What are dextrostat side effects


DexamphetamineDrug groupsAmphetamineDexamphetamine is a centrally stimulating and sympathomimetic active ingredient from the group of amphetamines, which is used for the treatment of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is the D-enantiomer of amphetamine. The effects are based on an amplification of the effects of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. Dexamphetamine can cause numerous side effects, primarily affecting the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and digestive tract. Amphetamine can be abused as an intoxicant and smart drug and can make you addicted.

synonymous: dexamphetaminum, dexamfetamine, dexamfetaminum, dexamfetamini sulfas, dexamphetamine sulfate, dexamfetamine hemisulfate, dextroamphetamine, Dexedrine®

Products

Dexamphetamine was again approved in Switzerland in 2020 in the form of tablets (Attentin®). The Dexamin® tablets (5 mg, Streuli) are no longer available. The prodrug Lisdexamphetamine (Elvanse®) is also available. Dexamphetamine is one of the narcotic drugs.

Structure and properties

Dexamphetamine sulfate is usually found in drugs as dexamphetamine sulfate (C.18H28N2O4S, Mr = 368.5) is a white, crystalline powder that is easily soluble in water. It is the D- resp. S.-Enantiomer of the racemate amphetamine. Dexamphetamine is structurally related to the catecholamines and belongs to the phenylethylamines.

Effects

Dextroamphetamine (ATC N06BA02) indirectly has sympathomimetic, centrally stimulating and appetite-suppressing properties. It increases blood pressure, stimulates breathing, and dilates the bronchi. The effects are based on an amplification of the effects of dopamine and norepinephrine in the central nervous system. Dextroamphetamine increases the release and reduces the reuptake of neurotransmitters. The half-life is about 10 hours.

Mechanism of action of the sympathomimetics, click to enlarge. Illustration © PharmaWiki

application areas
  • Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

No approval in Switzerland:

dosage

According to the specialist information. The treatment is started gradually and the dose is adjusted individually. The tablets are taken with or immediately after a meal.

abuse

Dexamphetamine is abused as a stimulating and euphoric intoxicant, as a smart drug and doping agent. Due to the health risks, abuse is strongly discouraged. Deaths have been reported.

Contraindications
  • Hypersensitivity
  • glaucoma
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Treatment with MAO inhibitors
  • Hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis
  • Anxiety and agitation
  • Severe depression, anorexia nervosa, anorectic disorders, suicidal tendencies, psychotic symptoms, severe mood disorders, mania, schizophrenia, psychopathic or borderline personality disorders
  • Tourette's syndrome or similar dystonias
  • Severe and Episodic (Type I) Bipolar Affective Disorders
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Cerebrovascular diseases
  • Porphyria
  • Drug or alcohol addiction
  • pregnancy and breast feeding period

The complete precautionary measures can be found in the medicinal product information sheet.

Interactions

Dexamphetamine has a high potential for drug interactions, for example with MAO inhibitors (contraindicated), antidepressants, sympathomimetics and neuroleptics.

unwanted effects

The most common possible adverse effects include:

  • Cardiovascular system: cardiac arrhythmias, palpable heartbeats, rapid pulse, high blood pressure
  • Gastrointestinal tract: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, lack of appetite, reduced weight and height gain with prolonged use in children
  • Central nervous system: dizziness, movement disorders, headache, hyperactivity, insomnia, nervousness, abnormal behavior, aggressiveness, agitation and anxiety, depression, irritability
  • Musculoskeletal system: joint pain

Dexamphetamine can lead to tolerance and psychological and physical dependence. Withdrawal too quickly leads to withdrawal symptoms.

see also

Amphetamine, lisdexamphetamine, ADHD

literature
  • Pharmaceutical product information (CH, USA, D)
  • Codex Galenica (2000/01)
  • Paterson R., Douglas C., Hallmayer J., Hagan M., Krupenia Z. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dexamphetamine in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 1999, 33 (4), 494-502 Pubmed
  • Pharmacopoea Helvetica
  • Poulton A.S., Hibbert E.J., Champion B.L., Cook T.L., Alais D., Coulshed D.S. Piloting a new approach to the treatment of obesity using dexamphetamine. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2015, 6, 14 Pubmed
  • Schrantee A. et al. Dopaminergic system dysfunction in recreational dexamphetamine users. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2015, 40 (5), 1172-80 Pubmed
  • Simons R., Martens M., Ramaekers J., Krul A., Klöpping-Ketelaars I., Skopp G. Effects of dexamphetamine with and without alcohol on simulated driving. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 2012, 222 (3), 391-9 Pubmed
author

Conflicts of Interest: None / Independent. The author has no relationships with the manufacturers and is not involved in the sale of the products mentioned.

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This article was last changed on 3/14/2021.
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