How were the Ural Mountains formed

Ural Mountains The geographic coordinates of the highest points. How to Learn the Urals Mountains on the Map of Russia: Complete Characteristic and Geographical Location

In ancient sources called Riofi or Hyperborean. Russian pioneers called them "stone". The toponym "ural" is most likely from the Bashkir language and means "stone belt". In use, this name introduced geographer and historian Vasily Tatishchev.

Since the Urals came into being

The Ural Mountains stretched to a narrow strip of more than 2000 km from the Kara Sea to the steppes of the Priorral. It is believed that they formed about 600 million years ago. Some scientists believe that a few hundred million years ago, Europe and Asia spared an ancient mainland and gradually approached them, facing each other. Their edges were crossed in places at the collision, part of the earth's crust was pushed out, something against it, on the contrary, went inside, cracked and folds were formed. Giant pressure leased and melting rocks. The structure quette on the surface was formed by a chain of Ural Mountains that linked Europe and Asia.

The movements and flaws of the earth's crust occurred here more than once. For several million years the Ural Mountains were exposed to the devastating effects of all natural elements. Their vertices, which were smoothed out, rounded, became lower. Gradually the mountains acquired a modern appearance.

The hypotheses that explain the formation of the Ural Mountains are diverse, but the theory of the seam that connects Europe and Asia allows, more or less understandably, to link the most detailed facts:
- Find almost on the surface of rocks and sediments that can only form deep in the depths of the earth under conditions of great temperatures and pressures;
- the presence of silicide plates obviously of oceanic origin;
- sand flow deposits;
- Stream crests brought from the glacier, etc.
In any case, the following: Earth as a cosmic body is around 4.5 billion years old. In the Urals found rocks, the age of which is at least 3 billion years old, and none of modern scientists deny that the dispersion of the external substance is still underway in the universe.

Climate and resources of the Urals

The climate of the Urals can be defined as a mountain. Ural Ridge serves as a separation boundary. In the west of it the climate is softer and more precipitation falls. To the east - continental, drier, with a predominance of low winter temperatures.

Scientists divide the Urals into several geographical zones: Polar, Amar, North, Central, South. The highest, unauthorized and difficult to reach mountains are located in the territory of the Southeast and South Urals. The middle of the Urals is the most populated and dominated, and the mountains are low there.

In the Urals found 48 mineral types - mednolos, skarn magnetite, titanium magnetite, oxide nickel, chromite ore, deposits of bauxite and asbestos, coal, oil and gas fields. The deposits of gold, platinum, precious, half-value and miscellaneous stones were also found.

There are about 5,000 rivers in the Urals that flow in the Caspian, Barents, and Kara Seas. The Urals are extremely heterogeneous. Their characteristics and the hydrological regime are determined by differences in terrain and climate. A little in the polar region of the rivers, but they are often. Brown, rapid rivers of the Supilla and northern Urals, originating on the western slopes of the mountains, fall into the Barents Sea. Small and stony mountain rivers that originate on the eastern slopes of the ridge fall into the Kara Sea. The rivers of the central Urals are numerous and multiple. The length of the southern part of the southern part of the river is small - about 100 km. The largest of them is UI, Misis, Ural, Uvevek, UFA, AH, Humbai. The length of each of them reaches 200 km.

The largest river of the URAL region - Kama, which is the largest tributary of the Volga, comes from the central Urals. Its length is 1805 km. The total prestress of Kama from the source to the mouth - 247 m.

There are around 3327 lakes in the Urals. The deepest is a great price lake.

Russian pioneers came to the Urals along with the Ermak cadre. However, according to scientists, a mountainous land has been settled since the time of the glacier era, i.e. H. More than 10 thousand years ago. Archaeologists have discovered a large number of ancient settlements here. Now in the territory of the Urals are the Komi, Nenetsky, Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Districts. The indigenous people of the Urals are Nenets, Bashkirs, Udmurts, Komi, Komi Perm and Tatars. Presumably, the Bashkirs appeared here in the century, Udmurts - in V, Komi and Comi-Perm - in the X-XII centuries.

The Ural Mountains also have the name "Stone Belt of Urals", which is represented by a mining subsystem surrounded by two levels (Eastern European and Western Siberia). These ridges perform the function of the natural barrier between the Asian and European areas and are among the number of the oldest mountains in the world. Their composition is represented by several parts - polar, south, interior, north-north and medium.

Ural Mountains: where are

A feature of the geographical position of this system is the length of the north direction of the south direction. Hill smacked mainland Eurasia, mainly two countries - Russia and Kazakhstan. Part of the array extends in the Arkhangelsk, Sverdlovsk, Ortenburg, Chelyabinsk, the Perm region, Bashkortostan. The coordinates of the natural object - the mountains pass parallel to the 60th meridian.

The length of this ridge is more than 2500 km, and the absolute height of the main peak is 1895 m.The average height of the mountains of the Urals is 1300-1400 m.

The highest tops of the array include:

The highest point is on the border that separates the Komi Republic and the territory of Ugra (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug).

The Ural Mountains reach the shores of the Arctic Ocean, then some distance are hidden under water, further into Vaigache and the new Earth Archipelago. Therefore, the array extends in the north for another 800 km. The maximum width of the "stone belt" is approx. 200 km. In places it narrows up to 50 km and more.

Origin story.

Geologists argue that the URAL mountains appear complex as evidenced by the diversity of races in their structure. The mountain ranges are associated with the era of the Gerninsky Fold (late Paleozoa), and their age reaches 600,000,000 years.

The system was formed as a result of a collision of two giant plates. The onset of these events was preceded by a gap in the earth's crust after the expansion occurred over time and the ocean formed.

The researchers believe that the distant ancestors of the modern system underwent significant changes for many years. Today there is the stable situation in the Ural Mountains, and there are no significant movements from the earth to the earth's crust. The last strong earthquake (with a capacity of about 7 points) occurred in 1914.

Nature and wealth of the "stone belt"

Staying in the Ural Mountains, you can admire the impressive species, at a variety of caves, swim in the lake water, test the adrenaline emotions that are undertaken along the river of the raging rivers. It's convenient to get around in any way - on personal cars, buses, or walking.

The animal world of the "stone belt" is diverse. In places of mourning, it is represented by proteins that feed the seeds of conifers. After the arrival of winter, the red-haired animals feed on their own prepared supplies (mushrooms, cedar nuts). There are curtains in the abundance of mountain forests. These predators settle near proteins and hunt them down on a regular basis.

The range of the Ural Mountains is rich in fur. In contrast to the dark Siberian guy, Sobols of the Urals have a reddish color. Hunting these animals is prohibited by law, which allows them to multiply in mountain forests. In the Ural Mountains there is enough space to stay wolves, elk, bears. The mixed forest area is a popular place for a roof. Foxes and Hares - Rusaki live on the plains.

The Ural Mountains hide a multitude of minerals in the depths. Hills make asbestos, platinum, gold deposits. Here, too, there are deposits of precious stones, gold and malachite.

Climate label

Most of the Ural mountain system covers a temperate climatic zone. Moving around the perimeter of the mountains from the north to the south in the summer season can fix the fact that the temperature indicators begin to grow. In summer the temperature fluctuates at + 10-12 degrees in the north and +20 in the south. In winter, the temperature indicators acquire a lower contrast. With the beginning of January, the northern thermometers show around -20 ° C in the south - from -16 to -18 degrees.

The Urals climate is closely related to the air currents arriving from the Atlantic. Most of the rain (up to 800 mm per year) impresses western slopes. In the eastern part, such indicators decrease to 400-500 mm. In winter, this zone of the mountain system is under the influence of anticyclones from Siberia. In the south, you should count on cloudless and cold weather in autumn and winter.

Wipers typical of the local climate are mainly due to the mountain relief. With an increase in altitude, the weather acquires greater severity, and temperature indicators vary significantly on different parts of the slopes.

Description of the local attractions

Ural mountains can be proud of many attractions:

  1. Park "Oleni Streams."
  2. Reserve "Rezhevskaya".
  3. Kungur cave.
  4. Ice fountain in Zyuratkul Park.
  5. "Bazhovsky places."

Park "Oleni Streams" Located in the town of the Lower Sergi. Fans of ancient history will be an interesting local rock of script made from drawings by artists of ancient times. Other outstanding places of this park are represented by caves and a big failure. Here you can walk along the special paths, visit the viewing platforms, cross the right place along the cable car.

Reserve "Rezhevskaya" Manited all connoisseurs of gemstones. This protected area has deposits of precious and semi-embossed stones. It is possible to walk here alone - it is possible to stay in the reserve area only under the supervision of the staff.

The reserve's territory crosses the River Rezh. On her right bank is the Shearan Stone. Many Urals consider him magical and help solve various problems. That is why people who want to fulfill their dreams are constantly walking into the stone.

length Kungur ice cave - about 6 kilometers, of which tourists can only visit the fourth part. It can see numerous lakes, grottos, stalactites and stalagmites. There is a special backlight to enhance the visual effects. The cave is bound by a constant minus temperature. To enjoy these beauties, you must have winter clothes with you.

From the "Zyuratkul" national park, it replaced itself in the Satska region of the Satska of the Chelyabinsk region, arose due to the creation of a geological well. It is worth looking at only in winter. This underground fountain freezes in the frost and takes on the shape of a 14-meter icicle.

Park "Bazhovsky Places" Associated with the famous and beloved book "Malachit-Sargket". At this place there were full-fledged conditions for vacationers. You can take a fascinating walk on foot, ride a bike, ride a horse, admire the picturesque landscapes.

Everyone can cool off here in the Waterssee or climb to the level of markings. In the summer season, numerous extreme lovers arrive in the bazhovskiy seats to precisely shape the flow of the mountain rivers. In winter, in the park in the park, you can not experience less adrenaline while going on a snowmobile.

Recreation bases in the ancients

For visitors to the Ural Mountains, all the necessary conditions are created. The recreation centers are located in places removed from the noisy civilization, in the quiet corners of unspoiled nature, often on the shores of local lakes. Depending on personal preferences, you can stay here in the complexes with modern design or in buildings under the old days. In any case, travelers are waiting for comfort and polite, caring staff.

The bases are provided for renting cross-country skiing, kayaking, tubing, snowmoving with an experienced driver. Mangal zones traditionally placed on the territory of the guest zone, a Russian bath with billiards, children's playhouses and playgrounds. In such places, it is guaranteed to forget about the urban hustle and bustle, and to completely rest on yourself, or with the whole family, to create an unforgettable photo of memory.

Scientists have information that the Ural Mountains appeared 600 million years ago. For the first time they wrote A. Pronessky in his work "Arismapie". Unfortunately, the poem itself has not been preserved for our time. But many scholars of those years referred to their writings.

A bit of history

The explorer of Ptolemy first created the Ural Mountains on the map. Their detailed description superseded the Arab geographer Imaus in his writings. In the Russian state over the Ural Mountains, the historian first mentioned Tatishchev. He started by describing their geographical location.

The mountain range spreads between West Siberian and East European plains. It was Tatishchev who marked the name of this natural size in the geographical report.

Finally he attended the expedition and was sincere met by the abundance of rocks. Communicating with the local population, the scientist borrowed the term "Ural Mountains". Translated from the Tatar word "ural" means "stone belt". The first question that comes to mind: "What is the height of the Ural Mountains?"

Tatishchev concluded that the highest point is a people's mountain. Its height is 1895 meters. The width of the Ural Ridge as a whole ranges from 40 to 160 kilometers. And the length is fixed over 2000 km. It is noteworthy that as soon as the mountains of the Ural Mountains did not give way to Sayanam and Himalayas!

Climate and vegetation.

The neighborhood of the Ural Ridge is richly covered in coniferous forests, and at an altitude of over 850 meters, the beginning of the Fierotundra, the Belt Tundra, extends even higher. The southern areas of the mountains are covered with a quilted carpet, but their area is small. In the northern zones of the mountains, the tundra coatings predominate. This is an excellent pasture and walking for deer that are employed in local residents on the local residents.

As for the Ural Mountains climate, it is moderately continental. Winter time comes early in these places, the snow falls in September. It lies all year round. Even in July, small layers of snowflakes are visible on the ground. And the height of the Ural Mountains allows the white bed to lie all year round.

Despite the fact that in summer the air temperature reaches in +34 degrees, it cannot be called hot. Due to the constant winds and the relatively low temperatures in winter (-56 degrees), the Ural climate is recognized as harsh.

Water resources and natural fossils

The newcomer who turned out to be in the Urals will be pleasantly surprised to see the abundance of local robusts and creeks addressing each other. Only lakes on the plain next to the mountains are 3327 pieces. The deepest reservoir of the Urals recognized the price lake. Its boiler has space for about 0.79 cubic meters. Water kilometers. And its depth reaches 136 meters!

Travelers noticed that the water in all the reservoirs of the Urals is transparent and amazing with its purity. Only after the rain does it help if its level rises sharply in the pit. The prevailing heights of the Ural Mountains are 1000-1500 meters. These include the Pechora pool, which produces hard coal.

The Ural Mountains are also famous for minerals: oil, peat, natural gas. This region is a real warehouse with large supplies of copper, nickel and zinc ore. In addition, natural arrays are stored and precious metals: silver, gold and placer platinum.

Modern researchers emphasize that in the zone of the southern Urals there is an important point of wood mining. Forest conservation is the main task of the Ural mountain systems. So far, this territory is under guard, as famous parks and reserves are located here: Serpleiyewski, Ilmensky, Ashinsky.

Birds and animals of the Urals

Perhaps some readers will insert the height of the Ural Mountains and lead to the question: "What is the flora and fauna in these places?" The most common view of birds - the crusaders, then follow the tits that feed on the pupae on caterpillars and insect eggs.

Even in the mountain forests of the Urals, it is easy to fuck: cuckoo, cuckoo, crossroads, stars, daw, naughty and audio.It is curious that a little bird of the kings lives in conifer borders. Locals who have named their "Ural Hummingbirds" as its calf size is less than the matchbox. For almost all birds living in these parts, wild berries, fruits and trees seeds are important. Such marbles, like northern food and tetherov, feed a cheese and cedar seed.

Endangered Species

The average height of the Ural Mountains is mainly no more than 800 meters. This is the lowest part of the array, also known as the middle of the Urals. The number of animals and birds in these places causes a fear of specialists.

They believe some species are difficult to sustain right now. These include: Exhaust, European Mink, Eagle-Grab, Swan-Clikun, Sumpf-Lun. Hence, most of them are listed in the red book. More than 6 species of the Diatlav and the rare sight of the Oran Belochpost are recorded in the zone of the Ural Mountains. There are birds of prey in the steppe zones: Korean, falcon and hawk.

Different residents

Almost all forests of the Urals can be found foxes and wolves. Basically, they hunt the ROE, deer and hares. Tundra, in turn, rich in mountains and sand. Lucky Wolverine loves coniferous forests, and the cuckoon and a formidable brown bear live in a thick taiga.

Some hikers emphasize that the most common animals live in the Ural Bergstone. However, one interesting animal is inhabited in the conifer array. It's roughly the same size as the usual protein. Its wool looks yellow with a gray tint.

The oddity of the animal is in the structure of the skeleton: it looks like it resembles a large bat. True, without wings. Feels different insects and bird eggs. Infinite can be said about the Ural landscapes. The world of vegetables and animals is so diverse here!

Perhaps curious travelers, except for the question: "What is the absolute height of the Ural Mountains?", It will be interesting to see this place first - the People's Mountain. It was mentioned at the beginning of the topic.

The famous elevation can be balbbar with pure lakes and lock bottoms. There are also mysterious glaciers and luxurious alpine meadows on the mountain. It is best not to limit yourself by correspondence, but really visit these wonderful places.

One of the first to put the Urals Mountains on the map was Ptolemy. Russians in the XI century called the Urals with a terrestrial belt or a large stone. Travelask tells us about the highest point of this mountain system.

Ural Recordsman.

The highest peak of the Urals Mountain is Mount People. Its height is 1895 meters. Opened it in 1927 geologist A.n. Aleshkov during the expedition to the northern Urals.

Outwardly, against the background of the rest of the salvaging of the Suillar-Ancient, it does not know of anything but a powerful height.

Geographically, the mountain is on the border of the Khanty-Mansiysk district of the Khanty-Mansiysk region of the Tyumen and the Komi Republic, and if we talk about the top of the top, it will be shifted towards the Khanty-Mansiysk district. Although this apex was in the hard-to-reach area of ​​the polar currant, from the day of the mountain, this place has become a popular zone for tourists and lovers of romance.

Mount People is very picturesque: there are lakes hidden from prying eyes, glaciers and snow flames.

The area is an alpine relief with deep gorges and purer slopes.

About the title

In fact, the mountain has 2 names: Naro'y and Yeodnaya, that is, with an emphasis on the second and first syllables. The first name is quite understandable - the mountain, along the illegal rules of communism, dedicated to all Soviet goods. The second name is explained by the fact that the foot of the mountain flows the Na'rod River.

Also in the literature of the Komi Republic there are names in the KOMI language derived from the name of the river, "Na'Rod" or "Na'Rod-from", used in the middle of the twentieth century.

On the opening of the mountain

In general, the Ural Mountains are famous for the fact that the highest peak could not be determined here for long.

For a long time the highest point of the Urals Mountain was considered a mountain saber, its height is 1497 meters. Then this title went to the top of the Telpos-von, of which the height is 1617 meters. As a research, the championship took Mount Manaraga, the height of which was originally determined at 1660 meters and then at 1820 meters. Well, and then for the first place "fought" Manaraga and people, as a result, the first top turned out, which was lower here, and the championship got Folk.

Research expeditions

The history of research of the territory of the people is not very rich. The thing is, these areas are difficult to access: they are hundreds of kilometers from the nearest settlements.

The first expedition by scientists who were visited here between 1843 and 1845. It was enlarged by the Hungarian researcher Antal. He listed the mountain by a different name - Poe-urr. This group of researchers studied the life and language of the Mansi people, their beliefs and customs. It was on order until the relationship of the Finnish, Hungarian, Hungarian, khanty and Mansiysk languages ​​was established for the first time.

About climbing

People are a simple mountain, even a person who is not engaged in mountaineering can conquer the apex. However, they need to be in good condition as the campaign itself lasts about a week on average because to the mountain you have to go to go.

For those who wish, there are even hiking trails with an instructor and with the provision of the necessary equipment, the average value of which is 15 thousand rubles per person. The best time to climb is summer.

Inta Station Station, 4 o'clock, light. Polar day. We're sitting on our rucksacks with the Nataska, looking around, the boys looking for a wake that will bring us to the range.

From here our ascent of mountain folk begins. This is the highest point of the Urals - 1885 m. It is located in the addicting Urals, on the territory of the National Park "Yugyd VA". By the way, you need permission to visit the park with a prescribed route and stops. We did it through the internet :) We, a bit risky, we go without an instructor and check our strengths and knowledge. Therefore I am worried :) The driver was not absent, the Vaktovka won full, mostly tourists, many came out on the desired turbo. And our end point is a large Balabanta lake. From the lake we are two more days walking from the folk.

The hardest part of the hike was getting to the mountain and back: overnight in the wilderness, the severity of the backpacks, the mosquitos, the strong winds ... the climb wasn't difficult, the climbing gear is not required, the weather is lucky that The main thing is on the slope to walk on the stones, and not from Mku, otherwise you can fall into the crack.

The brightest impression on the top was the popular route :))

How to prepare

  • a large number of mosquitoes, repellants will not help, so you need to take gloves and a mosquito net;
  • it is better to go from July to August, the warmest time, in winter it is possible to go only on skis;
  • changeable weather, warm clothes should be with you;
  • GPS, paper maps and compass;
  • wild animals, including bears, so we had an edge off of Fiels;
  • prepare for the transition of rivers and swamps
  • make sure you get permission from the park administration;
  • make sure you take the gas burner, there is practically no firewood in the mountains, a tent and sleeping bag.

Without the experience of multi-day tourist walks you go on the people, very dangerous without an instructor!

P. If time and strength allow, I advise you to go to Manaragu. This is a mountain close to the people who are impressed by the beauty of its pointed peaks.