationship with Felice Bauer mark an unmistakable turning point in Kafka's life."[29] The Kafka handbook by Engel / Auerochs distinguishes between the texts of the late work, to the Homecoming yes obviously heard, four phases of Kafka's writing:

a. the time in Zurich (September 1917 to early May 1918), which Kafka spends with his sister Ottla, who runs a small farm in the northern Bohemian village of Zürau. Here Kafka begins to write aphorism-like texts. “This series of aphorisms - by Max Brod with one-sided emphasis on a positive increase in the religious Reflections on sin, suffering, hope, and the true way called - deals with basic questions of theology: God, being, paradise, sin, redemption, rather skeptically or in a very negative way. "[30]
b. the 1920 bundle (approx. August 20 to mid-December 1920), Max Brod removed many short texts from this loose-leaf collection, including the Poseidon, the Helmsman, the vulture, the Little fable and the Gyroscope. The Oxford Germanist Malcolm Pasley, who died in 2004, dates the bundle to late autumn 1920.
c. the lock -Year 1922 (approx. January 27th to mid-December 1922), during this time Kafka's third and most extensive novel and a. A comment, by Max Brod Give up titled, and From the parables.
d. the time in Berlin (approx. September 24, 1923 to the beginning of April 1924), during which time research complains about major text losses, are preserved, among other things. Homecoming, The construction and Josefine, the singer or the people of the mice.

Other researchers have suggested other phases of the work. Hartmut Binder's Kafka Handbook z. B. divides the work part of the narratives into five sections:

- the early work (1904-1912)
- the breakthrough phase (1912-1915)
- the stories from the Alchemist Alley (1916-1917)
- the work in the first years of the illness (1917-1920)
- the late period (1922-1924)[31].

In terms of life history, Kafka's late work is “entirely under the sign of illness.Spas at a spa and sanatorium alternate with resumption of work in Prague (until early retirement on June 30, 1922). In the place of Felice Bauer are now: Julie Wohryzeck (February 1919 to the end of July 1920), Milena Jesenská (April to the end of 1920) and Dora Diamant (July 15, 1923 until her death). "[32]

In any case, after the disappointing second meeting with Milena in Gmünd (August 14/15, 1920), Kafka resumes his literary writing. “The so-called consists of 51 loose sheets of letter paper that he also used for his correspondence with Milena. Max Brod had rearranged the pages; the editors of the Critical edition have tried, with some detective acumen, to restore the original order. "The editors of the Metzler manual believe:" Kafka wrote the between around 19./20. August and mid-December 1920. "[33]

Anyway, Manfred Engel thinks that Homecoming was "probably Nov. 1923"[34] originated, so before A little woman, before the construction and before Man eater Fragment.

The text losses complained about for Kafka's time in Berlin can be explained as follows: Dora Diamant burned some of Kafka's last months, following the author's request, but kept a lot of things [...]. Before Dora's flight from Berlin, the Gestapo searched her apartment in 1933 and confiscated the manuscripts. Since then, they have been considered lost. "[35] Engel particularly points out the different ways of transmission of the Abandoned writings and fragments down. “In addition to exercise books in various formats, there are bundles of sheets and single sheets as well as Max Brod's copies that replaced lost manuscripts. In a whole series of cases, only an uncertain dating, derived from the peculiarities of writing and contexts, is possible. "[36]

If you now, motivated by Rieck's synopsis, google “Blue exercise book 'Im Dunkel der Gasse ...'”, you come across the table of contents of the second volume of the published by Jost Schillemeit Abandoned writings and fragments[37] and reads there, even before A little woman - Mixed lot, the entry Blue exercise book "In the dark of the alley ...". In the line below it reads “(autumn 1923 to winter 1923/24)”. This text corpus begins on p. 547 and goes to p. 574, on the following page you can find it construction - Mixed lot, only after that follows Little woman -Collect. If you googling further, you come to websites with the title The Kafka Project by Mauro Nervi.[38] These sites offer Kafka's Works in German According to the Manuscript and next to the Published just that too Unpublished Works in four groups. Their fourth, Unpublished Works 1922-1924, begins with the words: “In the dark of the alley under the trees on an autumn evening. I ask you, you don't answer me ... "[39]

These Dark alley - Page is extremely interesting, without a headline and without a paragraph a lot is strung together: single and connected sentences, shorter or longer, almost narrative pieces; Max Brod fished out some of them, titled them and edited them separately. In addition to what is useful, you can also read fragments there that Brod did not include in the GS and GW. In the longer pieces of text there are sometimes incoherent parts that could be assigned to expressionist lyric poetry, such as B.

"Strange," said the dog, stroking his forehead with his hand. "Or:

“The old maid ran sadly from the mountain, carrying the basket full of apples.

I have buried my intellect in my hand, happy, I carry my head upright, but my hand hangs tiredly, the intellect pulls it to the ground. [...]. "

On the page that interests us, after the sentence about the dark alley, there are initially a few short, incomplete noun phrases up to the appearance of a dragon:

“Position was not clear to him

Repetitions.

The catching. Finding a method. They were very differently colored

Trees. A mosquito

The door opened and the green dragon came into the room, very roughly, lavishly rounded on the sides, footless with the whole underside pushing itself forward. Formal greeting. I asked him to enter fully. [...]. "

The green dragon doesn't fit through the door, by the way. After a "bent down father's admonition" there is then no clear meaning to the context:

“A puddle in the yard. Old junk of agricultural equipment behind it. "

This sentence is followed by a variant of the Little fable:

“A cat caught a mouse. “What are you going to do?” Asked the mouse, “You have terrible eyes.” “Oh,” said the cat, “I always have eyes like that. You will get used to it. ”“ I'd rather go away, ”said the mouse,“ my children are waiting for me. ”“ Your children are waiting? ”Said the cat,“ then just go as quickly as possible. I just wanted to ask you something. "" Then please ask, it is really very late. "

The next sentence “Coloring that old flag. We have them, unique. ”Is no longer part of the cat-mouse game; in the text published by Max Brod Little fable the cat eats the mouse. A little further down follows the description of a city whose "characteristic [s] [...] its emptiness [is]." According to Brod, Kafka could have meant Milan, which he visited in 1911 with Max, when referring to this city with its ring square and church .[40] At the end of the city description it says:

"It is my old hometown and I'm slowly, hesitantly walking through its streets."

Shortly afterwards, Kafka starts again on the same sheet of the blue exercise book, but with a different intention:

“It's my old hometown and I've come back to it. I am a wealthy citizen and I have a house with a view of the river. [It's a two-story house with two large courtyards!] [...] Wrapped in a padded dressing gown, I like to walk between [erg. the old furniture in the darkened living room]. "

Further down on the page, this is followed by an actually exciting narrative, where someone who has already been buried knocks on the coffin lid and has to brace himself against the weight of the assistant sitting on the coffin. In the end, however, the man who was laid alive in the coffin succeeds in pushing open the lid with such force that the assistant slides to the side. Unfortunately, this short thriller breaks off with the sentence fragment “firmly pressed into the coffin”.

At the very bottom of the page, after the two narrative approaches I quoted and playing in an “old hometown”, that of Brod follows with < Homecoming> overwritten, completed, final version of I have returned ...As we know it, however, the narrated location, unlike the two attempts, has been moved from the city to a farm, and Kafka also invented a father for it.

Richard Thieberger writes by way of introduction to Kafka's stories that many “estate texts [were] isolated from their respective handwritten context in workbooks or bundles of pages” and entitled “on the other hand,” by the editors Max Brod, Hans-Joachim Schoeps and Heinz Politzer Texts which Kafka himself apparently distinguished by naming them in front of others [...] were not taken into account at all. "Thieberger speaks of" confusing consequences "[41] such a procedure. This probably includes the wrong dating of the Homecoming in almost all representations before working on Critical edition the Blue exercise book "In the dark of the alley" - "Warning sound" has been discovered. Only Manfred Engel takes the new research situation into account, but carefully writes the Homecoming was "probably Nov. 1923".

2. I narrative form and personal narrative behavior

“I returned, I walked through the hallway and looked around.” The homecoming man, of whom one does not yet know whether he will return home, immediately takes the floor in the three-part, monosyndetically constructed first sentence series (= parataxe) and speaks as "I". "The first person in grammar [designates] the narrator and an identical character."[42] The narrator speaks in the Homecoming So of oneself as someone returning home, the I is both a narrative medium and an acting figure (person), the narrator appears as the narrated figure of the narrated reality, the first-person figure experiencing the narrated event is here identical with the narrating self . In theory, however, the narrator can also, as in The new lawyer just be a narrative figure:

“We have a new lawyer, Doctor Bucephalus. In his appearance little reminds of the time when he was still a warhorse of Alexander of Macedonia. However, if you are familiar with the circumstances, you will notice a few things. But recently I saw a very simple-minded bailiff himself on the outside staircase [...] marveling at the lawyer as he, lifting his thighs high, climbed from step to step with a step that resounded on the marble. "[43]

The first-person narrator sees the new lawyer here as "a half-being that has both human and animal features." Bucephalus, he is the narrated figure, she “still bears the name of the war horse Alexander the great, which he once was. The observer [the telling self] can also perceive traces of previous existence in his walk. "[44]

Jochen Vogt, whose terminology I used in my lessons, has in his Aspects of narrative prose the confusing diversity of the basic terms used by the individual schools up to that point is reduced to an understandable level when he says “the first-person narration [should] only be spoken of when” the “I” is the narrator and an acting figure identical to him - often, but not necessarily, the main character - denotes. ”Since the I-form (1st person Sg. of the personal pronoun)“ both the narrator [...] as well as an action figure ”[45] names, there can be two different I's: "One 'I' who once experienced certain events, and another that she tells after a more or less long time."[46] Vogt illustrates this difference with a chapter from the Confessions of the impostor Felix Krull. It starts like this:

“If I am now searching in my soul for further youthful impressions, I have to remember the day when I was allowed to accompany my family to the theater in Wiesbaden for the first time. Incidentally, I have to include here that when describing my youth I do not fearfully stick to the sequence of the years, but treat this period of life as a whole, in which I move at will. "[47]

This important distinction between the narrative and the told I don't need to do it here. The person returning home in the first person is the first-person narrator, the narrator-self, is therefore the narrator (= narrating self) and at the same time the doer (= experiencing self) in one person. The first-person narrator is always fictional [i. e. thought up, faked], he must not be confused with the real author, the writer of the epic text. The one in the Homecoming The character acting as I is not Franz Kafka, although, as Hartmut Binder reports, he really returned home willy-nilly: Due to his hemorrhage, Kafka is giving up his two-room apartment in the Schönberg-Palais on the Kleinseite, which he moved into in March 1917, and since "the little house in Alchimistengasse was canceled at the same time, [...] he moved back to his parents' apartment on Old Town Square [...] on September 1st, which was again his only home in Prague for the next time." represents. "[48] Ilse Aichinger is also in The mouse not a rodent, although there is also a first-person narrator, and the real inventor of the fictional Oskar Matzerath is not crazy, even if Günter Grass' novel The Tin Drum so begins: “Admittedly, I am an inmate of a sanatorium and nursing home, my carer is watching me, he hardly takes his eyes off me; because there is a peephole in the door ... "

[...]



[1] Franz Kafka, description of a fight. Novellas, sketches, aphorisms from the estate, ed. v. Max Brod, Fischer: Frankfurt / M. o. J. (1954), p. 107

[2] Franz Kafka, Complete Stories, ed. v. Paul Raabe, Fischer: Frankfurt / M. 1970, p. 320 f.

[3] Raabe, p. 390

[4] Raabe, p. 403

[5] Raabe, p. 404 f.

[6] Kafka manual. Life - Work - Effect, ed. v. Manfred Engel and Bernd Auerochs, Metzler: Stuttgart and Weimar 2010, p. 518 (hereinafter: KHb)

[7] Franz Kafka, description of a fight. Novellas, sketches, aphorisms from the estate, ed. v. Max Brod, Fischer: Frankfurt / M. o. J. (1954), p. 107

[8] Raabe, p. 403

[9] Raabe, p. 405

[10] Kafka manual in two volumes, ed. v. Hartmut Binder, Vol. 2: The work and its effect, Kröner: Stutt-gart 1979, p. 351

[11] Literary knowledge for school and study: Carsten Schlingmann, Franz Kafka, Reclam: Stuttgart 1995, p. 126 (RUB vol. 15204)

[12] Schlingmann, p. 126 f.

[13] Thomas Anz, Franz Kafka. Leben und Werk, Beck: Munich 2009, p. 22 (Beck’s series, vol. 2473)

[14] Editions for Literature Lessons, ed. v. Dietrich Steinbach: Peter Beicken, Franz Kafka. Life and Work, Klett: Stuttgart 1986, p. 127

[15] Monika Schmitz-Emans, Franz Kafka. Epoch - Work - Effect, Beck: München 2010, p. 243

[16] Annette Steinich, Kafka Editions. Legacy and Editionspraxis, in: Kafka-Handbuch. Life - Work - Effect, ed. v. Bettina von Jagow and Oliver Jahraus, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: Göttingen 2008, pp. 137-149

[17] KHb, pp. 517-527

[18] KHb, S. XVII f.

[19] KHb, p. 519 f.

[20] Annette Steinich, Kafka Editions. Legacy and Editionspraxis, in: Kafka-Handbuch. Life - Work - Effect, ed. v. Bettina von Jagow and Oliver Jahraus, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: Göttingen 2008, p. 141 f.

[21] KHb, p. 519 f.

[22] KHb, p. 523

[23] Gerhard Rieck, order of the Kafka texts, available at: http://members.aon.at/rieck/daten.pdf, p. 31 (all internet sources in this scientific article were last checked on June 10, 2014)

[24] KHb, p. 21 f.

[25] KHb, p. 21 f.

[26] Beicken, p. 135

[27] Beicken, p. 58

[28] KHb, p. 21 f.

[29] KHb, p. 88

[30] Beicken, p. 120

[31] Binder 2, pp. VII-IX

[32] KHb, p. 88

[33] KHb, p. 346

[34] KHb, p. 88

[35] KHb, p. 517

[36] KHb, p. 343

[37] available at: http://www.gbv.de/dms/bs/toc/357225023.pdf

[38] available at: http://www-Kafka.org/index.phb?project

[39] available at: http://www-Kafka.org/index.phb?im Dunkel

[40] Schlingmann, p. 127

[41] Binder 2, p. 354

[42] Jochen Vogt, aspects of narrative prose. An introduction to narrative technique and romance theory, Westdeutscher Verlag: Opladen 819981998, p. 66

[43] Raabe, p. 123

[44] KHb, p. 225

[45] Vogt, p. 66 f.

[46] Vogt, p. 71

[47] Thomas Mann, Confessions of the impostor Felix Krull. The first part of the memoir, Fischer: Frankfurt / M. 492007, p. 27 (Fischer-Taschenbuch vol. 9429)

[48] Kafka manual in two volumes, ed. v. Hartmut Binder, Vol. 1: Man his time, Kröner: Stuttgart 1979, p. 510

End of the reading sample from 42 pages