What is the provincial flag of Karnataka

Etymologie, Etimología, Etymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
@_ World, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World
Sign, Signo, Signe, Segno, Sign

@

@
@ -Sign
@-Character
Email sign
Morse alphabet
The History of the @ Sign (W3)

There are several hypotheses about the origin of the "@". One for our Latin-based linguistic area is that the sign originated in the Middle Ages as a handwritten fusion (ligature) of the letters "a" and "d" of the Latin word "ad" (Eng. "Bei", "zu").

The "@" was only really implanted in our current cultural assets with IT / TK. The "@" is a fundamental part of every e-mail address by separating the individual user name and the domain name.

"@": engl. "at", German "zu", "an", "bei", "Klammeraffe", "Monkey tail", "Monkey swing", symbol for "Rose", French "Arrobas"

The Klammeraffe (@) celebrated its birthday in the 42nd week of 2001: for 30 years it has been routing electronic mail through the world's servers.

The @ stands in the Internet address as a separation between the name of the recipient and the name of the domain where the recipient has an email account: [email protected]

In No./Dec. In 1971, Raymond Tomlinson sent the first email from one computer to another via the Arpanet, the forerunner of the Internet. To separate the name of the recipient from the name of the computer, he chose the @ sign and combined the address as "recipient @ host".

However, the "@" symbol can already be found in a letter from the Florentine merchant Francesco Lapi dated May 4, 1536 from Seville to Rome. In his letter he describes the arrival of 3 ships from Latin America and informs that "an amphora of wine (= 1/3 barrel) there is worth 70 to 80 ducats. He abbreviates the" amphora "as" @ "and writes So "a @ wine". Interestingly, one finds this connection - "@" as a symbol of Italian and Spanish merchants for the unit of measurement "amphora" - still in Spanish "Arroba" = German "amphora", Spanish weight and measure of measure (11 5 kg), but also = German "Klammeraffe", "@". And in France you can find French "arrobase" = German "Klammeraffe", "@".

A few centuries earlier - 6/7. Century - "@" can already be found as a shortened form of Latin "ad" used by monks. Merchants used it, for example, to mean "each", for example as "two cases of whiskey @ $ 10" = "two cases of whiskey" at "$ 10" each. From 1885 it is found as a commercial sign with the meaning "for the price of". And it is precisely thanks to this fact that the "@" symbol can be found on American and English typewriters at the end of the 19th century. When the ASCII standard coding (7-bit format) was published in 1963, the "@ sign" was also added to the collection of 95 printable characters. However, in 1971 it is rarely used and it is precisely this circumstance that makes it appear to Raymond Tomlinson as a suitable symbol for his purpose, with the meaning of engl. "at" ("user x at host y" = German "user x on computer y").

In 1973 RFC 469 was published, cementing Raymond Tomlinson's proposal and defining an email address in the form "user @ host". From 1980 the code protocols on which the "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol" ("SMPT") used today are based emerged.

In the German-speaking world, the colloquial terms "monkey tail", "monkey ear", "monkey swing", "spider monkey", "pig's tail" or "elephant ear" have become established, even if most PC users call it "at" (phonetically "ät") say. The "@" also evidently encourages the imagination of users internationally, as these excerpts from international examples from Wikipedia show:
  • Dutch "apenstaartje" = German "monkey tail"
  • French "arobase", "arrobase", "a commercial"
  • Hebrew "Strudel", after the shape of the pastry
  • Italian "chiocciola" = German "snail"
  • iceland. "fílseyra" = German "elephant ear"
  • Danish "snabel-a" = German "trunk-A"
  • Swedish "snabel-a" = German "trunk-A"
  • Polish "handlowe 'po'", or also Polish "atka", more often Polish "ma? pa" = German "monkey" or Polish "ma? pka" = German "little monkey"
  • Russian "sobaka" = German "dog" or dim. Russian "soba? ka" = German "little dog"
  • Czech. "Zaviná?" = German "Rollmops"
  • slovak. "Zaviná?" = German "Rollmops"
  • Hungarian. "kukac" = German "worm", also Hungarian. "bájgli" = German "strudel"
  • bosn. "ludo A" = German "crazy A"
  • Greek "papaki" = German "duckling"
...


The "@" comes in the Morse alphabet

As of May 2004, the e-mail symbol "@" will also be available in Morse alphabet. "As far as we know, it is the first change in the alphabet in at least 60 years," said a spokesman for the responsible International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in the New York Times.

Since February 2004, the "@" character also has a Morse code ". - .-." = "ac". Unofficially, however, the character sequence "..--" had already been established for the word "at", which will probably also be favored in the future because of the shorter character sequence.

The "@" character is also used as a "rose symbol" in emoticons. In Turkey it is called "rose".

(E1) (L1) http://www.alteich.com/tidbits/t051401.htm


(E1) (L1) http://art-bin.com/art/asignoftimes.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.genius-computer.de/lexikon/%40/%40.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://www.guardian.co.uk/notesandqueries/query/0,5753,-1773,00.html

Does the symbol @ have a name? If not, any suggestions?
  • IN ISRAEL the @ symbol is often referred to as "strudel". Computer books often refer to "@" as the "at sign".
  • IN DUTCH it is called "apestaart", which means "monkey's tail". Because it looks like a monkey with his tail curled over him. - Martin Southwold
  • SURELY it's an "ampersat"? - Nyk Tarr, Rochdale, Lancs
  • IN ENGLISH, ... "commercial at" ... In Swedish ... "snabel-a", ("a" with an elephant's trunk), or "kanelbulle", the Swedish equivalent of the Chelsea bun. In German ... "Klammerraffe", (a clinging monkey) - presumably hanging from a tree by one arm. - Dr Gunnel Clark, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos
  • IN GREEK ... "little duck" ... Russian "a dog". Since animals seem to predominate, could I suggest the British term should be a mad cow rampant? - Richard Macrory, Tackley, Oxford
  • IT IS called an "atmark". Its use in internet addresses has led to the production of a computer intended for accessing the World Wide Web called the Atmark computer. - Kit Barritt
  • THE OFFICIAL name is the "at" sign, from the same school of typographer's gobbledegook which gave us "octothorpe" (the #). This naming predates the use of @ by electronic mail systems the world over, and sadly produces many ambiguities when mail addresses are dictated over the phone. If pilots and the police can have special terminologies for clear communication, then I would like to propose an easy, relevant and linguistically distinguishable subtitute for the confusing "at" naming. The name for "@" should be "nerd". This makes my email address, read over the phone, into "cassidys nerd cix dot compulink dot co dot uck". - Steve Cassidy (normally in London EC2 but presently bored in Stuttgart)
  • IN BRAZIL the symbol is known as "arroba", which is also an old measure of 15 kilos. - Michael Wrigley, Campinas, Brazil
  • IN ITALIAN the symbol is known as a "chiocciola" (snail). - Geoffrey Allen, Pavia, Italy
  • IN FINLAND it's known as a "mouse's tail". - Stephen Ryan, Dublin
  • I heard someone on Radio 4 refer to it as an "e-snail" which I thought was nice. - Chris Winchester, London
  • In Hungary, the @ symbol is called "kukatsz", which means little worm. - Chris Dalton, Budapest, Hungary
  • The Norwegian call the @ "kroellalfa", meaning curled a. - S William Ingebrigtsen, Bergen, Norway
  • In Italian we call it "chiocciolina", which means "small snail". "Chiocciola", as Geoffrey from Pavia suggests above, is much less used. - Luca De Piano, Milan, Italy
  • I've always understood that "@" originally meant "account" and was regularly used in banking. I seem to remember that it appeared on checks at one time. It seems a more likely explanation than "at". After all, why would anyone want to abbreviate a two letter word? - Keith Mills, Alne, York UK
  • "@" abbreviates more than just two letters. I remember it on signs in shop windows when I was a child in the early 60s e.g. Cabbages @ 3d, and on similarly on bills. It saves you writing "at" and "each". - Anne Lane, Greenwich
  • In Czech, it is called "zavinac" which means a rolled pickled herring. - Mojmir Pribina, Velka, Moravia
  • I have heard it called "petit escargot" ("little snail") in France. - Katherine Ellis, London
  • I've always known it to be called the "short at". - Rudiger Scheister, Paris
  • In Spain, we call it "arroba", which is also a measurement of weight, but I can't see the conection. (1 arroba = 15 kilos) - Maria, Toledo, Spain
  • We Catalans call the symbol "arrova" from "rova" meaning 1/4 (25%), originally a weight measure, as in Spanish. Looking at most email addresses (my own, for instance, it's certainly 1 out of 4 items!) Relationship with weight? Not sure ... but I personally find it heavy going to find the right key to type it. - Joan Diez, Amposta, Catalonia
  • How about calling it "letter a with a curly tail"? Do I win a fiver? - Charlie Peterson, York
  • Most people from Portuguese and Spanish-speaking countries answered that the name given to "@" is "arroba" (and similars, like "arova"), the same name of an old weight measure unit. However, many people seem to ignore the history of this incidental coincidence: when the first typewriters started to be exported abroad US and UK, the key to "@" had to be given a name. Since the "@" was no known or used for anything on those countries, and since the current weight measure unit, the "arroba" (approximately 14 kilos) had by the time no symbol related to it, the Typewriter manufacturers and importers decided to call it "arroba". Thus, for this simple and arbitrary decision, people from many countries started to call "@" "arroba". - Rodrigo Rey, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • In Finland, apparently, it is called "miukumauku" because it looks like a sleeping cat. - Andrew, Norwich UK
  • In my country we call it the "cha-cha". Historically this dates back to when dancers used to put character "a" on their back when dancing in competitions. To highlight the "a" it was put in a circle. - Jose Luis, London England
  • In POLAND the "@ sign" is called a "monkey" - peter gentle, warsaw poland
  • In Denmark we call it "snabel-a", "snabel" meaning the trunk of an elephant - Stine Pedersen, Skanderborg Denmark
  • Small "a in circle" "@" Please can any one let me know what this sign called? - From, Chicago U.S.A
  • In Jamaica it's known as the "block", the "swirl" depicting the feeling of nausia and dizziness having spent far too much time passing the rizla and herb. Derived from the term "block-up" or in plain English, "stoned". - Josiah Mackintosh, Port Antonio Jamaica
  • It's the "AT symbol" and leave it "@" that! :-) - Kat, California, USA
  • In Russian, the "@ symbol" is often called "sabachka", which means puppy. - Georgeta Solomitskaya-Lester, Cleveland, USA
  • A local game show here said that the official name of the "at-sign" is "amphora" taken from the name of a jar they used in the ancient medterranean to measure volume of things they would trade (where the "@ symbol" was supposedly first used). - Tina, Manila, Philippines
  • In Japan it's called the "atomaaku". - Mike O'Connell, Sapporo, Japan
  • If it wasn't just the "at symbol" I'm sure somebody would have told us by now. My favorite from the foreign versions is the Czech one meaning a "rolled pickled herring". Perhaps we could latch onto that one and call it a "rollmop". - John Kemplen, Leighton Buzzard, England, UK
  • In American computer science, it is universally referred to as the "at sign", or "at" when reading out a sequence of characters or an email address. In Chinese, it's called a "mouse" ("shu"), confusingly enough. - Ethan Bradford, US
  • I think it would be nice to call it a "Titfer". "@" = "TITFER") As any cockney Londoner will tell you, a "Titfer" is an "At" in Cockney Rhyming Slang. Londoners usually drop their aitches and "At" stands for "Hat" i.e. "Hat" = "Titfer Tat"! - Leslie Nicholass, Colchester, England
  • The "~" (which somebody wanted to know the name of) is known as a "tilde". - Rod Fielding, Bury, UK
  • Andrew from Norwich is right: in Finland "@ -sing" is called (colloquially) "miuku-mauku", or, alternatively, "miumau", which actually referres to the sound that a cat makes ("miaow") and "@ "thus symbolizes the figure of a" cat curled up ". Officially it is called "at-merkki" ("at sign"). - Marjut, Helsinki, Finland
  • I call it a "squiggle" because it is! A "swirl", "wiggle" of a pen and "scribble" all in one word. Maybe someone was twirling their pen in circles whilst thinking what to write! - Paul Coleman, Oxford, UK
  • I agree with what said before: "@" means "at £ each" and the fact that we have started using in email addresses does not mean that its name as "commercial at" should be discarded, but for ease and speed of conversation in everyday exchange of email addresses we perhaps should adopt the grammatically correct version of "ampersat" which, from the semantic point of view, means "instead of (at)". - Roberta, London london
  • Growing up while in grammar school; 1960's; my teacher told us it was an abbreviation for "at each" (for) ... such as "[email protected]" or "5 for 1.00". Made sense then and still does today! - Jay, Atlanta USA
  • "@" is an "arobasse" in French, and it is in the dictionary. - alan cowling, Nevez France
  • First description of symbol "@" is dated century IV, detailing how many "arroba" (weight measurement about 25 pounds) of a freight by seaway from Seville to Rome. - Victor, Alsasua, Spain
  • There's an awful lot of opinion on this subject floating about, but nobody seems to be citing any references. The best I can find anywhere online is at Wikipedia (but it's Wikipedia so take it with a pinch of salt!). According to whoever wrote the article, it's formal name is "commercial at". - Rawlyn, UK
  • Of course the symbol @ has a name ... it is "alison taylor". - Alison Taylor, Moultrie, US
  • In Hungary we call it "kukac" that means in english "worm" :) - Peter Máté, Budapest Hungary
  • It is ASCII Code 64. Common names: "at sign", "strudel", "rare", "each", "vortex", "whorl", "intercal", "whirlpool", "cyclone", "snail", "ape", "cat", "rose", "cabbage", "amphora". It also is used in email addresses. Ray Tomlinson was designing the first email program. It is derived from the Latin preposition "ad" ("at"). It has been traced back to the Italian Renaissance in a Roman merchantile document signed by Francesco Lapi on 1536-05-04. In Dutch it is "apestaartje" ("little tail"), in German "monkey tail" ("ape tail"). The French name is "arobase". In Spain and Portugal it denotes a weight of about 25 pounds called "arroba" and the Italians call it "chiocciola" ("snail"). "commercial at". (n.d.). This information is from The Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing. Retrieved April 25, 2008, from Dictionary.com website - Tamera, Layton USA
  • I think the "@ symbol" means "at the rate of" hence 3 pencils @ of 10 cents would be 30 cents. Yes, @ means "at the rate of". - Jim York, West Monroe, La. United States
  • The "@ symbol" is correctly referred to as an "asperand". My nemonic is: "ASP erand". - Stuart Lawrence, Oxford UK
  • In Chinese, we call it a "little mouse". - Kat Fan, Austin, Texas
  • Never mind what foreigners call it, to we Brits it's simply "at", although its use for any other purpose than to punctuate an e-mail address or to indicate per-unit pricing is the mark of laziness or of a foolish desire to seem 'modern'. - Pete Wigens, Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK
  • Just spoke to someone on the phone in Bosnia. They called it "a crazy". - Kimberly Rentfro, London
  • It's an "at mark", which is also used in T-SQL Programming to denote and define parameters and widecard programming. :) - Steve Stephan, Jacksonville, FL, United States of America
  • I wrote a book about the history of the "@ sign" (in Dutch). Let me make some improvements. (Source ": from the Dictionary.com). It is derived from the Latin preposition" ad ". It is not, it has nothing to do with" ad ". It has been traced back to the Italian Renaissance in a Roman merchantile document signed by Francesco Lapi. But without any real connection, that is to say that there's no prove that the "at sign" originate from the Italian use. - Hans van Keken, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • In Bulgarian it's called "kliomba", and also "monkey A" ... the formal usage is "at". - Alexander Mateev, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • In Soviet Russia, "@ symbol" names "YOU"! - Vladimir Oraschuck, Moscow, Russia
  • In a far province somewhere in the Philippines, it is a symbol of sexual desire from their ancestors. they believe that when they see the "@" sign, they need to have sex at once in front of people. It's a sign of great respect for them. One time when a "katutubo" (which means native) came in Manila, (a city in the Philippines, he saw a very big billboard with the "@" sign, and what the native did is he grabbed a lady crossing the street and took his clothes off and ruthlessly had sex with the lady. The native was shocked that the people didn't appreciate what he had done and instead, knocked him down and locked him behind bars. - Can Tooten Taio, Northwestern Scrida, Vietnam
  • In Nahuatl it is referred to as the: "O otztli". In other words, the capital letter "O pregnant". It is possibly due to the visually apparent little "o" inside the big "O". - Waxaklahun, San Jose, California, US
  • Well in Greece we refer to it by the name "papaki" which means "little duck" although "snail", "vortex", "worm" are better matches for the symbol in my opinion ... and oh yeah .. it means * AT * and st * AREA * = D - Chris Vrizas, Athens, Greece
  • I hate how people are using @ before people's names when addressing them on the internet, because you talk "to" someone, not "at" them! - Mark, VIRGINIA BEACH USA
  • In Romania it's called "aron" but it doesn't mean something particulary ^ _ ^ - Lena Davis, Vaslui, Romania
  • In Greek it's called "papaki" which means "little duck". Someone on my blog suggested recently "alfaki". I like this word very much, I think it's cute :) It means "little alpha". - Dora, Cyprus
  • It is auction sign which used for rate and email addressing it is separator between user and provider name in email address - raj, Gwalior, India
  • Although I think the Dutch "apestaart" ("monkey's tail") is the best answer, it actually comes from Old English bookkeeping and is short hand for "AT THE COST OF" the letter "a" surrounded by the letter "c". - Christopher, Liverpool, England
  • the symbol "@" literally means "at the rate" - vyoma, mumbai india
  • My grandmother told me that this symbol is actually called and meant "around" before it was used by the meaning of "at each" which describes the shape of the symbol, it's "a", then "round" it. - Ricky Logan, Sydney Australia
  • In Wales we call it the "Llanciffgochgochplatricuaticinibaabaa" for short. It means a "little lambs tail" - mick, dublin
  • An "@" is what you shouldn't be without on Ilkley Moor or you'll get all eaten by worms. - Steve, Bristle Currently in Denmark
  • In US it's usage is archaic, means or meant "at" used in sales notation to speed up a notation that refer to pricing example 3 @ 2 for $ 1. Three items priced at 2 for 1 dollar. - Avery, Blythe US
  • In my country the name for "@" is similar to The Norwegian name "kroellalfa", meaning "curled a". In romanian we say "a rond" which can be translated "round a". - Iulian, Constanta Romania
  • I calls it "Anarchy" - Pulaywit Madingus, Philadelphia USA
  • it's the "at" symbol - Ben, Mandurah Australia
  • Since I was a small child I have called it "antricat" because it ended in "at" as ampersand ended in "and". I was always going to send it to Websters but never did. - Mary Thornton, Vancouver, Washington USA
  • In France, it's called AROBASE http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arobase - stephanie durand, alphinton Australia
  • What can I say? Israel's "strudel" usage is too wonderful. Most people see a lowercase 'a' with most of a circle around it ... my people see a slice of European pastry! - Jane, Columbia SC
  • In Polish it is "malpa" = monkey. Most things you say in Polish are funny, and that is no exception, when you say: "My email is Paul monkey gmail dot com". - Maks, Warsaw Poland
  • In Romania: arond (@) - Silvia,
  • @ Is a contraction symbol of the words: At Cost. - Harold Sperber, Hypoluxo United States
  • In Armenia we call it "Snik" it comes from Russian "Sabachka". Thank you all for your information. - Lily, Yerevan, Armenia
  • In Russia it also calls "sobaka" ("dog") as a "sobachka" (not "puppy" but "little dog"). But all the times I've heard all say "dog". - Artyom Scherbakov, Moscow oblast, Istra district, Dedovsk Russia
  • Some years ago I coined the word "epinota" as a name for the @ sign, from the Greek epi (at) and the Latin nota (sign). Yes, I know that's mixing two root languages, but then we drive around in automobiles and not ipsomobiles. - Immanuel Burton, London, UK
  • I like "epinota". I think this should become a universal name for @ sign. In Armenian it is called "Sh-neek" which means a little dog; just a translation of Russian "Sobachka". - Leann, LA USA



(E?) (L?) Http://www.itu.int/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.lipka.se/kanelbulle.jpg

swed. "kanelbulle"


(E?) (L?) Http://www.moma.org/
The "@" can also be found in the New York "Museum of Modern Art" since 2010 - as a design milestone.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?object_id=134555

@
Ray Tomlinson (American, born 1941)
1971. ITC American Typewriter Medium
151.2010

Related links
  • Works: Ray Tomlinson [1]
  • Department: Architecture and Design [8281]
  • Classification: A&D Graphic Design [3165]
Date: 1971


(E?) (L?) Http://www.moma.org/explore/inside_out/2010/03/22/at-moma

March 22, 2010 | Collection & Exhibitions, Design

@ at MoMA

Posted by Paola Antonelli, Senior Curator, Department of Architecture and Design

Ray Tomlinson. @. 1971. Here displayed in ITC American Typewriter Medium, the closest approximation to the character used by a Model 33 Teletype in the early 1970s

MoMA’s Department of Architecture and Design has acquired the @ symbol into its collection. It is a momentous, elating acquisition that makes us all proud. But what does it mean, both in conceptual and in practical terms?
...
In order to understand why we have chosen to acquire the @ symbol, and how it will exist in our collection, it is necessary to understand where @ comes from, and why it’s become so ubiquitous in our world.

A Little History

The @ symbol used in a 1536 letter from an Italian merchant

Some linguists believe that @ dates back to the sixth or seventh century, a ligature meant to fuse the Latin preposition ad - meaning "at", "to", or "toward" - into a unique pen stroke. The symbol persisted in sixteenth-century Venetian trade, where it was used to mean "amphora", a standard-size terracotta vessel employed by merchants, which had become a unit of measure. Interestingly, the current Spanish word for "@", "arroba", also indicates a unit of measure.

Arroba sign in document from the 1400s denoting a wheat shipment from Castile

The @ symbol was known as the "commercial 'a'" when it appeared on the keyboard of the American Underwood typewriter in 1885, and it was defined as such, for the first time, in the American Dictionary of Printing & Bookmaking in 1894. From this point on the symbol itself was standardized both stylistically and in its application, and it appeared in the original 1963 "ASCII" ("American Standard Code for Information Interchange") list of computer codes. At the time @ was explained as an abbreviation for the word "at" or for the phrase "at the rate of", mainly used in accounting and commercial invoices.

Ray Tomlinson’s @

In 1967, American electrical engineer Ray Tomlinson joined the technology company of "Bolt Beranek and Newman" ("BBN"), where he created the world's first e-mail system a few years later, in 1971, using a Model KSR 33 Teletype device . BBN had a contract from the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense to help in the development of ARPAnet, an early network from which the Internet later emerged. Working with Douglas Engelbart on the whole program, Tomlinson was in particular responsible for the development of the sub-program that can send messages between computers on this network. It was the first system able to send mail between users on different hosts connected to the ARPAnet, while previously mail could be sent only to hosts that used the same computer.

In January 1971, @ was an underused jargon symbol lingering on the keyboard and marred by a very limited register. By October, Tomlinson had rediscovered and appropriated it, imbuing it with new meaning and elevating it to defining symbol of the computer age. He chose the @ for his first e-mail because of its strong locative sense - an individual, identified by a username, is @ this institution / computer / server -, and also because it was already there, on the keyboard, and nobody ever used it.

Is @ design?

The appropriation and reuse of a pre-existing, even ancient symbol - a symbol already available on the keyboard yet vastly underutilized, a ligature meant to resolve a functional issue (excessively long and convoluted programming language) brought on by a revolutionary technological innovation (the Internet) - is by all means an act of design of extraordinary elegance and economy. Without any need to redesign keyboards or discard old ones, Tomlinson gave the @ symbol a completely new function that is nonetheless in keeping with its origins, with its penchant for building relationships between entities and establishing links based on objective and measurable rules - a characteristic echoed by the function @ now embodies in computer programming language. Tomlinson then sent an email about the @ sign and how it should be used in the future. He therefore consciously, and from the very start, established new rules and a new meaning for this symbol.

Why @ Is in the Collection of The Museum of Modern Art
...
What Have We Acquired?
...
A Few More Details About @

The @ symbol is now part of the very fabric of life all over the world. Nowhere is this more vividly demonstrated than in the affectionate names @ has been given by different cultures. Germans, Poles, and South Africans call "@" "monkey’s tail" in each different language. Chinese see a "little mouse", and Italians and the French, a "snail". For the Russians "@" symbolizes a "dog", while the Finnish know "@" as the "miukumauku", meaning the "sign of the meow", and believe that the symbol is inspired by a curled-up sleeping cat. The "@ symbol" has become so significant that people feel they need to make sense of it; hence it has inspired its own folkloric tradition.

The "@ sign" is such an extraordinary mediating symbol that recently in the Spanish language it has begun to express gender neutrality; for example, in the typical expression "Hola l @ s viej @ s amig @ s y l @ s nuev @ s amig @ s!" ("Hello old friends and new friends!") Its potential for such succinct negotiations (whether between man and machine, or between traditional gender classifications and the current spectrum) and its range of application continue to expand. It has truly become a way of expressing society’s changing technological and social relationships, expressing new forms of behavior and interaction in a new world.


(E?) (L?) Http://www.printmag.com/Article/-At-MoMA

MoM @
by Steven Heller
...


(E?) (L?) Http://www.purnas.com/2009/06/30/la-arroba-no-es-de-sevilla-ni-de-italia/

La "arroba" no es de Sevilla (ni de Italia)
Martes, junio 30, 2009 10:08
...


(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/commercial+at


(E?) (L?) Http://www.romerolandia.com/

Pedro Romero Sedeno
Oil-on-linen - & - wire | Site-specific | Ceramics
Modern '@' Collection | The DALA Portfolio | NeoBohemia | Contact Page


(E?) (L?) Http://rosemarygoround.blogspot.com/2010/04/moma-romis.html

08 April 2010
@MOMA & @ Romi's
The other day I was listening to NPR and caught some interesting news. MOMA has "acquired" the @ sign into its design collection. In a nutshell, MOMA has honored the humble @ sign for its history, usage and design. Did you know it's been around for centuries? Neither did I! Read about it here. It's fascinating to read how the @ sign was used before becoming a symbol of the internet age.
...


(E?) (L?) Http://www.thestandard.com/article/0,1902,24139,00.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0000.pdf


(E1) (L1) https://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/2002/HistoryofAtSign.asp


(E?) (L?) Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/At_sign


(E?) (L?) Http://okapicrux.wordpress.com/2010/03/24/moma-at-symbol-acquisition-art-criticism/

The announcement by MOMA NY that it had acquired the “@” symbol for its collection sent more than a few critical thinkers into a tizzy.
...


(E?) (L?) Http://uppercaseq.wordpress.com/2010/03/23/visiting-the-destination/

I learned via the MoMA blog that the Modern Museum made an interesting, if unprecedented acquisition into its collection today. It acquired @, the (at) symbol-not just an @, or an object, but the universal @. Some day I hope understand the legal logistics of that transaction and contract, but today, I am just in awe of the implications this has for collecting museums, and the definition of the museum itself.
...


(E1) (L1) http://www.worldwidewords.org/articles/whereat.htm


(E1) (L1) https://www.yourdictionary.com/cgi-bin/wotdarch.cgi


(E?) (L?) Http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zt27G9HKIlI

Pedro's Modern "@" Collection


(E1) (L1) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/[email protected]
Query in the Google Corpus with 15Mio. scanned books from 1500 to today.

German "@" appears in the literature around the year 1780/1990.
Chip. "@" appears in literature around 1670.
French "@" appears in literature around 1620.
Engl. "@" Appears in literature around the year 1580.

Created: 2012-07

:-) (W3)

The emoticon ":-)" saw the light of day on 04/12/1979. Kevon McKenzie made the suggestion in an (e-mail) discussion group to loosen up the dry discussion contributions with "emotional signs".

Another contender for the title of emoticon inventor is the US researcher Scott E. Fahlmann. This is said to have suggested in an online forum on September 19, 1982, to use the character string ":-)" as an indicator for humor and ":-(" as an indicator for serious contributions.

The emoticons that are common today in e-mails have been around since April 12, 1979. At that time, Kevin McKenzie, a participant in a mail discussion group, suggested that the dry letters should be enriched with symbols that express emotions.

A.

alanwood.net
HTML 4.0 Character Entity References

(E?) (L1) http://www.alanwood.net/demos/ent4_frame.html
index
  • A.
  • a acute | A acute | a circumflex | A circumflex | a grave | A grave | a ring | A ring | a tilde | A tilde | a umlaut | A umlaut | acute accent | acute a | acute A | acute e | acute E | acute i | acute I | acute o | acute O | acute u | acute U | acute y | acute Y | ae diphthong | AE diphthong | alef symbol | almost equal to | alpha, lower case | Alpha, upper case | alternate negation sign | | and (logical) | angle | angle bracket (left) | angle bracket (right) | angle quotation mark (left) | angle quotation mark (right) | angle quotation mark, single (left) | angle quotation mark, single (right) | APL downstile | APL overbar | APL quote | APL upstile | apostrophe | approximately equal to | arrow down | arrow down, double | arrow down with corner leftwards | arrow left | arrow left, double | arrow left and right | arrow left and right, double | arrow right | arrow right, double | arrow up | arrow up, double | asymptotic to
  • B.
  • backward difference | bar, broken vertical | belongs to | beta, lower case | Beta, upper case | black club suit | black diamond suit | black heart suit | black small circle | black spade suit | blackletter I | blackletter R | blind P | bra | broken vertical bar | bullet
  • C.
  • c cedilla | C cedilla | cap | caron s | caron S | carriage return | cedilla | cedilla c | cedilla C | ceiling, left | ceiling, right | cent sign | chi, lower case | Chi, upper case | circle over a | circle over A | circle, small black | circled plus | circled times | circumflex | circumflex a | circumflex A | circumflex e | circumflex E | circumflex i | circumflex I | circumflex o | circumflex O | circumflex u | circumflex U | clubs | comma, Georgian | congruent | conjoctive, kana | conjunction, logical | contained in or equals | contains as member | contains or equals | copyright sign | cubed | cup | currency (general) sign
  • D.
  • dagger | dagger, double | dash, em | dash, en | dash, long | degree sign | del | delta, lower case | Delta, upper case | denial of set membership | diaeresis | diaeresis a | diaeresis A | diaeresis e | diaeresis E | diaeresis i | diaeresis I | diaeresis o | diaeresis O | diaeresis u | diaeresis U | diaeresis y | diaeresis Y | diameter | diamonds | difference, backward | differential, partial | diphthong ae | diphthong AE | diphthong oe | diphthong OE | diphthong sz | direct sum | discretionary hyphen | | divide sign | dot, middle | dot, raised conjunction | dot operator | double arrow down | double arrow left | double arrow left and right | double arrow right | double arrow up | double dagger | double low-9 quotation mark | double prime | double quotation mark, left | double quotation mark, right | down arrow | down arrow, double | down arrow with corner leftwards
  • E.
  • e acute | E acute | e circumflex | E circumflex | e grave | E grave | e umlaut | E umlaut | edh, lower case | Edh, upper case | element of | ellipsis (horizontal) | em dash | em space | empty set | en dash | en space | epsilon, lower case | Epsilon, upper case | equal to or a subset of | equivalence | equivalence, material | equivalence, material | ess-zed | eszet (German) | eta, lower case | Eta, upper case | eth, lower case | Eth, upper case | euro | exclamation mark, inverted | existential quantification | existential quantifier
  • F.
  • f hook | feet | feminine ordinal indicator | figure slash | first transfinite cardinal | floor, left | floor, right | Florin | for all | for any | for each | fraction one-fourth | fraction one-half | fraction one-quarter | fraction slash | fraction three-quarters | function
  • G
  • general currency sign | Georgian comma | gradient of | grave a | grave A | grave e | grave E | grave i | grave I | grave o | grave O | grave u | grave U | greater than | greater than or equal to | Greek middle dot | Guilder | guillemet (droit) | guillemet (gauche) | guillemet français (fermant) | guillemet français (ouvrant) | guillemet français simple (fermant) | guillemet français simple (ouvrant)
  • H
  • hacek s | hacek S | half (fraction) | hearts | hook f | horizontal ellipsis | hyphen, discretionary | hyphen, soft
  • I.
  • i acute | I acute | I blackletter | i circumflex | I circumflex | i grave | I grave | i umlaut | I umlaut | Icelandic eth, lower case | Icelandic Eth, upper case | Icelandic thorn, lower case | Icelandic Thorn, upper case | identical to | if and only if | if and only if | if then | if then | imaginary part | implication, material | implication, material | implied by | implies | implies | in | inches | infinity | integral | integration | intersected with | intersection | inverted comma, double (left) | inverted comma, double (right) | inverted comma, single (left) | inverted comma, single (right) | inverted exclamation mark | inverted question mark | iota, lower case | Iota, upper case | Irish punt | is a member of | is a subset of | is a subset of or equal to | is an element of | is greater than | is greater than or equal to | is in | is less than | is less than or equal to | is not a member of | is not an element of | is not in
  • J
  • joiner (zero width)
  • K
  • kana conjoctive | kappa, lower case | Kappa, upper case | ket
  • L.
  • lambda, lower case | Lambda, upper case | leader, three dot | left and right arrow | left and right arrow, double | left angle bracket | left angle quotation mark | left arrow | left arrow, double | left ceiling | left double quotation mark | left floor | left guillemot | left single angle quotation mark | left single quotation mark | left-to-right mark | less than | less than or equal to | line over | logical and | logical conjunction | logical negation | logical not | logical or | long dash | low-9 quotation mark, double | low-9 quotation mark, single | lozenge
  • M.
  • macron | masculine ordinal indicator | material equivalence | material equivalence | material implication | material implication | member | micro sign | middle dot | minus sign | minutes | modifier letter circumflex accent | mu, lower case | Mu, upper case | multiply sign | multiply sign, circled
  • N
  • n-ary product | n-ary summation | n tilde | N tilde | nabla | negation, logical | negation of equality | neutral double quotation mark | non-breaking space | non-joiner (zero width) | not a member | not a subset of | not an element of | not equal to | not in | not sign | nu, lower case | Nu, upper case | null set
  • O
  • o acute | O acute | o circumflex | O circumflex | o grave | O grave | o slash | O slash | o tilde | O tilde | o umlaut | O umlaut | omega, lower case | Omega, upper case | omicron, lower case | Omicron, upper case | one (superscript) | one-fourth (fraction) | one-half (fraction) | one-quarter (fraction) | or (logical) | ordinal indicator, feminine | ordinal indicator, masculine | orthogonal to | overline
  • P.
  • P, script capital | paragraph sign | part, imaginary | part, real | partial | partial derivative of | partial differential | per mille sign | perpendicular | phi, lower case | Phi, upper case | pi, lower case | Pi, upper case | pi (symbol) | pilcrow | plus, circled | plus or minus sign | pound sterling sign | power set | prime | prime, double | product sign | product (vector) | proper subset | proper superset | proportional to | psi, lower case | Psi, upper case | Punt sign
  • Q
  • quantification, existential | quantification, universal | quantifier, existential | quantifier, universal | quarter (fraction) | question mark, inverted | question mark, turned | quotation mark | quotation mark, angle (left) | quotation mark, angle (left single) | quotation mark, angle (right) | quotation mark, angle (right single) | quotation mark, double (left) | quotation mark, double (right) | quotation mark, low-9 (double) | quotation mark, low-9 (single) | quotation mark, single (left) | quotation mark, single (right)
  • R.
  • R blackletter | radical sign | raised conjunction dot | real part | reflex subset | reflex superset | registered sign | rho, lower case | Rho, upper case | right angle bracket | right angle quotation mark | right arrow | right arrow, double | right ceiling | right double quotation mark | right floor | right guillemot | right single angle quotation mark | right single quotation mark | right-to-left mark | ring a | ring A
  • S.
  • T
  • tau, lower case | Tau, upper case | terminal sigma, lower case | the union of and | there exists | therefore | theta, lower case | Theta, upper case | theta (symbol) | thin space | thorn, lower case | Thorn, upper case | three dot leader | three-quarters (fraction) | three (superscript) | tilde | tilde a | tilde A | tilde n | tilde N | tilde o | tilde O | tilde operator | times | times, circled | trade mark | turned question mark | two (superscript)
  • U
  • u acute | U acute | u circumflex | U circumflex | u grave | U grave | u umlaut | U umlaut | umlaut | umlaut a | umlaut A | umlaut e | umlaut E | umlaut i | umlaut I | umlaut o | umlaut O | umlaut u | umlaut U | umlaut y | umlaut Y | union | universal quantifier | universal quantification | up arrow | up arrow, double | up tack | upsilon, lower case | Upsilon, upper case | upsilon with hook symbol
  • V.
  • | varies with | vector product | vee | vertical bar (broken) | vulgar fraction one-fourth | vulgar fraction one-half | vulgar fraction one-quarter | vulgar fraction three-quarters
  • W.
  • wedge | Weierstrass
  • X
  • xi, lower case | Xi, upper case
  • Y
  • y acute | Y acute | y umlaut | Y umlaut | yen sign | yuan sign
  • Z
  • zero width joiner | zero width non-joiner | zeta, lower case | Zeta, upper case
  • numerals
  • 1/4 (fraction) | 1/2 (fraction) | 3/4 (fraction) | 1 (superscript) | 2 (superscript) | 3 (superscript)


alanwood.net
Unicode Resources

(E?) (L1) http://www.alanwood.net/unicode/

Alan Wood’s Unicode Resources

Unicode and Multilingual Support in HTML, Fonts, Web Browsers and Other Applications
Introduction | Characters | Fonts | Browsers | Applications and utilities | Word 97, Word 2000 and Word 2002 | Creating multilingual web pages | Links | Copyright, Terms and Conditions | RSS newsfeed of updates

Test pages for Unicode character ranges
The pages in the following list can be used to display the ranges of characters defined in the Unicode 3.0 Character Database, within the limitations imposed by your Web browser and the proportional font that you are using. There is also a page with a sample of Unicode characters from each range.

General Scripts:


Symbols:
Ancient Greek Musical Notation | Arrows | Supplemental Arrows-A | Supplemental Arrows-B | Block Elements | Box Drawing | Braille Patterns | Byzantine Musical Symbols | Combining Diacritical Marks for Symbols | Control Pictures | Currency Symbols | Dingbats | Enclosed Alphanumerics | General Punctuation | Supplemental Punctuation | Geometric Shapes | Letterlike Symbols | Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols | Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-A | Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-B | Mathematical Operators | Supplemental Mathematical Operators | Miscellaneous Symbols | Miscellaneous Symbols and Arrows | Miscellaneous Technical | Musical Symbols | Number Forms | Optical Character Recognition | Superscripts and Subscripts | Tai Xuan Jing Symbols | Yijing Hexagram Symbols

Miscellaneous:
Aegean Numbers | Alphabetic Presentation Forms | Ancient Greek Numbers | Arabic Presentation Forms-A | Arabic Presentation Forms-B | Combining Half Marks | Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms | Small Form Variants | Specials | Tags | | Private Use Area | | Private Use (Plane 15) | Private Use (Plane 16) | Variation Selectors | Variation Selectors Supplement

Chinese, Japanese and Korean:
Bopomofo | Bopomofo Extended | Hangul Compatibility Jamo | Hangul Jamo | Hangul Syllables | Hiragana | Ideographic Description Characters | Kanbun | KangXi Radicals | Katakana | Katakana Phonetic Extensions | Vertical forms

Web sites of other Unicode proponents:
  • Alan Flavell - Unicode-3.0.0 test material
  • Andrew Cunningham - Multilingual Unicode web page development
  • Apple Computer, Inc.- Unicode Utilities
  • Babel - Towards communicating on the Internet in any language
  • Brian Wilson - Text in HTML
  • Bruno Haible - The Unicode HOWTO (for Linux)
  • Christoph Singer - Slavic Text Processing and Typography
  • Daniel Tobias - Dan's Web Tips: Characters and Fonts
  • David McCreedy - Gallery of Unicode Fonts
  • Frank da Cruz - UTF-8 sampler
  • IBM - developerWorks Unicode zone
  • James Kass - Does Your Browser Support Multi-language?
  • Jukka Korpela - Using national and special characters in HTML
  • Markus Kuhn - UTF-8 and Unicode FAQ for Unix / Linux
  • Michael Everson - Everson Typography
  • Microsoft - Global Software Development
  • Nelson H. F. Beebe - Fonts for the Unicode Character Set
  • Oscar van Vlijmen - Unicode browser display
  • Roman Czyborra - Unicode in the Unix Environment
  • Sun - Unicode Support in the SolarisTM 7 Operating Environment
  • Tex Texin - Internationalization (I18n), Localization (L10n), Standards, and Amusements
  • TITUS - Titus Is Testing Unicode Script Management
  • Tom Gewecke - Unleash your Multilingual Mac
  • Unicode Consortium - Unicode Home Page



alanwood.net
Unicode fonts for Windows computers

(E?) (L?) Http://www.alanwood.net/unicode/fonts.html

Alan Wood’s Unicode Resources - Unicode fonts for Windows computers

Large fonts | Pan-European (WGL4) fonts | Arabic fonts | Armenian fonts | Bengali fonts | Braille Patterns fonts | Canadian Syllabics fonts | Cherokee fonts | Chinese Simplified fonts | Chinese Traditional fonts | Coptic fonts | Devanagari fonts | Ethiopic fonts | Georgian fonts | Glagolitic fonts | Greek polytonic fonts | Gujarati fonts | Gurmukhi fonts | Hebrew fonts | Japanese fonts | Kannada fonts | Khmer fonts | Korean fonts | Lao fonts | fonts | Mongolian fonts | Myanmar fonts | New Tai Lue fonts | Oriya fonts | Phags-pa fonts | Runic fonts | Sinhala fonts | Sundanese fonts | Symbol fonts | Syriac fonts | Tagalog fonts | Tagbanwa fonts | Tai Le fonts | Tamil fonts | Telugu fonts | Thaana fonts | Thai fonts | Tibetan fonts | Tifinagh fonts | Vietnamese fonts | Yi fonts | Supplementary plane fonts


  • Unicode fonts by range
  • Unicode fonts for Mac OS 9
  • Unicode fonts for Mac OS X
  • Unicode fonts for Unix
  • Suppliers of commercial Unicode fonts
  • Links to font-related and language-related web sites


ancientscripts
Ancient Scripts of the World

(E?) (L?) Http://www.ancientscripts.com/
An excellent and informative site about ancient writing systems of the world with examples, charts and many links. Highly recommended.

ANSI
American National Standards Institute (W3)

(E?) (L?) Http://www.ansi.org/
Like the ASCII character set, the ANSI character set is only based on one byte and can therefore only represent 256 characters.
In order not to lessen the confusion, the German umlauts in ANSI and ASCII have been provided with different bit combinations (e.g.).

ANSI homepage with current information on the activities of the standardization committee (in English)

asterisko (W3)

"asterisko" (simbolo) is the Esperanto term for German "Asterisk" = "asterisk". The designation "asterisko" for the typographic character "*" goes back to the Greek "asterískos", Latin "asteriskus" = German "asterisk".

(E?) (L?) Http://www.reta-vortaro.de/revo/


Created: 2010-09

B.

bbc
Alphabets and Writing Systems

(E?) (L?) Http://h2g2.com/dna/h2g2/alabaster/C54721

  • The Decipherment of Linear B.
  • The Development of the Western Alphabet
  • The Greek Alphabet
  • Hangul - the Korean Writing System
  • Hieroglyphs
  • Medieval Germanic Runes
  • The NATO phonetic alphabet
  • Ogham - an Ancient Celtic Alphabet
  • The Rosetta Stone
  • Thorn - The Missing Letter of the Alphabet
  • Writing Signs
  • Writing Systems



bme
Spelling Alphabets

(E6) (L?) Http://www.bme.ie/resource/dictionary/phonetic_alphabet_de.htm
  • Spelling Alphabet - International
  • Spelling Alphabet - Civil Aviation
  • Spelling Alphabet - American English
  • Spelling Alphabet - British English
  • Spelling Alphabet - German
  • Spelling Alphabet - French
  • Spelling Alphabet - Spanish
  • Spelling Alphabet - Italian


Braille (W3)

(E?) (L?) Http://www.omniglot.com/writing/braille.htm

...
"Braille" is a writing system which enables blind and partially sighted people to read and write through touch. It was invented by "Louis Braille" (1809-1852), a French teacher of the blind. It consists of patterns of raised dots in cells of up to six dots in a 3 x 2 arranged configuration. Each cell represents a letter, numeral or punctuation mark. Some frequently used words and letter combinations also have their own single cell patterns.
...


Spelling alphabet
The international spelling alphabet

  • alpha
  • Bravo
  • Charlie
  • delta
  • echo
  • Foxtrot
  • golf
  • hotel
  • India
  • Juliet
  • kilo
  • Lima
  • Mike
  • November
  • Oscar
  • father
  • Quebec
  • Romeo
  • Sierra
  • tango
  • uniform
  • Victor
  • whiskey
  • Xray
  • Yankee
  • Zulu


C.

crescent and five-pointed star symbol (W3)

Behind all designations with "crescent" is the "rising crescent".

(E1) (L1) http://www.symbols.com/index/wordindex-c.html


(E1) (L1) http://www.symbols.com/encyclopedia/24/2462.html

This is the well-known ideogram found on most of the Islamic countries' national flags. This ideogram is a general symbol for the Islamic faith. It combines the pictorial sign for the waning moon and the sign for the planet Venus as the morning star.
The five points of the Venus star are in this context said to represent the five pillars of Islam:
...


D.

decodeunicode
decode Unicode
Unicode decoder
Character database
Signs of this world
Cyrillic

(E?) (L1) http://www.decodeunicode.org/
The database contains all (?) Unicode characters. The individual groups of characters can be selected via an animated bar. In wiki technology, information can be added to individual characters. Maybe there are some hints about the history of the characters to be discovered.

For example, there was the following note about "Cyrillic":

The name of the sign system goes back to the Greek monk and missionary "Kyrill von Saloniki". It was probably one of his students, "Kliment von Ohrid", who developed the characters at the court of the Bulgarian tsar in the 10th century.
Most of the letter forms go back to the Greek alphabet, which "Kyrill" brought with him, so to speak; others were taken from the Glagolitic sign system.

Unicode 4.0.1 encodes more than 50,000 characters on the Basic Multilingual Plane.
Please help in decoding those characters!
Right now there are 2109 submissions about 1022 characters.
German English

is an independent online platform for digital writing culture, which was developed in the design course at the Mainz University of Applied Sciences.

The aim of the project supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) is to create the basis for basic typographical research and to enable computer users to access the characters of this world in terms of content.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.decodeunicode.org/en/glossary
On 07/11/2005 the GLOSSARY contained the following terms:

Acronym | Accent | Alinea | Alinea sign | Alphabet | Alternative glyph | American National Standards Institute (abbr .: ANSI) | American Standard Association (ASA) | Anchor points Points that fix Bezier curves | Coating (letter form) | | Arm | Eye (letter shape) | Exit | Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) | Belly (letter shape) | Operating system | Bi-Di (rectional) Bidirectional | Binary | Internal shape | Bit (also: Binary number, Dual digit, Zweierschritt) Abbreviation for: Binary Digit | Bitmap | Bitmap font | Blank | Lead type | Bow | Formal | Braille (Louis, French teacher for the blind 1809-1852) | Braille | Fractional number | Letter | Byte | Capitalis Monumentalis | Caps & Small Caps | character properties (name, category (letter, number, symbol, ...), characteristics (white space, number of lines, alphabet assignments, ...), appearance (width, shape, upper and lower length, angle of inclination ...), Numerical values ​​and types, standard properties (breakdown, arrangement, structure, ...), limitations (word, sentence, column, ...), age (date of creation, appearance of the originally drawn version, ...), division into Handwriting or punctuation | Code point | German Institute for Standardization (DIN) | Decimal system | Diacritical mark | Dialect | Thick | Didot point | Dingbats | Diphthong (Greek dis "twice" phthóngos "Laut", dt. ) | Dpi (English: dots per inch; German: dots per inch) | Three-storey | DTP point | Duktus | Entrance, inlet (letter form) | End line | Exponents | Flag (letter form) | Meat (letter form) | Flexible spaces | Font (literally: type case) | Formatted text | Formula sets | Photo typesetting (also Lichts atz, called film set) | Fournier point | Foot (letter shape) | Quartered | Glyph | Grotesque (coll. Strange, absurd, ridiculous) | Basic character | Baseline shift | Stem | Hexadecimal system (Greek hexa »six«, Latin decem »ten«) | Hexadecimal value | HTML (Abbreviation for HyperText Markup Language) | IA-5 alphabet (int. Telegraph alphabets) | Ideographic sign | Inch | Index sign (Latin for "indicator") | Indian digit | Initial | International Phonetic Alphabet | Punctuation marks | IPA (International Phonetic Association) | ISO (International Organization for Standardization) | Small caps | Cone | Kerning (also »undercut«) | Keyboard English / Word: keyboard, old Italian: keyboard = tool | Consonant (Latin: con = with; sonare = to tone; mid-range, sympathetic) | Italic | Last resort font | Last resort glyph | Spacing | Space | Reading direction | Capitals | Medieval digits from Medieval (medieval; from Latin medius "middle" and aevum "age") | Minuscule | Monospace (English: same space) | Post width | Inclination angle / inclination axis | Non-Latin script (English: non-Latin script) | Noncharacter | Ascender | OpenType | Phonetics | Phonetician | phonetic | Pica point (also »pica point«) | Pictogram | Pinyin (Chinese for "connecting sounds") | Platform | PostScript | Private Use Area | Program | Point | Point (Pt), (DTP point) | Hallmark | Crossbar | Slash | QUERTZ | QWERTY | Radical (lat.radix »root«) | Rendering | Return | Rich Text | Roman numerals | Sans serif | Vertex (letter shape) | Font family | Font size | Baseline (also called "baseline") | Font style | Written language | Writing system | Font management program | Serifs | Syllable old high. sillaba (Greek syllabe, Latin syllaba, »the sounds combined to form a unit) | Slab serif | Special characters | Space | Language | Control key (Ctrl-Key) | Control character | Number of strokes | Table digits | Keyboard layout | Drops (letter shape) | True Type | Upheaval | Shift key Up key | Unformatted text | Unicode Consortium | Unicode name | Unicode Standard | Unicode block | Descender | Undercut engl. kering | Capital height | Uppercase / Uppercase capitals (lat. »Versus« = line) | Uppercase digits | Vowel vowel (Latin vocalis = sounding letter) | Pre-width | Currency symbol (Middle High German »Wehrunge« = guarantee) | Clothesline principle | Root sign (radical, from Latin radix, root) | X-height | XML | Number (from old German "zala": notched mark) | Character | Character encoding | Digits | Inch | Two-storey (letter shape)

dgsd
Sign Languages

(E?) (L?) Http://www.dgsd.de/Deaf/gebspra.html
Here you can find many links in the categories:
  • Information (information)
  • Sign Language Dictionaries
  • Sign Language Teaching
  • Finger alphabets (manual alphabets)
  • Notation (notation)
  • Recognition of sign language


E.

EBCDIC (W3)

"EBCDIC" stands for "extended binary-coded-decimal interchange code" = "extended binary-coded decimal information code".

(E3) (L1) http://www.jargon.net/jargonfile/e/EBCDIC.html


(E?) (L1) http://www.www-kurs.de/gloss_e.htm


eki
Data on languages
Diacritics Converter
Languages ​​and their diacritics

(E?) (L?) Http://www.eki.ee/letter/

About "languages ​​using latin script"
What special characters are needed to write



What special characters are needed in romanization of

| am_r Amharic | ar_r Arabic | as_r Assamese | be_r Belarusian | bg_r Bulgarian | bn_r Bengali | el_r Greek | fa_r Persian | gu_r Gujarati | he_r Hebrew | hi_r Hindi | ja_r Japanese | kk_r Kazakh | km_r Khmer | kn_r Kannada | ko_r Korean | ky_r Kyrgyz | lo_r Laotian | mk_r Macedonian | | mn_r Mongolian | my_r Burmese | ne_r Nepali | or_r Oriya | pa_r Punjabi | ps_r Pashto | ru_r Russian | sr_r Serbian | ta_r Tamil | te_r Telugu | tg_r Tajik | tk_r Turkmen | uk_r Ukrainian | ur_r Urdu | uz_r Uzbek | zh_r Chinese

About languages ​​using cyrillic script
What special characters are needed to write

| _abaza | _abkhaz | _adyghian | _altai | _avar | _azerbaijani | _bashkir | _bulgarian | _buryat | _byelorussian | _chechen | _chukchi | _chuvash | _crimean | _darg | _dungan | _erzyan | _eskimo | _even | _evenk | _gagauz | _ingush | _kabardian | _kalmyk | _kara-kalpak | _karachay-balkar | _kazakh | _khakass | _khanty | _komi | _komi-permyak | _koryak | _kumyk | _kyrgyz | _lakh | _lezgian | _macedonian | _mansi | _mari-hill | _mari-meadow | _moksha | _moldavian | _mongolian | _nanai | _nenets | _nivkh | _nogay | _ossetic | _russian | _selkup | _serbian | _tabasaran | _tajik | _talysh | _tatar | _turkmen | _tuvinian | _udmurt | _ukrainian | _uzbek | _yakut


Created: 2010-12

englishforum
Flags and Countries Quiz

(E?) (L?) Http://www.englishforum.com/cgi-bin/00/fifaquiz.pl


evertype.com
Evertype Publishing

(E?) (L?) Http://www.evertype.com/

  • About Michael Everson
  • Michael’s blog
  • Þorn’s blog, þorn.info
  • Evertype
  • Typesetting portfolio
  • Typography & scripts
  • Fontographer
  • Unicode & ISO / IEC JTC1 / SC2 / WG2
  • Codes for Internationalization
  • ISO TC46 / WG3
  • NSAI / ICTSCC / SC4
  • Script Encoding Initiative
  • Alphabets of Europe
  • Cornish orthography
  • Volapük
  • Olmec hieroglyphs
  • Afghanistan locales
  • Celtic spelling checkers
  • Celtic keyboard layouts
  • Mac OS software
  • The plural of euro is euros!
  • Essays and interviews
  • Poems, stories, & other things
  • Linguistic rights
  • Celtic and other languages



(E?) (L?) Http://www.evertype.com/misc/bio.html

About Michael Everson

Michael Everson, based in Westport, Co. Mayo, is an expert in the writing systems of the world. He is active in supporting minority-language communities, especially in the fields of character standardization and internationalization. He is one of the co-authors of the Unicode Standard, and is a Contributing Editor and Irish National Representative to ISO / IEC JTC1 / SC2 / WG2, the committee responsible for the development and maintenance of the Universal Character Set. He is a linguist, typesetter, and font designer who has contributed to the encoding in of many scripts and characters. In 2005 and 2006 his work to encode the Balinese and N’Ko scripts was supported by UNESCO’s initiative B @ bel program.

Michael received the Unicode "Bulldog" Award in 2000 for his technical contributions to the development and promotion of the Unicode Standard.

Active in the area of ​​practical implementations, Michael has created locale and language information for many languages, from support for Irish and the other Celtic langauges to the minority languages ​​of Finland. In 2003 he was commissioned by the United Nations Development Program to prepare a report on the computer locale requirements for Afghanistan, which was endorsed by the Ministry of Communications of the Afghan Transitional Islamic Administration. He prepared a number of fonts and keyboard layouts for Mac OS X 10.3 (Panther).

Michael was born in Norristown, Pennsylvania in 1963, and moved to Tucson, Arizona at the age of 12. He studied German, Spanish, and French for his B.A. at the University of Arizona (1985), and the History of Religions and Indo-European Linguistics for his M.A. at the University of California, Los Angeles (1988). He moved to Ireland in 1989, and was a Fulbright Scholar in the Faculty of Celtic Studies, University College Dublin (1991).


Created: 2013-06

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(E?) (L?) Http://www.fahnenversand.de/
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faqs
Phonetic Alphabets
Phonetic Alphabets
Spelling Alphabets Collection

(E?) (L?) Http://www.faqs.org/faqs/radio/phonetic-alph/full/

...
Phonetic Alphabets (Alpha Bravo etc) May 1997

There is a widely known alphabet Alpha Bravo ... Yankee Zulu.

Such alphabets are variously known as phonetic / radio / spelling / telephone alphabets, and the term analogy alphabet is also used. This collection currently includes alphabets for the following languages:

English, French, German, Dutch, Flemish, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romansh, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Hungarian, Croatian, Serbo-Croat, Romanian, Turkish, Hebrew, Russian, Swahili, Kwanyama, Ndonga, Afrikaans, Chinese and Esperanto.

This posting supersedes the one of 21 March 1997. There are two new alphabets: one Greek and one Turkish. ...
In my capacity as the editor of this collection I have no objection to the further electronic distribution of this posting in full in circumstances where it is likely to be of interest, and where a document of this length is acceptable; in the case of Web pages I ask that care be taken, as it is easy to mangle something.
...
The NATO phonetic alphabet:

Alpha | Bravo | Charlie | Delta | Echo | Foxtrot | Golf | Hotel | India | Juliet | Kilos | Lima | Mike | November | Oscar | Dad | Quebec | Romeo | Sierra | Tango | Uniform | Victor | Whiskey | Xray | Yankee | Zulu

[This alphabet dates from about 1955 and is approved by the International Civil Aviation Organization, the FAA and the International Telecommunication Union; note that different bodies prefer different spellings, so one also sees: Alfa Juliett Juliette Oskar Viktor]

[The alphabet above is from the Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language.

An alphabet with "Alfa" and "X-ray" can be found in The U.S. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military Terms.

"Alfa", "Juliett", "X-ray", which is the ICAO version, appears in A Concise Dictionary Of Slang And Unconventional English and also a Langenscheidt dictionary]

[UK police use "Indigo" (???) instead of "India".

German army handbook 90/91: "Alfa", "Foxtrot", "Juliett".

Italian version: "Alfa", "Charly", "FoxTrot", "Giuliet", "Romio", "Wiskey".

An Indonesian phrase book: "Beta", "Ultra", "Volvo", "Whiskey", "X-ray".

A precursor of the present alphabet (1952?) Had: "Alfa", "Coca", "Metro", "Nectar", "Siera", "Union", "Whiskey" Extra]

Phonetics for digits (from an amateur radio FAQ): zero | one | two | tree | fower | fife | six | seven | eight | niner

From the Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language: zero | wun | too | tree | fower | fife | six | seven | ait | niner

'Telecom B': [Note similarity to "Apples", "Butter", "Charlie"]:

Alfred | Benjamin | Charles | David | Edward | Frederick | George | Harry | Isaac | Jack | King | London | Mary | Nellie | Oliver | Peter | Queen | Robert | Samuel | Tommy | Uncle | Victor | William | Xray | Yellow | zebra

[Found also in Swedish, Dutch, Hungarian telephone directories.

An 'analogy alphabet' in a Kenyan directory has "Charlie" and no "Y".

A Swiss directory: "Andrew", "Charlie", "Lussy", "Queenie", "Sugar".

French / German vocabulary books: "Andrew", "Charlie", "Lucy", "Mike", "Nelly", "Sugar", "Xmas".

English phrase books for Spanish / Italian speakers: "Charlie".

A 'British English' alphabet in a Langenscheidt dictionary: "Andrew", "Charlie", "Lucy", "Queenie", "Sugar", "Xmas"]

[Used as an English alphabet by telephone operators in Israel]

'British A':

Amsterdam | Baltimore | Casablanca | Denmark | Edison | Florida | Gallipoli | Havana | Italia | Jerusalem | Kilograms | Liverpool | Madagascar | New_York | Oslo | Paris | Quebec | Roma | Santiago | Tripoli | Uppsala | Valencia | Washington | Xantippe | Yokohama | Zurich

[An 'international' alphabet in a Dutch telephone directory has: "Denmark".

A 'French' alphabet in a Hungarian directory has: "Cassablanka", "Danemark", "Que'bec", "Upsala", "Zürich / Zurich".

An 'international' alphabet in a business book for French has: "Italy", "Kilogram", "Zürich / Zurich";

the corresponding book for German has: "Italy", "Kilogram", "Xanthippe", "Zürich / Zurich".

An 'international' alphabet in a Langenscheidt dictionary: "Danemark", "Madagascar", "Que'bec", "Upsala", "Xanthippe", "Zürich / Zurich"]

[West Berlin telephone directory 1965: "Denmark", "Je'rusalem", "Madagascar", "Que'bec", "Upsala", "Xanthippe", "Zürich / Zurich".

Santa Fe (Argentina) 1955: "Dinamarca", "Habana", "Jerusale'n", "Kilogramo", "Nueva_York", "N ~ andubay", "Upsala", "Wa'shington", "Xantipo", " Yokoama ".

Azores 1966: "Danemark", "Ita'lia", "Jerusale'm", "New-York", "Que'bec", "Upsala", "Yokoham"]

[Used as a French alphabet by telephone operators in Israel]

Bombay telephone directory 1962 (also a later source):

Army | Brother | Cinema | Doctor | English | Father | Gold | Hotel | India | Jam | King | Lady | Mother | Navy | Orange | Paper | Queen | Raja | Sister | Table | Uncle | Victory | Water | X-ray | Yellow | zero

Kenyan and Tanzanian telephone directories 1966:

Africa | Bombay | Charlie | Durban | England | Freddie | George | Harry | India | Japan | Kenya | London | Mombasa | Nairobi | Orange | Peter | Queen | Robert | Sugar | Thong | Uganda | Victory | William | X-Ray | Yellow | Zanzibar

Johannesburg telephone directory 1965: [Note similarity to Alfred Benjamin]:

Arthur | Betty | Charlie | David | Edward | Frederick | George | Harry | Isaac | Jane | Kate | Lucy | Mary | Nellie | Olive | Peter | Queen | Robert | Simon | Thomas | Union | Violet | William | X-Ray | York | zero

Malayan telephone directory 1964:

Australia | Bombay | China | Denmark | England | Fiji | Ghana | Hong Kong | India | Japan | Kedah | London | Malacca | Norway | Osaka | Penang | Queensland | Russia | Singapore | Turkey | Uganda | Victoria | Wales | X'Ray | Yokohama | Zanzibar

Used by police in New York City: [Note similarity to ARRL and Western Union]:

Adam | Boy | Charlie | David | Edward | Frank | George | Henry | Ida | John | King | Lincoln | Mary | Nora | Ocean | Peter | Queen | Robert | Sam | Tom | Union | Victor | William | X-ray | Young | zebra

[Variants: "Eddie", "Larry", "Nancy", "Thomas", "Yankee", "Yellow"]

Used by police in Nassau County, Long Island, New York:

Adam | Boston | Chicago | Denver | Edward | Frank | George | Henry | Ida | John | King | Lincoln | Mary | Nancy | Ocean | Peter | Queen | Robert | Sam | Thomas | Union | Victor | William | X-ray | Young | zebra

Used by police in San Diego, California:

Adam | Boy | Charles | David | Edward | Frank | George | Henry | Ida | John | King | Lincoln | Mary | Nora | Ocean | Paul | Queen | Robert | Sam | Tom | Unit | Victor | William | Xray | Yellow | zebra

Used by police in Hutchinson, Kansas:

Adam | Boy | Charles | David | Edward | Frank | George | Henry | Ida | John | King | Lincoln | Mary | Nora | Ocean | Paul | Q. | Robert | Sam | Tom | Union | Victor | William | X-ray | Yankee | zebra

Alternative phonetics sometimes used unofficially in amateur radio:

America | Boston | Canada | Denmark | England | France | Germany | Honolulu | Japan | Kilowatts | London | Mexico | Norway | Ontario / Ocean | Pacific | Radio | Santiago / Spain | Tokyo | United | Victoria | Washington | Yokohama | Zanzibar

So:

Amsterdam | Baltimore | Brazil | Chile | Egypt | Finland | Geneva | Greece | Guatemala | Hawaii | Italy | Kentucky | King | Luxembourg | Montreal | Nicaragua | Portugal | Romania | Russia | Sweden | Texas | Uruguay | Venezuela]

The ARRL (American Radio Relay League) alphabet (1948): [Note similarity to Western Union and Able Baker]

Adam | Baker | Charlie | David | Edward | Frank | George | Henry | Ida | John | king | Lewis | Mary | Nancy | Otto | Peter | queen | Robert | Susan | Thomas | union | Victor | William | x-ray | young | zebra

[Nowadays the ARRL endorses the NATO / ICAO / ITU alphabet]

Pre-1954 U.S. Navy Radio Alphabet: (Communications Handbook, 1945) [Note similarity to Able Buy Cast]

Able | Baker | Charlie | Dog | Easy | Fox | George | How | Item | Jig | King | Love | Mike | Nan | Oboe | Peter | Queen | Roger | Sugar | Tare | Uncle | Victor | William | X-ray | Yoke | zebra

[formerly used by IBM engineers for hex digits and pin positions]

"Used by Armed services of USA & GB" (ARRL Handbook, 1945)

Able Baker ... Easy ... Tare ...

Allied Services 1945:

Able Baker ... Edward ... Tape ...

From a book entitled "The Complete Morse Instructor ..." (1944):

Able Baker ... Easy ... Tare ...

RAF 1943-56:

Able-Afirm ... Item / Interrogatory ... Jig / Johnny ... Nab / Negat ... Peter / Prep ...

[In similar alphabets: affirm, cast, hypo, inter, negat, option, over, prep]

RAF 1942-43:

Apple | Beer | Charlie | Dog | Edward | Freddy | George | Harry | In | Jug / Johnny | King | Love | Mother | Nuts | Orange | Peter | Queen | Roger / Robert | Suga | Tommy | Uncle | Vic | William | X-ray | Yoke / Yorker | zebra

[cf. aircraft in Dambusters raid:

A-Apple | B-Baker | C-Charlie | E-Easy | F-Freddie | G-George | H-Harry | J-Johnny | K-King | L-Leather (officially L-London) | M-Mother | N-nuts | O-orange | P-Popsie | S-Sugar | T-Tommy | W-Willie | Y-York | Z-zebra]

Western Union:

Adams | Boston | Chicago | Denver | Easy | Frank | George | Henry | Ida | John | King | Lincoln | Mary | New_York | Ocean | Peter | Queen | Roger | Sugar | Thomas | Union | Victor | William | X-ray | Young | zero

British Army 1927:

Ack | Beer | Charlie | Don | Edward | Freddy | George | Harry | Ink | Johnnie | King | London | Monkey | Nuts | Orange | Pip | Queen | Robert | Sugar | Toc | Uncle | Vic | William | X-ray | Yorker | zebra

RAF 1924-42:

Ac | Beer | Charlie | Don | Edward | Freddie | George | Harry | Ink | Johnnie | King | London | Monkey | Nuts | Orange | Pip | Queen | Robert | Sugar | Toc | Uncle | Vic | William | X-ray | Yorker | zebra

Royal Navy 1917:

Apple's | Butter | Charlie | Duff | Edward | Freddy | George | Harry | Ink | Johnnie | King | London | Monkey | Nuts | Orange | Pudding | Queenie | Robert | Sugar | Tommy | Uncle | Vinegar | Willie | Xerxes | Yellow | zebra

U.S. Army 1916:

Able | Buy | Cast | Dock | Easy | Fox | George | Have | Item | Jig | King | Love | Mike | Nap | Opal | Pup | Quack | Rush | Sail | Tape | Unit | Vice | Watch | X-ray | Yoke | Zed

British forces 1904:

Ack | Beer | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | Emma | N | O | Pip | Q | R | Esses | Toc | U | Vic | W | X | Y | Z

[The OED has a reference for Beer and Emma dated 1891]

***** FRENCH *****

[style: A comme Anatole]

anatole | bernard | cécile | denise | émile | françois | gérard | henri | isidore | jean | kléber | louis | marcel | nicole | oscar | pierre | quital | robert | suzanne | thérèse | ursule | victor | wagon | xavier | yvonne | zoé

(Swiss telephone directory 1993)

Anna | Berthe | Cécile | Daniel | Emile | François | Gustave | Henri | Ida | Jeanne | Kilos | Louise | Marie | Nicolas | Olga | Paul | Quittance | Robert | Suzanne | Thérèse | Ulysse | Victor | William | Xavier | Yvonne | Zurich

[also Geneva directory 1966]

(OUP vocabulary book):

Anatole | Berthe | César | Désiré | Eugène | Émile | François | Gaston | Henri | Irma | Joseph | Kléber | Louis | Marcel | Nicolas | Oscar | Pierre | Quebec | Robert | Suzanne | Thérèse | Ursule | Victor | William | Xavier | Yvonne | Zoé

(Berlitz phrase book)

Anatole | Berthe | Celestin | Désiré | Eugène | François | Gaston | Henri | Irma | Joseph | Kléber | Louis | Marcel | Nicolas | Oscar | Pierre | Quintal | Raoul | Suzanne | Thérèse | Ursule | Victor | William | Xavier | Yvonne | Zoé

Similar alphabets:
  • Collins vocabulary book: Bertha
  • business book: Émile
  • Cassel business book: Zoé
  • BBC business book: Émile (for e-acute) Nicholas
  • telephone French book: René
  • Collins phrase books: Victor / Viktor
  • Pitman business book: Émile (for e-acute)
(also Loire-Atlantique telephone directory 1966)

***** GERMAN *****

[style: A for Anton] [some alphabets have phonetics for umlauts, ch, sch, ss]

(official alphabet for emergency services, from "KatS-Dv 810 - Speech radio service", 1977)

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Businessman | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Samuel | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xanthippe | Ypsilon | Zacharias

Trouble | Charlotte | Economist | School | Cockiness

[Also Langenscheidt Standard German Dictionary 1993 and West Berlin telephone directory 1965]

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Karl | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Siegfried | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xanthippe | Ypsilon | Zeppelin

Trouble | Oedipus | evil

More recent replacements:

Konrad | Zacharias

anton | bertha | caesar | dora | emil | friederich | gustav | Heinrich | ida | julius | businessman | ludwig | martha | north pole | otto | paula | source | richard | samuel | theodore | ulrich | viktor | wilhelm | xanthippe | ypsilon | zacharias

trouble | charlotte | economist | school | cockiness

(Swiss telephone directory 1993)

Anna | Bertha | Caesar | Daniel | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Jacob | Emperor | Leopold | Marie | Niklaus | Otto | Peter | Source | Pink | Sophie | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xaver | Yverdon | Zurich

[also Geneva directory 1966]

(issued by Deutsche Bundespost)

Anton | Bertha | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Jacob | Konrad | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Siegfried | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xantippe | Ypsilon | Zeppelin

school

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Johann | Businessman | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | across | Richard | Siegfried | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xaver | Ypsilon | Zeppelin

Eszett

(OUP vocabulary book)

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Konrad | Ludwig | Martin | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Siegfried | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xanten | Ypsilon | Zeppelin

Trouble | Economist | evil

(Collins vocabulary book)

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Jerusalem | Businessman | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Samuel | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xanthippe | Ypsilon | Zacharias

(Cassel business book)

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Businessman | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Siegfried | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xanthippe | Ypsilon | Zacharias

Trouble | Economist | School | evil

(BBC business book) "standard phone alphabet"

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Businessman | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Siegfried / Samuel | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xanthippe | Ypsilon | Zeppelin / Zacharias

Trouble | Charlotte | Economist | School | Cockiness

(BBC business book)

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Businessman | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Siegfried | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xanthippe | Ypsilon | Zeppelin

Trouble | Economist | sharp s | School | Cockiness

(Berlitz phrase book)

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Businessman | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Samuel | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xanthippe | Ypsilon | Zacharias

Trouble | Charlotte | Economist | School | evil

(Austrian telephone directory)

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Konrad | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Siegfried | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xaver | Ypsilon | Zurich

Trouble | Austria | sharp_S | School | evil

(Collins phrase book)

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Konrad | Ludwig | Martin | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Siegfried | Theodore | Ulrich | Victor | Wilhelm | Xanten | Zeppelin

Eszett

(Vienna telephone directory)

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Konrad | Ludwig | Martha | Norbert | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Siegfried | Theodore | Ulrich | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xaver | Ypsilon | Zacharias

Trouble | Christine | Austria | evil

(BBC language book)

Anton | Berta | Caesar | Dora | Emil | Friedrich | Gustav | Heinrich | Ida | Julius | Businessman | Ludwig | Martha | North Pole | Otto | Paula | Source | Richard | Siegfried | Theodore | Ulrich | Victor | Wilhelm | Xanthippe | Ypsilon | Zeppelin

Arno | Boron Vaseline | Coburg-Gotha | Doria | Serious | Friedrichsroda | Gomorrah | Gentleman's room | Ida | Jawohl_Odol | Kolberg_Ost | Leonidas | Engine | Nora | Economy | Per_Motorcycle | Quohnsdorf_bei_Forst | Revolver | Sabine | Death | Uniform | Death from burns | World North Pole | Xolabaphon | York_Yellowstone | Zoroaster

Economy | Over account

[This alphabet provides mnemonics for Morse code: a syllable corresponds to a dash if it contains "o", a dot otherwise.]

(E?) (L?) Http://scoutnet.ch/archives/books/morse.html
For another alphabet of this nature see http://scoutnet.ch/archives/books/morse.html.

***** DUTCH *****

[style: A van Anna]

anna | bernhard | cornelis | dirk | eduard | ferdinand | gerard | hendrik | izaak | jan | karel | lodewijk | marie | nico | otto | pieter | quotient | rudolf | simon | teunis | utrecht | victor | willem | ij: ijmuiden | ypsilon | zaandam

[Berlitz phrase book: bernard quadraat]

(Collins phrase book)

Amsterdam | Bravo | Charlie | Dirk | Edam | Freddie | goed | help | Isaac | Jaap | kilo | lasso | moeder | Nico | Otto | couple | Quaker | Rudolf | suiker | blackboard | uur | bird | wind | xylofoon | Yankee | zout

(E?) (L?) Http://nl.scout.net/morse/morse-nl.html
A Morse code mnemonic alphabet can be found at http://nl.scout.net/morse/morse-nl.html.

***** FLEMISH *****

arthur | Brussels | carolina | desire | emiel | frederik | gustaaf | hendrik | isidoor | jozef | kilogram | leopold | maria | napoleon | oscar | piano | qualite | robert | sofie | telefoon | ursula | victor | waterloo | xavier | yvonne | zola

***** SPANISH *****

[style: A de Antonio]

(BBC business book, Collins and Berlitz phrase books)

Antonio | Barcelona | Carmen | Chocolate | Dolores | Enrique | Francia | Gerona | Historia | Inés | José | Kilos | Lorenzo | Llobregat | Madrid | Navarre | Ñoño | Oviedo | París | Querido | Ramón | Sábado | Tarragona | Ulises | Valencia | Washington | Xiquena | Yegua | Zaragoza

(used in ministries in Madrid in the 1960s)

Alicante | Bilbao | Cadiz | Dinamarca | España | Francia | Girona | Huelva | Italia | Jaén | Kilos | Lugo | LLamar | Madrid | Navarre | Oviedo | Portugal | Queso | Roma | EreDoble | Seville | Toledo | Único | Valencia | UveDoble | equis | Yugoslavia | Zaragoza

(business book) "The telephonist's alphabet"

Antonio | Barcelona | Carmen | Domingo | España / Enrique | Francia | Gerona | Historia | Italia / i_latina | José / Jaen | Kilos | Lérida | Llave | Madrid | Navarre | Ñando | Oviedo | Portugal / París | Queso | Ramón / Roma | Seville | Tarragona / Toledo | Ursula / Ubeda | Valencia | Washington | Xilofón | Yegua | Zaragoza

(Berlitz phrase book) [Latin American]

Amalia | Beatrice | Carmen | Domingo | Enrique | Federico | Guatemala | Honduras | Ida | José | Kilos | Lima | Llave | México | Nicaragua | Ñoño | Olimpo | Pablo | Quito | Rafael | Santiago | Teresa | Uruguay | Venezuela | Washington | Xilófono | Yucatán | Zorro

***** PORTUGUESE *****

[style: A de / como Aviero]

(Berlitz phrase book)

Aveiro | Braga | Coimbra | Dafundo | Évora | Faro | Guarda | Horta | Itália | José | Kodak | Lisboa | Maria | Nazaré | Ovary | Postage | Queluz | Rossio | Setúbal | Tavira | Unidade | Vidago | Waldemar | Xavier | York | Zulmira

[Azores telephone directory 1966: Braganc, a Kilograma Wilson]

(Collins phrase books)

Alexandre | Banana / Bastos | Carlos | Daniel | Eduardo | França | Gabriel | Holanda | Itália | José | Lisboa | Maria | Nicolau | Óscar | Paris | Quarto | Ricardo | Susana | Teresa | Ulisses | Venezuela | Xangai | zebra

***** ITALIAN *****

[style: A come Ancona]

Ancona | Bologna | Como | Domodossola | Empoli | Firenze | Genova | Hacca | Imola | Jolly | Kappa | Livorno | Milano | Napoli | Otranto | Pisa / Palermo | Quartomiglio | Roma | Savona / Siena | Torino | Udine | Venezia | Wagner | Xilofono | York | Zara

(Swiss telephone directory 1993)

Anna | Battista | Carlo | Davide | Ernesto | Federico | Giovanni | acca | Isidoro | i_lungo | cappa | Luigi | Maria | Nicola | Olga | Pietro | Quintino | Rodolfo | Susanna | Teresa | Umberto | Vittorio | vu_doppia | ics | ipsilon | Zurigo

[also Geneva directory 1966]

(Cassel language book)

Ancona | Bologna | Cagliari | Domodossola | Empoli | Firenze | Genova | Hotel | Imola | Jolly | Kappa | Londra | Milano | Napoli | Otranto | Palermo | Quarto | Roma | Sondrio | Torino | Udine | Vicenza | Vdoppio | X | Yugoslavia | Zagabria

(Cassel business book)

Ancona | Bologna | Como | Domodossola | Empoli | Firenze | Genova | Hotel | Imola | I_lunga | Kursaal | Livorno | Milano | Napoli | Otranto | Padova | Quarto | Roma | Savona | Torino | Udine | Venezia | Washington | Ics | York / yacht | Zara

(BBC language book)

Ancona | Bologna | Como | Domodossola | Empoli | Firenze | Genova | Hotel | Imola | Jersey | Kilos | Livorno | Milano | Napoli | Otranto | Palermo | Quaderno | Roma | Savona | Torino | Udine | Venezia | Washington | ics | York | Zurigo

Ancona | Bari | Como | Domodossola | Empoli | Firenze | Genova | Acca | Imola | Jolly | Cappa | Livorno | Milano | Napoli | Otranto | Palermo | Quartomiglio | Roma | Siena | Torino | Udine | Venezia | Walter | Ics | York | Zurigo

(Berlitz phrase book)

Ancona | Bari | Catania | Domodossola | Empoli | Firenze | Genova | Hotel | Imperia | i_lunga | kappa | Livorno | Milano | Napoli | Otranto | Palermo | cu | Roma | Sassari | Torino | Udine | Venezia | v_doppia | ix | i_greca | zeta

(Collins phrase book)

Ancona | Bari | Catania | Domodossola | Empoli | Firenze | Genova | Hotel | Imperia | Livorno | Milano | Napoli | Otranto | Palermo | quarto | Roma | Savona | Torino | Udine | Venezia

(Collins phrase book)

Ancona | Bari | Como | Domodossola | Empoli | Firenze | Genova | Hotel | Imola | Livorno | Milano | Napoli | Otranto | Palermo | Quarto | Roma | Savona | Torino | Udine | Venezia | Zara

(Pitman business book)

Ancona | Bologna | Como | Domodossola | Empoli | Firenze / Forlì | Genova | (acca) | Imola | (i_lunga) | (cappa) | Livorno | Milano | Napoli | Otranto | Palermo | (cu) | Roma | Savona | Torino | Udine | Venezia | Washington | (ics) | (ipsilon) | Zara

***** ROMANSH *****

[aka Rumansh]

(Swiss telephone directory)

Anna | Berta | Carla | Dora | Emil | Hallway | Guido | Hugo | Ida | Judit | Kilos | Luisa | Maria | Nesa | Otto | Paula | Quirin | Rita | Silvia | Toni | Ursin | Victor | Willi | Xaver | Yvonne | Zita

***** DANISH *****

(Berlitz phrase book)

Anna | Bernhard | Cecilia | David | Erik | Frederik | Georg | Hans | Ida | Johan | Karen | Ludvig | Marie | Nikolaj | Odin | Peter | Quintus | Rasmus | Soeren | Theodore | Ulla | Viggo | William | Xerxes | Yrsa | Zacharias

ae: Aegir | o-slash: Oeresund | a-circle: Aase

[Copenhagen telephone directory: Cecilie Nikolai]

The Danish military use the following additions to the NATO alphabet:

Aegir | Oedis | Carrion

***** NORWEGIAN *****

(telephone directory)

Anna | Bernhard | Caesar | David | Edith | Fredrik | Gustav | Harald | Ivar | Johan | Karin | Ludvig | Martin | Nils | Olivia | Petter | Quintus | Rikard | Sigrid | Teodor | Ulrik | Grandchildren-V | Dobbelt-V | Xerxes | Ynling | Zakarias

ae: Aerleg | o-slash: Oern | a-circle: Aase

[Berlitz phrase book: enkelt-V | dobbelt-V | Yngling | Aerlig] [Oslo directory 1965: enkelt-v | Yngling | Aerlig | East]

[the forms Ynling and Aerleg are considered incorrect]

***** SWEDISH *****

[also used officially in Finland]

Adam | Bertil | Cesar | David | Erik | Filip | Gustav | Helge | Ivar | Johan | Kalle | Ludvig | Martin | Niklas | Olof | Petter | Quintus | Rudolf | Sigurd | Goals | Urban | Viktor | Wilhelm | Xerxes | Yngve | Zäta | ] ke, Ärlig, Östen

where "]" is "A with ring"

Sometimes used: Fredrik | Olle, | ikard

Stockholm police use Kryss (meaning cross) for X.

***** FINNISH *****

Aarne | Bertta | Celsius | Daavid | Eemeli | Faarao | Gideon | Heikki | Iivari | Jussi | Kalle | Lauri | Matti | Niilo | Otto | Paavo | Kuu | Risto | Sakari | Tyyne | Urho | Vihtori | Visci | Äksä | Yrjö | Tseta | ] ke | Äiti | Öljy ("]" = "Uppercase-a with circle" (Swedish))

(Berlitz phrase book)

Anna | Bertta | Cecilia | Daavid | Erkki | Faarao | Gabriel | Heikki | Iivari | Jaakko | Kalle | Lauri | Mikko | Niilo | Otto | Pekka | Quintus | Risto | Sakari | Tauno | Urho | Va "ino" | kaksin / kertainen_v | Xeres | Yrjo "| Zeppelin | ruotsalainen_o | a" iti | o "ljy

Morse code:
  • .-.- a-umlaut
  • .- -.- a-circle
  • - - -. o-umlaut


***** CZECH *****

(phrase book)

Adam | Boz ~ ena | Cyril | David | 'Dumbier | Emil | Frantis ~ ek | Gustav | Helena | Ivan | Joseph | Karel | Ludvi'k | L'ubochn ~ a | Marie | Norbert | Oto | Petr | Quido | Rudolf | R ~ ehor ~ | Svatopluk | S ~ imon | Toma's ~ | T'epla '| Urban | Va'clav | dvojite'_ve '| Xaver | ypsilon | Zuzana | Z ~ ofie

***** SLOVAK *****

(telephone directory)

Adam | Boz ~ ena | Cyril | C ~ adca | Da'vid | D ~ umbier | Emil | Frantis ~ ek | Gusta'v | Helena | CHrudim | Ivan | Karol | Ludvi'k | L ~ ubochn ~ a | Ma'ria | Norbert | N ~ - Nitra | Oto | Peter | Quido | Rudolf | Sva "topluk | S ~ imon | Toma's ~ | T ~ - Tepla '| Urban | Va'clav | W - dvojite' ve '| Xaver | Ypsilon | Zuzana | Z ~ ofia

***** POLISH *****

(Warsaw telephone directory)