What is the chemical symbol lanthanum
Lanthanum - chemical symbol La, atomic number 57 - is a silver-white, ductile chemical element of the scandium group, the initial member of the lanthanoids and a heavy metal from the group of rare earth metals, occurring in three modifications.
Overview: General data on lanthanum
The La atom - and thus the chemical element lanthanum - is clearly defined by the 57 positively charged protons in the atomic nucleus. The same number of electrons ensures the electrical balance in the uncharged lanthanum atom.
The nuclear building blocks of the neutrons ensure that there are differences between the atomic nuclei. These types of atoms are under the term Lanthanum isotopes summarized (isotope data: see there).
The earthly lanthanum deposits consist of a mixture of two lanthanum isotopes of different mass; the relative atomic mass of lanthanum is given as 138.90547 (7) u.
|La||57||[Xe] 5d1 6s2||2||2||6||2||6||10||2||6||10||2||6||1||2|
The following table lists the binding energies or the ionization energies IE of the lanthanum, i.e. the energy required in electron volts (eV) to separate a specific electron from a La atom.
|1. IE:||5.5769 eV||2. IE:||11.059 eV||3. IE:||19.1774 eV||4. IE:||49.95 eV||5. IE:||61.6 eV||6. IE:||eV|
Electron binding energy
The following table lists the electron binding energies of the individual lanthanum electrons in the respective orbitals. The values are given in electron volts (eV).
Spectral lines of the lanthanum
The following figure shows an emission spectrum of the lanthanum with the characteristic spectral lines in the visible wavelength range between 400 and 700 nm:
Normal potential of the lanthanum:
|E.0 (V)||Nox||Name Ox.||Ox.||e-||⇔||Red.||Name Red.||Nox|
|-2,9||+ III||Lanthanum hydroxide||La (OH)3||+ 3 e-||⇔||La (s) + 3 OH-||Lanthanum||0|
|-2,379||+ III||Lanthanum (III) cation||La3+||+ 3 e-||⇔||Read)||Lanthanum||0|
Material and physical properties of lanthanum
The following table lists some physical data and material properties of the pure metallic lanthanum.
 - C. G. Mosander:
About cerium, lanthanum and didymium, as well as ytter earth, erbium and terbium.
In: Justus Lebig's Annals of Chemistry, 1843, DOI 10.1002 / jlac.18430480218.
 - C. G. Mosander:
About the new metals lanthanium and didymium accompanying the cerium, as well as about the new metals erbium and terbium occurring with the ytterede.
In: Annals of Physics, 1843, DOI 10.1002 / andp.18431361008.
 - C. G. Mosander:
About cerium, lanthanium and didymium.
In: Pharmacy Archives, 1844, DOI 10.1002 / ardp.18440870127.
 - Jörg Wittig:
The electronic structure of lanthanum and cerium.
In: Physical sheets, 1977, DOI 10.1002 / phbl. 19770330305, open access.
External information offers
Group items - information
Extraction and separation of lanthanides. FH Münster - Format: PDF
Lecture materials: chemistry of metals. University of Freiburg
Discovery of the lanthanoids; Peculiarities of the lanthanoids; Electron configurations; Ion exchange process; Lanthanide contraction; Oxidation states; Use. University of Bayreuth
General, separation, extraction, properties, 4f orbitals etc. Bielefeld University
Lecture notes: Chemistry of Metals. University of Freiburg
Lanthanum and lanthanum compounds
Chemical database: physical and chemical properties, safety data sheets, commercially available substances and compounds; various search criteria including structure search
Synthesis, manufacture, production
Analysis and determination
Organometallic chemistry and reagents
Geochemistry and biogeochemistry
Minerals containing lanthanum
Information on lanthanum and the lanthanum minerals. Minerals Atlas
Rare earth minerals
List and percentage composition of the individual rare earths contained in nature occurring minerals
Complexes of zinc, cadmium, lanthanum, cerium and samarium. Dissertation, 2005. University of Kaiserslautern
Lanthanide-labeled peptides and nucleic acids
Synthesis and bioanalytical application of lanthanide-labeled peptides and nucleic acids. University of Heidelberg, 2009
Lanthanide metal surfaces
Scanning tunnel spectroscopy on lanthanide metal surfaces. Correlated electronic structure and dynamics of excited states. Dissertation, 2004. FU Berlin
Lanthanoid alkyl aluminates
Dissertation, 2001. Technical University of Munich - Format: PDF
Oxide and hydroxide phases
Representation of oxide and hydroxide phases containing lanthanides: new concepts for controlling morphology and functional properties. Saarland University, 2009
Polyfunctional ligand systems
Syntheses and structures of new lanthanide and mercury complexes with polyfunctional ligand systems. University of Göttingen, 2003
Synthesis and characterization of compounds of the lanthanoids with sigma-bound ligands. University of Göttingen, 2008
Articles and reports
Lanthanum chloride catalyzes hydrogen-chlorine exchange between chlorinated hydrocarbons. Article, June 2008
Category: Chemical elements
Updated on 24.02.2020.
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