IITRAM is good for other government students

should the building bring about a re-education and reorientation: the bourgeois

Transcript

1 owa Huta map p.177 GM Text Relicts of Socialism Tour 13 The working class suburb of Nowa Huta was in official parlance a gift from the Russian people to Poland, but actually a punishment for bourgeois Krakow. Similar contradictions run through the entire history of Nowa Huta to this day. Plac Centralny, heart of the socialist satellite town, p. 178 Zdzisław Beksiński Gallery, fascinating paintings, p. 179 Museum of the People's Republic of Poland, History & Bunker, p. 180 The Lord's Ark, simple church with a proud history, p. 181 Museum of the Polish Aviation, Unique Collection, p. 184 Planned City in East Krakow Nowa Huta Work on the new Nowa Huta district began in the summer As in other countries in Eastern Central Europe, socialism in Krakow was preceded by a changeful period. In the first post-war years there was repeated resistance to the Russian occupation, both on the streets and in elections. In this context Nowa Huta (Eng. New Hut) was not only intended as a purely industrial town that was supposed to satisfy the thirst for steel of forced industrialization. Rather, the building should bring about a re-education and reorientation: the bourgeois and intellectual residents of Cracow should be preceded by proletarian workers. So much for the idea. Shortly after its construction in 1950, the steelworks named after Lenin took on gigantic proportions, and its footprint is still as large as that of the entire urban area of ​​Krakow. In 1977, a record year, workers produced almost seven million tons of steel here. Although the hut, renamed in 1990 after the engineer and inventor Tadeusz Sendzimir, with its futuristic and artificial buildings full of intertwined pipes and track systems would be worth a visit, this is unfortunately no longer possible. But the main entrance is already imposing and illustrates the dimensions of the factory buildings around the administrative center, popularly known as the Doge's Palace or Vatican. There were plans to develop Nowa Huta before the war began. The architectural concepts of the American New Deal formed the basis for the actual implementation. As we know it from US metropolises, this style is characterized by a high degree of symmetry and the independence of the apartment blocks. See we Tour Now Huta

2 Sights Prªdnik Biaøy Bronowice Krowodrza Blonia Las Wolski copyc Kosciuszki Prªdnik Czerwony RakowickiCemetery old town Kazimierz Wawel Podgórze D bniki ØagiewnikiBorek Faøecki Nowa Huta Czy yenny heating power plant EDF Podgórze Duchackie did not want to give up the practice of their religion in Poland. Thus, in the first few years, according to prevailing doctrine, no churches had been built. The residents demanded this more and more vehemently and after sometimes bloody disputes and long years prevailed. A first church was approved as early as 1956. However, this decision was soon reversed, which led to serious unrest until 1977. Socialist Realism in its purest form Nowa Huta Karte p. 177 The intention was also to help the settled workers to lead a satisfied life in a happy neighborhood. Broad streets, well-equipped apartments and the equipping of the apartment blocks with shops should contribute to this. Until the mid-1950s, the stylistic implementation was characterized by socialist realism, which makes impressive use of baroque forms. Unlike in Russia, Krakow also took up the renaissance that is common in the old town. This can be seen particularly clearly around Plac Centralny. Later houses in the rapidly growing town were built as prefabricated buildings due to lack of time. As mentioned, the intentions associated with the model location were in stark contrast to the actual development of Nowa Huta. With the thesis that religion is opium for the people, Karl Marx shaped the anti-religious attitude of the socialist elite. Ironically, however, there were 175 in Nowa

3 176 Tour 13: Nowa Huta Krakow in the box Goodbye Lenin! The personality cult in the Eastern Bloc did not stop at Nowa Huta either. A Lenin monument was unveiled in 1973 in the avenue of roses (aleja Róż), which was intended as a boulevard and boulevard. Did he foresee the riots of the late 1970s? In any case, its seven-ton tribute to the famous Russian head of state was so resilient that it withstood an explosion six years after it was built. A stranger's bomb alone could damage Lenin's Achilles heel. For example, the stroll at weddings. Here it is worthwhile to keep the monumental architecture at a distance. Visits to the memorial were therefore still possible after the attack. But it would take some time before Lenin officially became an undesirable person. In the years of change, the monument was initially moved to the southern periphery before the Swedish millionaire Big Bengt Erlandsson bought it in 1992 for Swedish kronor. The eccentric collector had Lenin exhibited in an amusement park south of Stockholm, the High Chaparral, where he can still be seen today with a cigarette in his mouth and a ring on his earlobe. One year before the beginning of his pontificate, John Paul II once again set an example with the support of the Catholic community in his episcopal city. But the working conditions themselves also led to protests. Next to Gdansk, where Lech Wałęsa led the Solidarność movement in the shipyard, Nowa Huta was one of the most important centers of resistance. Together with the Catholic Church, the union fought for a better Poland for many years. In the early 1980s in particular, there were riots, one of the reasons for the government under General Jaruzelski to declare a state of war. But what remains of this eventful time? Remnants of old heavy industry, once modern apartments and the prejudice of Krakow's ugly appendage. A visit is not only interesting if you are interested in history or architecture. The hut, now owned by the Indian steel magnate Mittal, is still working, alternative artists can find cheap studios and impressive impressions in Nowa Huta, hip-hop artists celebrate a ghetto atmosphere. Since the 60th anniversary of the founding in 2009, ambitious development plans have been worked out, an application for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List has been applied for and it is quite certain. But even today tourists can get to know this living legend, which, with all the abundance of historical buildings and classic beauty that Krakow otherwise offers, exudes a downright purist flair. Tour information The starting point of this walk is at Plac Centralny. End: Plac Targowy, ul. Bieńczycka Duration: pure walking time approx. 1¼2¼ hours, because you are almost overwhelmed by the dimensions. To do this, cross the street in the direction of the Solidarność monument (Pomnik Solidar-

4 G. 5 Tour 8 - Wesoøa and Warszawskie see p. 119 Al. Pokrzywki Church "The Lord's Ark" J. Iwanowa Ks. Bpa P. Tomickie go ObroŽców W. AndersaW. Andersa BieŽczyckaKocmyrzowska sweet and drink (p. 184/185) 5 Stylowa 7 Bar mleczny 9 Max Grill afés (p. 185) 1 C-2 Poøudnie Café 3 Filmowa Café 6 Good Lood 11 øancafe Al. Jana Pawøa II Fatimska Plac Targowy Tank "Czoøg" Krzyša Teatr Ludowy Lud¹mierska Artystów Galeria Zdzisøawa BeksiŽskiego Matejko - Philip Morris Manor - Cigarette Factory Military Museum Bu l warowa I. Moœcickiego al. Przyjašni M. Boruty- Spiechowicza al. Róš S. eromskiego al. Róš Muzeum Dzieje Nowej Huty E. Rydza- ¾migøego J. Gajocha Sights 177 A. Struga Church of Our Lady of Czestochowa Museum of the تki Nowohuckie People's Republic of Poland eight-life (p. 185) Buy 2 Teatr Øa¹nia Nowa and Kombinator (p. 185) 4 Huta Piwa 8 Cepelix 12 Szpeje onstiges (p. 185) 10 Nowohuckie Centrum Kultury Daniøowskiego Wojciechowskiego S. Mierzwy Zuchów Sieroszewskiego M. i S. Cerchów Bulwarowa Al. Solidarnoœci W. Orkana No. 14 Szajnowicza- Al. Jana Pawøa II Koœcióø œw. Bartøomieja 250 m D 4 ø u b n 2 i a Bulwarowa Bulwarowa M. WaŽkowicza Klasztorna Bogdan- Wøosik memorial 7 8 Plac Centralny Solidarnoœç memorial 9 10 Krzesøawice Church of St. John the Baptist Mogiøa Opactwo Cystersów Tour 13: Nowa Huta ności). From here you also have an unobstructed view of the extensive meadows on the southern border of Nowa Huta, where a park with a lake was planned in the 1950s. Today it is a reserve for 370 species of plants and almost 70 species of birds, most of which are critically endangered. Looking in the opposite direction today shows more resignation, paired with a restrained mood of optimism. Most of the once so proud buildings of Socialist Realism are today marked by a desolate gray. If you are familiar with the history, you almost think you can see the street fights of the 80s. The paintings in the Zdzisław Beksiński Gallery (Galeria Zdzisława Beksińskiego), which is housed in the Nowa Huta NCK cultural center, are also desolate, terrifying and disturbing. Continue on the wide aleja Jana Pawła II. 300 m from Plac Centralny you will find the Museum of the People's Republic of Poland (Muzeum PRL-u) on the right. After another 600 m leave the noisy street to turn left into ulica Daniłowskiego. At the end of the street opposite the post office is the oldest house with number 14 (Blok przy Ulicy Mierzwy 14). The attempt was made here to reconcile quick construction time, price and happiness in the communist spirit. Today it is difficult to imagine that the latter intention was not meant in a sarcastic way. A few steps back is the Osiedle Hutnicze, where prefabricated concrete components were used for the first time in Poland. This beginning of the sin of prefabricated buildings was at the same time the end of a serious architectural style; from this point onwards, socialist realism was limited to profitability. For the same Nowa Huta map p. 177

5 178 Tour 13: Nowa Huta time, production at the steelworks almost tripled. For this enormous achievement, new workers had to be settled, which made the challenge of rapid housing construction even more urgent. Via Mierzwy ulica you come to aleja Solidarności, where you turn right. The Church of Our Lady of Czestochowa (Kościół Matki Boskiej Częstochowskiej) is a contemporary glass building on the corner of Struga Street. Then walk back to Plac Nowy on aleja Solidarności and take the next right into aleja Róż, which once embodied the boulevard. The long square and the park lead to the Muzeum Dzieje Nowej Huty (Nowa Huta History Museum), which opened in 2005. Then go a little further and then turn left on ulica Żeromskiego to ulica Obrońców Krzyża. There were bloody riots on this street corner in 1960 because the originally promised church was not built after all. The small church was built to commemorate this uprising in 2001. The Teatr Ludowy (Volkstheater) is reminiscent of a building from a Wim Wenders film. To the right of it in the Osiedle Górali, one surprisingly comes across the Czołg, a Russian tank with its own story. Back on Obrońców Krzyża Street, follow the path to the right. On the other side of the intersection is a typical Polish market with very low prices. Maybe you can also find old Lenin pictures or one or the other Russian uniform. If you go straight ahead you can see the monument to Bogdan Włosik (Pomnik Bogdana Włosika), which is dedicated to the victims of the state of war in the 1980s; But it is named after a 20-year-old who was shot during this time. The highlight of the tour is the Lord's Ark (Kościół Arka Pana), undoubtedly one of the most impressive modern churches in Europe. To get back to the center of Kraków, take the tram from ulica Bieńczycka. Sights Plac Centralny Hauptplatz The symmetry of the square, from which five large avenues lead off, is remarkable. The axis forms the avenue of roses (aleja Róż), which at the beginning of the work was planned full of optimism as a boulevard. Even the name-giving roses are said to have been planted once. In this place, socialist realism was realized in its more flattering form. The architects Janusz and Marta Ingarden and Bolesław Skrzybalski, among others, are responsible for the palaces. According to the official doctrine, they should not only be architects of the houses, but at the same time one hardly believes them today as architects of the souls of the people who live here. As if in anticipation of an attack from the west, the blocks of flats were built as fortresses, with many passageways and defenses. They were actually useful, but for the tireless fighters against socialism who hid here from the state security service. Each Osiedle (apartment block, actually settlement) should also be self-sufficient. For this reason, the necessary shops, schools, hairdressers, kindergartens and everything necessary for life were found in each. This independence not only served the supply, but also the rigid control system, which in the end could not prevent uprisings. Tram 4, 10, 22, 62, get off at Plac Centralny.

6 Sights 179 Pomnik Solidarności Solidarność Monument Dedicated to the many resistance members of the union who revolted against the system. The wrong policies of the socialists with their actual target group become clear through mere numbers alone: ​​The workers in Nowa Huta were organized in Solidarność, often up to 100% of the workers went on strike, and that with success. When the colleagues in Danzig had no chance to effectively continue their protest, it was from here, supported by Karol Wojtyła, that the decisive impetus came that led to the round table in 1989, the beginning of the end of socialism up to German reunification and the restructuring of Europe. Al. Jana Pawła II. Tram 4, 10, 22, 62, Plac Centralny stop. Galeria Zdzisława Beksińskiego Zdzisław Beksiński Gallery The exhibition is not for the faint of heart or for children. Seldom are paintings as disturbing as those of the artist Zdzisław Beksiński, who was often referred to as a dystopian surrealist. What that means? Dark and mystical atmospheres, sometimes repulsive colors, sadistic and masochistic allusions, curved bodies full of pain, ubiquitous death and suffering. Those who like to watch horror films can get their extra portion of goose bumps here. However, if you look at the paintings for a long time, you can discover a lot more, namely the works of an honest and uncompromising artist. No wonder, then, that Beksiński resisted all commercial and political offers. Unfortunately no photos are allowed. Daily clock. Admission 2.50, reduced 2. Al. Jana Pawła II 232,, krakow.pl. Tram 4, 10, 22, 62, get off at Plac Centralny. In the Zdzisław Beksiński Gallery Nowa Huta map p. 177

7 180 Tour 13: Nowa Huta Bunkers in the Museum of the People's Republic of Poland Muzeum PRL-u Museum of the People's Republic of Poland In the former Światowid cinema, history and life in socialist Poland are documented, initially in temporary exhibitions. From 2019 the branch of the Historical Museum of the City of Krakow will provide information about life, totalitarianism and the history of Polish socialism in a permanent exhibition. The opening of the bunkers, which can be accessed with the normal ticket, caused a lot of stir in 2016. This is where the historical threat posed by a nuclear first strike in the Cold War can be felt. Closed Tuesdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Nov. April. Entry 2, Tue free. Os. Centrum E 1,, Tram 4, 10, 22, 62, stop Plac Centralny. Blok przy ulicy Mierzwy 14 House on ulica Mierzwy 14 The first of many blocks of flats built in the 1950s and 1960s. You can see that at the beginning you made even more effort to achieve your lofty goals. The houses built later, on the other hand, were characterized by the requirements of the shortest possible construction time and cheap construction. The memorial plaque reminds: This is where the great work called Nowa Huta began, the symbol of the socialist change in the Polish People's Republic from 1949 to No success story, as it turned out later. Ul. Mierzwy 14, os. Wandy. Tram 10, 16, Klasztorna stop. Kościół Matki Boskiej Częstochowskiej Church of Our Lady of Czestochowa The church was built between 1988 and 1994 in a place that originally had a non-Christian purpose: military parades were held here. The large glass roof over the nave is particularly impressive. During the war, the supporters of Solidarność met secretly here. The mosaic walls and the Christian charms made from donated amber chains are worth seeing.

8 Worth seeing 181 symbols. This clearly shows that true faith does not need any pomp.And if you know the history and the desire of the residents of Nowa Huta for a church, this simplicity seems much more impressive than many golden altars and marble crypts in the center of Krakow. Daily clock. Fair MoSa 6.30 a.m., 8 a.m., 6 p.m., Fri and Nov. March daily 3 p.m., Sun 6.30 a.m., 8 a.m., 9.30 a.m., 11 a.m., 12.30 p.m., 5 p.m., 7 p.m. Ul. Struga, os. Szklane Domy 7, cystersi.pl. Tram 4, 22, Struga stop. Muzeum Dzieje Nowej Huty Nowa-Huta History Museum The small museum has only one room for the permanent exhibition, in which historical relics from the district can be seen, including posters, letters and photos. Much more interesting are the occasional changing exhibitions and the interactive presentation on the computer, where you can find much more information and more informative photos. AprilOct. TueSun, Nov. March Tue and ThuSa 916, Wed 1017h, every 2nd Sun in the month 916h, Mon closed. Admission 1.50, reduced 1, Wed free. Os. Słoneczne 16,, Tram 4, 22, Struga stop. Teatr Ludowy Volkstheater The theater is known all over Poland for its outstanding productions. The building erected in 1955 by Jan Dąbrowski and Janusz Ingarden is of particular interest to non-Polish visitors. The social-realistic style, the turrets reminiscent of a prison and the neon writing make it seem like a strange holdover from another time. Ticket office MoSa 12-18 p.m., Sunday 2 hours before the performance. Os. Teatralne 34,, www. ludowy.pl. Tram 1, 5, Teatr Ludowy stop. Czołg Panzer The Russian tank is a gift from the USSR to the Museum of Armed Resistance, in front of which it stands. In the last weeks of the war in 1945 he was deployed in Berlin against the German troops. It is kept in good condition and is popular with children and tourists as a play device and photo motif. Os. Górali 23. Tram 1, 5, Teatr Ludowy stop. Pomnik Bogdana Włosika Monument to Bogdan Włosik Bogdan Włosik was only 20 years old and, like so many of his contemporaries, worked in the steel mill. He became known as one of the victims of the state security service. His funeral in 1982 turned into the largest demonstration during the state of war with participants. Włosik's grave was then covered by a sea of ​​flowers two and a half meters high. The monument is dedicated to all victims of the resistance, because Bogdan Włosik was not the only young man who lost his life early to a bullet. Ul. Obrońców Krzyża. Tram 1, 5, Teatr Ludowy stop. Kościół Arka Pana Church of the Lord's Ark The story of this church would be suitable for a film adaptation. For a long time there was no church in Nowa Huta, and the socialist plans did not include any. At the insistence of the residents, the building was approved in 1956, but this was soon withdrawn. The official justification referred to ammunition finds from the Second World War at this point. The danger posed by the allegedly 5,000 mines and projectiles Nowa Huta map p. 177

9 182 Tour 13: Nowa Huta Outside and in the Church of the Lord's Ark and the prohibition did not prevent the devout Catholics from laying stone on stone themselves from 1967 on. Over time, there were an incredible two million small stones that made up the facade. The mortar was not mixed by machines either, only by hand. The future Pope John Paul II held regular open-air masses on the site during his time as Archbishop of Krakow, and was then able to consecrate the church. Its shape alone was more than a reference to Old Testament history, it was a political statement. The shape of an ark showed people that like Noah they shouldn't lose hope, no matter how hopeless the situation. This strong belief manifested itself in the church, whose story was told in the global Catholic community and made the house of God one of the most famous in Europe. And gifts came from all over the world: Pope Paul VI. sent a stone from Peter's grave to lay the foundation stone, seven bells came from the Netherlands, and the Vienna Cardinal König donated chrome-plated sheet metal for the mast in the shape of a cross. Not to forget the crew of Apollo 11: They brought a rutile crystal from the moon, which is now in the tabernacle. The rest of the equipment is also unusual. The statue of the Madonna was made from bomb fragments and mine remains that had been operated on from the wounds of Polish soldiers during World War II. Bronisław Chromy's Jesus seems to want to fly off the nails and thus demonstrates the spirit of optimism against the nails of communism. Daily 618 p.m. Trade fair MoSa 6, 6.30 a.m., 7.30 a.m., 8.11.18 p.m., Sun 6.30 a.m., 9.30 a.m., 11.12.30 p.m., 4.00 p.m., 5.30 p.m., 7 p.m. Ul. Obrońców Krzyża 1, tram 1, 5, Teatr Ludowy stop. Abste na Czyż