What is a typical bacterium
What are bacteria
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Eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Bacteria are the simplest form of life on our planet. A fundamental distinction is made between them and other cells. In contrast to organisms such as algae, fungi, plants, animals and humans, bacteria lack a cell nucleus.
Scientists refer to them as "prokaryotes" - cells without a nucleus. Opposite them are the "eukaryotes", which comprise all other cells.
Bacteria are single cells. Some live together in clusters, but these are not real associations that would maintain an exchange of substances. Most of the time they are physically attached to each other because their walls did not pinch off properly after they were divided.
The genetic information of the bacterial cell is exposed in the cell sap - just arranged in a ring in a nucleus-like region. They lack mitochondria and chloroplasts. Both are organelles that are enclosed by double membranes and take on crucial metabolic processes in the cell.
Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell because they ensure energy production with their cell respiration. They are found in the cells of animals and plants.
Chloroplasts are used for photosynthesis and contain the green plant matter that mainly colors the leaves. Instead of organelles, bacteria have simple protein structures that have taken on the functions of generating energy in a similar way.
With the discovery of archaebacteria around 1980, the bacteria were split internally into archaea and bacteria (also archaebacteria and Eu bacteria).
Research has shown that the two groups are far too different. They must have developed independently at a very early stage in life. Both are now only grouped together as prokaryotes.
Bacilli, cocci and spirils
The three main forms of the classic bacteria are the rod-shaped bacilli, round cocci and curved to screwed spirils.
The rods include our intestinal bacterium Escherichia Coli, the causative agents of tetanus, diphtheria, tuberculosis and numerous plant diseases such as fire blight on pears and apples and mucus rot in tomatoes and bananas.
Cocci include the germs of pneumonia and meningitis. Spirilles are rare. Bacteria are exposed using different staining solutions and staining methods. The first rough classification includes the so-called Gram staining, which makes the cell walls appear purple.
There are bacteria that breathe oxygen; those that can exist both without and with oxygen and those that cannot tolerate oxygen. The reproduction takes place via cell division.
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