What is hate watching 1
A respectful togetherness is also indispensable on the internet. However, it can currently be observed that agitation, hatred and discrimination are becoming more and more widespread there - especially in social networks, forums and comment columns. The forsa surveys commissioned by the State Agency for Media in North Rhine-Westphalia show that the vast majority of Internet users surveyed have seen hateful comments on the Internet at some point. A little more than one in three people even (very) often. The term hate speech (English for "hate speech") has become established for the phenomenon of the spread of hate messages on the Internet. It describes derogatory, inhuman and inflammatory language and content through which the limits of freedom of expression are exceeded. According to Article 1 of the Basic Law, "human dignity is inviolable". This also applies to the internet.
Hate speech can express itself very directly, e.g. B. in clearly racist or sexist insults and inciting violence. Sometimes, however, expressions are also more difficult to assess. How can you recognize hate speech in its more subtle forms? On the basis of various forms of hate speech, central linguistic and content-related patterns are presented under "Forms of hate speech", which are typical for the phenomenon of hate speech as a whole. In addition, the "Legal situation" section explains whether and in which cases hate speech is a criminal offense. Information and recommendations for action to develop counter-strategies, as well as specific tips for (media-educational) work with young people are presented under "Counter Speech". Under the heading "Hate Speech and Cyber-Bullying" we will explain the differences between the two forms.
The klicksafe subject area "Hate Speech" is based on the brochure "Hate Speech - Hate on the Net - Information for Professionals and Parents" from the State Agency for Media in North Rhine-Westphalia and the Working Group on Child and Youth Protection in North Rhine-Westphalia (AJS) in cooperation with klicksafe.
Hate speech is not just a net phenomenon
Hate on the Internet does not exist separately from analogue life, but takes up real power and discrimination structures from which it feeds. In addition, a kind of disinhibition effect can be observed on the Internet. Opinions that are often only represented openly by a minority in real life can be published with just a few clicks and find a large stage on the Internet. It is not uncommon for right-wing extremist groups and people who use the Internet for their propaganda to stand behind this. The lack of a direct counterpart, the ability to remain anonymous, and the knowledge that you will hardly be held accountable further contribute to disinhibition. This is not only anonymous, but also often quite openly with real names.
Hate speech doesn't hit everyone alike
Hate speech is different from other forms of digital violence. While cyber bullying, so-called shitstorms or a brutal communication culture on the Internet can in principle affect everyone to the same extent, hate speech is primarily directed against people because they are assigned to a certain group. They experience a devaluation based on their skin color, their (supposed) origin, their religion, their gender, their sexual orientation or their body. In this respect, hate speech is closely linked to the concept of group-related misanthropy. However, it can also affect those who are not assigned to one of the groups mentioned, but who stand up online and offline for their rights and against misanthropy.
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