A technical drawing is required for the architecture

ARCHITECTS AND CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERS

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1 DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION PROF. GOTTFRIED MÜLLER PRESENTATION PRINCIPLES I TECHNICAL DRAWING ARCHITECTS AND CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERS ARCHITECTURE LANGUAGE Verbal Visual Drawing Model Photo Visualization Technical drawing Sketch TU DORTMUND I FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE AND CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING STATE 2016

2 PRESENTATION PRINCIPLES I TECHNICAL DRAWING 5th EDITION SUMMER SEMESTER 2016 (IN REVISION) Editor Technische Universität Dortmund Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering Department of Architectural Representation Prof. Gottfried Müller August-Schmidt-Straße Dortmund Dipl. Ing. Sophia Pachiadakis Dr. Ing.Mechthild Sternberg TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

3 BASIS OF PRESENTATION PROJECTION METHOD MORE BLACKBOARD PROJECTION PRINCIPLE PLAN I VIEW I CUT axonometries drawings I REPRESENTATION TOOLS SHEET FORMATS TO DIN NORM BASELINE TYPES PLAN HEAD AND LEGEND UNITS I GENERAL CHARACTER I STAIRS OPENING TYPES SUPPORT DIRECTIONS I PRESENTATION OF OPENING TYPES hatching SYMBOLS MÖBLIERUNGEN TREES pawns I VEHICLES PEOPLE SHADOWS CONSTRUCTION Modular dimensions OPENING MASS I EXTERIOR DIMENSIONS I PROJECTION DIMENSIONS DIMENSIONS AND STONE SIZES DIMENSIONS IN THE PLAN M. 1: 100 IN THE FLOOR PLAN M. 1:50 IN SECTION M. 1: PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M. 1: 500 M. 1: 250 ON THE EXAMPLE LOCATION PLAN M. 1: 100 ON THE EXAMPLE DRAFT PLANNING 1:50 EXAMPLE EXECUTION PLANNING 1:20 M. 1:10 EXAMPLE DETAIL PLANNING SOURCES I RECOMMENDED LITERATURE APPENDICES TO THE SCRIPT BUILDING ENGINEERS TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES

4 PROJECTION TYPES MULTI-PANEL PROJECTION THE PRINCIPLE FLOOR PLAN I VIEW I SECTION TU DORTMUND I DOCUMENTATION ARCHITECTURAL I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

5 PROJECTION TYPES THE MULTI-PANEL PROJECTION FLOOR PLAN, VIEW AND SECTION are the types of drawing with which the draftsman can represent and analyze an imaginary three-dimensional body. These drawings are the result of orthogonal parallel projection or multi-panel projection. The geometries of a 3-dimensional body are projected onto projection surfaces in a right-angled coordinate system. These projection surfaces are unfolded and 2-dimensional, interrelated drawings are created, which depict the geometries of the 3-dimensional object in a mathematically unambiguous manner, true to scale and at the correct angle. Construction drawings such as floor plans, sections and views can be produced according to this principle. Floor plan and section are created by mentally cutting away parts of the whole and viewing the resulting cut surfaces as an independent two-dimensional drawing. In the case of the floor plan, the incision is made in the horizontal direction; in the case of a cut (longitudinal or cross-section), the incision is in the vertical direction. Sectional drawings show the relationship between solid and hollow or inside and outside. An impression of depth is created through the use of different line widths. The wider lines indicate the area that has been cut through, the narrow lines indicate the components that have not been cut and e.g. Furnishings. In contrast, when viewing the viewer, the viewer is guided around the side surfaces of the viewed object without the body being cut. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

6 PROJECTION TYPES THE PRINCIPLE FLOOR PLAN I VIEW I SECTION Image source: Material for the lectures, Chair for Design, Interior Design and Presentation Basics, TU Dortmund 1989 FLOOR PLAN "The floor plan is the top view of the lower part of a horizontally cut building object." VIEW The view shows the outer facade or a wall development inside the building. Here mainly two-dimensional relationships are shown, in contrast to the sectional drawings, which depict three-dimensional relationships. In the views, the proportions of the building and the representation of the open and closed wall surfaces are in the foreground. Materials can also be indicated by different structures. DIN TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

7 PROJECTION TYPES THE PRINCIPLE FLOOR PLAN I VIEW I SECTION All points required for the sectional drawing are marked on a sheet of paper placed on top. Image source: Alexander Ratensky, architectural drawing and model construction HORIZONTAL SECTION In floor plans, the horizontal sectional plane lies below and below. so that the essential details, e.g. Walls, or other structural members, stairs, openings for windows and doors are cut. The cutting plane -u.u. also lies in the vertical section. so that the essential details, e.g. Walls, ceilings, stairs, openings such as windows and doors can be cut. Section planes are usually placed at right angles or parallel to the outer surfaces of the structure or component. The position of the vertical sectional plane must be indicated in the floor plan. VERTICAL SECTION The section is the view of the rear part of a vertically cut building object. The structure can be cut lengthways and crossways. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

8 TYPES OF PROJECTION AXONOMETRIES Floor plan axonometry (military perspective) Floor plan axonometry, heights shortened by approx. 1/3 Elevation axonometry, depths shortened by approx. 1/3 Isometry AXONOMETRIES For architects, drawing does not only mean the reproduction of what is seen. The drawing can also analyze and explain objects - not just observed objects, but also thought objects. Axonometry is the generic term for several graphic representation methods that represent a body in all three dimensions at the same time. Axonometric drawings are true to size and very easy to construct because lines that are actually parallel remain parallel in the drawing. Therefore, axonometry is a very helpful and popular form of representation in architecture. Floor plan axonometry or military perspective is an axonometric representation that is based on an undistorted floor plan. The original floor plan is adopted and rotated on a corner of the building (preferably by 30). All heights are vertical and can be taken over in true size. The heights can also e.g. can be shortened by about a third to reduce the very stretched effect. Floor plan axonometry is probably the most commonly used axonometric representation in architectural representation. In contrast to floor plan axonometry, elevation axonometry or cavalier perspective is based on an undistorted elevation (front view) or an undistorted section. The contour lines are drawn here at an angle of usually 30, 60 or 45. Again, the contour lines can be shortened by a third to reduce distortion. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

9 TYPES OF PROJECTION AXONOMETRIES I EXAMPLES Student Work, The Tower Erwin Heerich Francis DK Ching Explosive Isometry, Miller Hull Partnership, Ching Cabin from Small Houses Student Work Floor Plan Axonometry, Theresa Lang Isometry "All three sides are shown unabridged. Both deep lines run at 30 angles to Horizontal, so that the base is distorted. Isometry is used when the essentials are to be shown on a body in three equivalent views, but it is not suitable (as can be seen on the cube) for the representation of centrally symmetrical objects. The isometric projection is standardized (according to DIN 5 Part 1). " 1 1 Ralf Janaszek Gorman Residenz, Amagansett, New York Julian and Barbara Neski 1968 Axonometric drawings are well suited for this, e.g. To explain and analyze buildings or objects in addition to the subjective image impression (perspective) - regardless of whether they are observed or imagined objects. The analytical drawing goes beyond the mere observation of the object. It can examine buildings and objects and take them apart. Technical and spatial relationships are usually easier to explain than with a perspective representation or a photo. Villa Garches, Le Corbusier Gehlen, Architectural Drawing TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

10 PROJECTION TYPES AXONOMETRIES I EXAMPLES Edward R. Ford, The Detail in Modern Architecture Haus Hermann Lange Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Krefeld Exterior 6.2 Structural Scheme 6.3 Facade Section TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

11 PROJECTION TYPES AXONOMETRIES I EXAMPLES Osamu Ishiyama, from Roland Knauer Designing and Representing Kurt Ackermann, Basics for Designing and Constructing TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL DISPLAY I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

12 drawings I REPRESENTATION TOOLS SHEET FORMATS TO DIN NORM BASELINE TYPES PLAN HEAD AND LEGEND UNITS I GENERAL CHARACTER I STAIRS OPENING TYPES SUPPORT DIRECTIONS I PRESENTATION OF OPENING TYPES hatching SYMBOLS MÖBLIERUNGEN TREES pawns I VEHICLES PEOPLE SHADOWS CONSTRUCTION TU DORTMUND I TEACHING AREA ARCHITECTURE PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

13 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I PRESENTATION TOOLS Drawing brooms I Sharpeners I Pencils I Erasers Line drawing rails TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

14 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I PRESENTATION TOOLS Drawing triangle Triangle circle stencil Lettering stencil Eraser stencil Tear strips TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

15 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I REPRESENTATIONS OF SHEET FORMATS ACCORDING TO DIN I FOLDING PLANS SHEET FORMATS A-ROW DIN A7 74 mm x 105 mm DIN A6 105 mm x 148 mm DIN A5 148 mm x 210 mm DIN A4 210 mm x 297 mm DIN A3 297 mm x 420 mm DIN A2 420 mm x 594 mm DIN A1 594 mm x 841 mm DIN A0 841 mm x 1189 mm FOLDING PLANS Image source: Alexander Ratensky, architectural drawing and model making The paper size follows the respective national standards. In the German-speaking area, the DIN paper formats are used almost exclusively as standard sizes. (DIN: German Institute for Standardization e.v.). Series A, B and C are defined in DIN 476. The A series includes the well-known paper formats for standard documents such as letters or technical drawings. The B series is often used in letterpress printing and the C series provides formats for e.g. Envelopes available. Enlargements between paper formats: The width / height ratio for all DIN formats is 1.41, which corresponds to the square root of 2. If e.g. If a document is enlarged from A4 to A3, all lengths and widths are multiplied by the factor 1.41. Incidentally, this doubles the paper surface. For a letter that is 1.00 cm tall in the A4 printout, this means that it is 1.41 cm tall in the A3 printout. The DIN paper formats have now also been adopted by the as an international standard in the ISO 216 paper size system. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

16 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I REPRESENTATION OF STANDARD WRITINGS Extract from EN ISO: Fig. 1 Extract from EN ISO: Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 An essential part of technical drawings is the labeling (dimensions, characters, designations, text). It should be clearly legible, in its detail appropriate to the scale of the drawing and at least 2.5 mm high. The standard font is an internationally used font with large and small letters that are available in four different forms in terms of font width and inclination. Font form A narrow, B medium width Font inclination v-vertical, k-italic DIMENSIONS The nominal size of a font is the height (h) of the outer contour of the capital letters (see Figure 1 and Tables 1 and 2). The dimensions contained in Figures 1 to 3 are shown using the example of the Latin alphabet (L). They are also applicable to the Cyrillic (C) and the Greek (G) alphabet. LOCATION OF THE CENTER LINE The center line is determined using the nominal dimension (h) and the distance between the characters (a) (see Figures 4 and 5). Tables 1 and 2 contain additional dimensions. H 1 = h - d a 1 = a + d For CAD fonts (see ISO), the dimensions must be the same as when using other techniques. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

17 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I REPRESENTATION OF STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS Extract from EN ISO: Table 1, dimensions of the written form A ROW OF NOMINAL DIMENSIONS The row of nominal dimensions is defined as: 1.8 mm; 2.5mm; 3.5mm; 5 mm; 7 mm, 10 mm, 14 mm, 20 mm. The ratio of root 2 in the series of font heights is derived from the standardized series of dimensions for paper formats. (see ISO 216). ANGLE OF INCLINATION OF THE WRITING The writing may be carried out vertically (steeply), see Figures 1 to 5, or inclined by 75º to the right in relation to the horizontal (see Figure 6). The line widths correspond to ISO. The same line width must be used for upper and lower case letters. Extract from EN ISO: Figure 6 TU DORTMUND I ARCHITECTURAL DEPARTMENT I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

18 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I REPRESENTATION OF STANDARD WRITINGS Extract from EN ISO: Table 2, dimensions of the written form B WRITTEN FORMS The following forms of writing are defined in the ISO: Writing A, vertical (V) Writing A, inclined (S) Writing B, vertical (V) (preferred application ) Writing B, inclined (S) Writing CA, vertical (V) Writing CA, inclined (S) Writing CB, vertical (preferred application) Writing CB, inclined (S) Dimensions see table 1 Dimensions see table 2 see ISO (for the use of numerically controlled drawing in CAD). TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

19 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I PRESENTATION OF LINE TYPES Table 1: Line types Table 2: Line widths Extract from DIN I February 1995 TU DORTMUND I DOCUMENTATION ARCHITECTURE I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

20 BUILDING DRAWINGS I PRESENTATIONS PLANKOPF AND LEGEND Example plan header Example legend sample plan headers PLANKOPF Every construction drawing is prescribed with a title block for reasons of allocation and designation. It is generally placed in the lower right. The size and design of the title block depend on the desired sheet size and the planning phase. The plan header contains the following information: the designation of the building project with exact address name and address of the builder name and address of the architect (engineer) name and address of the specialist planner signature or abbreviation of the draftsman Plan designation, plan content (eg floor plan 1st floor) Service phase (eg draft planning) Plan number Date of issue Scale of any changes with date LEGEND The legend is placed above the title block. It can contain the following information on building materials Abbreviations for components Explanation of symbols, hatching Abbreviations for dimension references, location descriptions, height information Notes on execution Cross-references to other drawings. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

21 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I REPRESENTATIONS OF UNITS OF MEASUREMENT I GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS I STAIRS The choice of units of measurement depends on the construction type or the type of structure. It is advisable to indicate the units of measurement used in connection with the scale in the text field (e.g. 1:50 - m, cm). Table 3: Units of measurement Extract from DIN I February 1995 Table 5: Gradient directions Extract from DIN I February 1995 Table 4: General symbols Extract from DIN I February 1995 Representation of stairs and ramps Bert Bielefeld, Isabella Skiba I Technical drawing TU DORTMUND I DIVISION OF ARCHITECTURE I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

22 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I PRESENTATION TYPES OF OPENING Table 6: Types of openings Extract from DIN I February 1995 TU DORTMUND I DOCUMENTATION ARCHITECTURAL I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

23 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I PRESENTATION TYPES OF OPENING I PORTAL DIRECTIONS I SCALE-DEPENDENT PRESENTATION OF OPENINGS Table 7: Load-bearing direction Extract from DIN I February 1995 Table 6: Opening types Extract from DIN I February 1995 Scale-dependent illustration of walls, doors and windows Bert Bielefeld, Isabella Skiba DORTM I technical drawing I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

24 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I REPRESENTATION OF HATCHED DRAWINGS Representation of materials Bert Bielefeld, Isabella Skiba I Technical drawing Table 8: Marking of the cut surfaces, see also ISO excerpt from DIN I February 1995 TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL DISPLAY I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS 2016

25 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I PRESENTATION OF SYMBOLS M. 1: 100 I 1:50 Bert Bielefeld, Isabella Skiba I Technical Drawing TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

26 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I PRESENTATION OF SYMBOLS M. 1: 100 I 1:50 Bert Bielefeld, Isabella Skiba I Technical Drawing TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

27 BUILDING DRAWINGS I REPRESENTATIONS OF FURNITURE M. 1:25 Alexander Ratensky I Architectural drawing and model making TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL DISPLAY I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

28 BUILDING DRAWINGS I REPRESENTATION OF TREES Alexander Ratensky I Architectural drawing and model making TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL REPRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

29 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I REPRESENTATIONS OF TREES I VEHICLES Alexander Ratensky I Architectural drawing and model making TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL REPRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

30 BUILDING DRAWINGS I REPRESENTATIONS OF PERSONS Alexander Ratensky I Architectural drawing and model making TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL REPRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

31 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS I SHADOW CONSTRUCTIONS Alexander Ratensky I Architectural drawing and model making TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL DISPLAY I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

32 BUILDING DRAWINGS I DRAWINGS SHADOW CONSTRUCTION Alexander Ratensky I Architectural drawing and model making TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

33 DIMENSIONS OPENING DIMENSIONS I EXTERIOR DIMENSIONS I PROJECTION DIMENSIONS DIMENSIONS AND STONE SIZES TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL DISPLAY I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

34 BUILDING DIMENSIONS OPENING DIMENSIONS I OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS I PROJECTION DIMENSIONS OPENING DIMENSIONS 76cm 6 x 12.5cm = 75cm + 1cm joint OUTER DIMENSIONS 99cm 8 x 12.5cm = 100cm - 1cm joint PROJECTION DIMENSIONS 100cm 8 x 12.5cm = 100cm BUILDING STANDARD DIMENSIONS are the individual figures and the structural standards -, shell and extension dimensions. The BAURICHTMASS is a grid dimension that is used, for example, for masonry. The base unit corresponds to the eighth part of a meter, i.e. 12.5 cm, see DIN 4172 (dimensioning in building construction). Installation dimensions are the theoretical basis for building dimensions in practice. They are dimensions of components including their joints. The NOMINAL DIMENSIONS is obtained by subtracting the width of a joint. Built-in components (e.g. windows and doors) are also often manufactured to the overall dimensions. If you add to the component, e.g. To a brick of cm width, add a mortar joint of 1 cm, the sum of stone and joint is again the standard construction dimension (25 cm). The nominal dimensions are dimensions that the buildings should have. You will usually entered in construction drawings. In the case of designs without joints, the nominal dimensions are the same as the nominal dimensions. Nominal dimensions result from the type of construction: The OPENING DIMENSION (also internal dimension) results from the creation of openings such as for windows or doors. The width of a second joint is added to the standard size. The EXTERIOR DIMENSIONS is 1 cm shorter because the mortar joint is missing on the last stone (stone + joint = standard structural dimension). The PROJECTION DIMENSION (also mounting dimension) corresponds to the 12.5 cm grid, as it has a joint on the adjoining side, but not on the free side (see DIN 4172). TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

35 GUARANTEE DIMENSIONS DIMENSIONS AND STONE SIZES PROJECTION DIMENSIONS OPENING DIMENSIONS EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS The basic dimensions of masonry heights for thin-bed and seamless construction are preferably planned in a 25 cm grid: 25 cm; 50 cm; 75 cm; 1.00 m. Fractions of the 25 cm grid lead to the layer heights 25 cm / 2 = 12.5 cm 25 cm / 3 = 8.33 cm 25 cm / 4 = 6.25 cm. In the case of masonry made of bricks with mortar bed joints, a layer height consists of the bed joint height plus the stone height. The stone heights are standardized, e.g.: 23.8 11.3 7.1 5.2 cm cm cm The difference between the layer and stone height results in the horizontal joint size: 25 cm - 23.8 cm = 1.2 cm 8.33 cm - 7.1 cm = 1.23 cm 12.5 cm - 11.3 cm = 1.2 cm 6.25 cm - 5.2 cm = 1.05 cm There are three options for wall dimensions as for length dimensions (n ​​= Number of layers): Bottom and top without horizontal joint nx layer height minus horizontal joint height Bottom or top with one horizontal joint = nx layer height Bottom and upper side with one horizontal joint each = nx layer height plus vertical joint height. In the case of standing wall layers, roll and grenade layers, the joints are considered to be horizontal joints, although they are vertical. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

36 BUILDING DIMENSIONS DIMENSIONS AND STONE FORMATS TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

37 DIMENSIONS IN PLAN, 1: 100 IN PLAN, 1:50 IN SECTION 1: 100 TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

38 DIMENSIONS IN THE FLOOR PLAN M. 1: a 1 2 Overall external dimensions, protruding and recessed dimensions 3a Outer walls (wall development from the outside) (width / height of the window openings from the outside) 4 Wall thicknesses and interior dimensions 4 3a 3a a Based on: Worksheets for building construction 1999 Chair for Building construction and designing RWTH Aachen University The dimensioning consists of a dimension number, dimension line, dimension line border and extension line. As a rule, dimension figures are to be arranged above the associated, solid dimension line in such a way that they can be read from below or from the right in the position of use of the drawing. If there are several parallel dimensional chains, the dimensional chains must be arranged from the inside to the outside according to the position of the components to be dimensioned. The summarizing dimensions are on the outside. The dimensions in the 1: 100 floor plan basically consist of: Overall external dimensions, projecting and recessed dimensions of the building structure External walls - External wall development - Width and height of the window openings, external wall thicknesses and interior dimensions. In the case of plans on a scale of 1: 100 (example above), all dimensional chains are outside the floor plan. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

39 DIMENSIONS IN THE FLOOR PLAN M. 1: a 3b 4 5 Overall external dimensions, protruding and recessed dimensions, outer walls (wall development from the outside) (width / height of the window openings from the outside) Outer walls (wall development from the inside) (width / height of the window openings from the inside, parapet heights) Interior dimensions and wall thicknesses inner walls (wall development, height of the inner door openings) 3b b 3b 4 4 3b 5 4 opening width opening height The outer dimensional chains (1, 2, 3a) are identical to those on a scale of 1: 100; the interior dimensions of the room, however, are entered within the floor plan. Dimension chains within the representation are to be arranged in such a way that the areas in the middle of the room remain as free as possible. If the height is specified in addition to the width when dimensioning wall openings (doors, windows) in floor plans, the dimension figure for the height is arranged directly below the dimension line. The external dimensions in the 1:50 scale plan (example above) are identical to the dimensions in the 1: 100 scale. The interior dimensions of the room, on the other hand, are entered within the floor plan: exterior walls - interior wall development - width and height of the window openings inside - parapet heights (BRH) interior dimensions of the interior walls (wall development), height of the interior door openings. Based on: Worksheets for Building Construction 1999 Chair for Building Construction and Design RWTH Aachen BRH 0.87 5 Dimensions of openings TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

40 DIMENSIONS IN SECTION M. 1: 100 Wall development (inside), openings shell construction clear room heights Storey heights In the section, height dimensions such as storey heights, clear room heights, clear shell heights, parapet, window, door and lintel heights in the form of dimensional chains as listed above Example drawn. The floor height as a height from the top of the finished construction to the top of the finished construction on the next floor serves as the basis for the height calculation of the entire building. The clear shell height as a height from the top shell structure to the UK shell structure is the most important height measurement for the building contractor. The clear height as a height from the top of the prefabricated structure to the bottom of the prefabricated structure is used in building master drawings as evidence of the minimum heights, e.g. of rooms that are intended for the permanent residence of people. It is advisable to refer to the height of the prefabricated ceiling above the basement with ± 0.00m. OK FF - Upper edge of finished floor OK RF - Upper edge of unfinished floor UK FD - Lower edge of finished ceiling UK RD - Lower edge of raw ceiling Elevation marks in the section Elevation marks in the floor plan of TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

41 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M. 1: 5000 I M. 1: 2000 ON THE EXAMPLE OF BLACK PLAN M. 1: 500 I M. 1: 250 ON THE EXAMPLE OF LOCATION PLAN M. 1: 100 ON THE EXAMPLE OF DESIGN PLANNING M. 1:50 ON THE EXAMPLE OF EXECUTION PLANNING M. 1:20 I M. 1:10 IN THE EXAMPLE DETAIL PLANNING The concrete plan content and its graphic representation depends on the planning phase of the building project. In Germany, in accordance with the service phases of the HOAI (fee schedule for architects and engineers), one speaks of: preliminary planning, draft planning, approval planning and implementation planning. Standards for construction drawings depend on the work phases (LPH). M. 1: 500, 1: 250 (1: 200) LPH 2 I preliminary planning M. 1: 200, 1: 100 LPH 3 I draft planning M. 1: 100 LPH 4 I approval planning M. 1:50, 1:25 ( 1:20), 1:10, 1: 5, 1: 2, 1: 1 LPH 5 I implementation planning. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

42 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M. 1: M. 1: 2000 I SCHWARZPLAN Figure Ground Plan M. 1: 5000 Figure: Baumschlager Eberle, Lochau Figure Ground Plan M. 1: 5000 Figure: Baumschlager Eberle, Lochau Figure Ground Plan M. 1: 5000 Figure: Leon Wohlhage Wernik , Berlin TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

43 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M. 1: 500 - M. 1: 250 I LOCATION PLAN Area plan M. 1: 500 Illustration: agplus architects, Hamburg Area plan M. 1: 500 Illustration: Hayner Architects, Düsseldorf Area plan M. 1: 500 Illustration: Hayner Architects, Düsseldorf TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

44 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M. 1: 500 - M. 1: 250 I LOCATION PLAN Site plan M. 1: 500 I Architect Illustration: Hayner Architects, Düsseldorf The site plan shows the location and the boundaries of a property and usually also the adjacent properties, usually also with a representation of the development. The site plan is part of a building application and is usually created on a scale of 1: 500. The official site plan is created by a publicly appointed surveyor based on an extract from the property map / land map. It must essentially contain the following information: 1. The scale and the position of the building plot to the north (north arrow). 2. Designation of the building plot and the neighboring plots by street, house number, land register and real estate cadastre as well as details of the owner of the plot of land. 3. Legitimate boundaries of the building plot, their lengths as well as its area. 4. Height of the corner points of the building plot or, in the case of larger plots, the height of the narrower construction site above sea level (official reference area for heights above sea level). 5. Width and height of adjacent public traffic areas above sea level. 6. Determination of a development plan or a statute for the building site on the type and extent of the structural use as well as the buildable and non-buildable property areas, in the case of buildings also with information on the number of floors, wall and ridge heights. 7. Monuments within the meaning of the Monument Protection Act on the building site, as well as protected trees on the building site. 8. Areas on the building site that are affected by building loads, as well as areas on the adjacent properties that are affected by building loads in favor of the building site. 9. Existing structures on the building site and their spacing areas as well as the existing building structures on the neighboring properties and their spacing areas that are important for the assessment of the project. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

45 PLANNING LEVELS I EXAMPLES M. 1: 500 - M. 1: 250 I LOCATION PLAN Representation of building line I Building limit in accordance with the Planzeichenverordnung Building limit Display in black / white: dash-dash-dot line Display in color: line color blue The building limit is used to differentiate the Buildable land area. By setting a building limit, an outer line is set in the building area within which buildings can be erected. A building cannot cross this line. However, stepping back is permissible and unproblematic. A building limit is often set when z. B. between the street and a building for urban planning reasons - preservation or development of a certain street or townscape - a certain area as a front garden and horticultural area should be kept free from the development. However, it is also used as a planning instrument when - regardless of the building code regulations - certain distances between the buildings are to be maintained for urban planning reasons. Building line Representation in black / white: dash-dot-dot line Representation in color: Line color red Site plan, scale 1: 250 I Surveyor Images: Hayner Architects, Düsseldorf Just like the building line, the building line serves to differentiate the building area. The main difference to the building boundary, however, is that the definition of a building line does not allow buildings or structures to step forward or step back from this line. A building line can be defined as a front, side and rear boundary, but also as a completely closed line outline. The area surrounded by the building line must then be completely filled with a building. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

46 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M. 1: 100 I DRAFT PLANNING Ground floor plan M. 1: 100 Figure: Hayner Architects, Düsseldorf Design drawings are graphic representations of the worked out design concept of the planned structure and must take into account the contributions of other technical participants in the planning as well as design and construction reveal. They serve the final assessment by the client and are the basis for the approval planning. As a rule, the design drawings are to be shown on a scale of 1: 100, possibly 1: 200. The floor plan in the draft plan contains information about the construction, wall structure, material, doors, windows, furniture and fixtures. The floor plan on a scale of 1: 100 should contain the following information: Indication of the north direction as well as the reference to the access. Wall thicknesses and interior dimensions; Pillar protrusion and opening dimensions, wall development, clear room dimensions of the shell (elevation) and the height of the building above sea level (sea level), door openings with the direction of movement of the doors, window openings and special marking of the building entrances, if necessary, apartment entrances or similar ramps and stairs with details of the gradient ratios, number of gradients and running lines chimneys, channels and shafts facilities for technical expansion operational fittings and furnishings TU DORTMUND I ARCHITECTURAL DEPARTMENT I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

47 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M. 1: 100 I DRAFT PLANNING Floor plan upper floor M. 1: 100 Illustration: Hayner Architects, Düsseldorf Designation of the room use and, if necessary, room numbers according to DIN ISO4157 DIN ISO 7518 the trees to be preserved and the planned design of the open spaces on the building site (traffic areas, green areas), descriptions and information on the components shown are summarized in a legend. The representation of the components, cut components (wide) as well as view lines (narrow), hatching and dimensional chains (very narrow) must be taken into account. The line widths can be found in the DIN. the marking of the cutting plane by the cutting line (e.g. section A-A) TU DORTMUND I ARCHITECTURAL DEPARTMENT I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

48 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M. 1: 100 I DESIGN PLANNING West view M. 1: 100 Illustration: Hayner Architects, Düsseldorf The view shows all visible building edges and facade components. Components that are behind or that are hidden, as well as those below the upper edge (OK) of the terrain are shown in dashed lines. The views are titled according to their position: View south, north, west, east, view south-east, north-west .... View north means the view of the north side of the building; Beethovenstrasse view shows the side of the building facing Beethovenstrasse. The view contains all heights relevant for the building project, ie all height dimensions of the visible components, possibly the existing buildings, as well as the following heights: OK (upper edge) finished floor, first floor, OK eaves, OK first, OK Attic, OK terrain etc. The view should contain the following information: Facade structure including building joints Windows and doors with details of the division and type of opening Upstream steps and stairs Gutters and rain pipes Roof overhangs Chimneys and other technical extensions The existing and planned terrain, if necessary, surrounding surrounding areas to be taken into account Development of outdoor facilities (traffic areas and green areas) TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

49 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M 1: 100 I DRAFT PLANNING Section across M.1: 100 Figure: Hayner Architects, Düsseldorf The section in the draft plan contains, analogous to the view, all heights relevant for the building project, i.e. all height dimensions of the visible components, possibly the existing buildings, as well as the following heights: OK (upper edge) finished floor, first floor, OK eaves , OK First, OK Attika, OK Terrain, etc. The following information is essentially to be presented: Dimensioning: The position of the building in relation to the property The dimensioning of the building structure and components: parapet windows and lintel heights, and the height of the building above NN (sea level) clear room height ramps and stairs with indication of the gradient ratios, number of slopes and running lines the existing and the planned terrain. Building template drawings (approval planning) are draft drawings (usually on a scale of 1: 100), which are supplemented by all information that is required in accordance with the respective building template regulations of the federal states or according to the regulations for other public-law procedures. The legal ordinances of the federal states contain specific requirements with regard to the standards, the minimum content and the symbols to be used. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

50 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES 1:50 I EXECUTION PLANNING Floor plan, ground floor, 1:50 Figure: The young architect, 4th edition Execution drawings are construction drawings with graphic representations of the planned object with all the details necessary for the execution in 1. Work drawings 2. Part drawings / Detailed drawings 3. Special drawings and serve as the basis for the description of services and the execution of the structural work. The drawings are usually shown on a scale of 1:50, possibly 1:20 (1:25). The 1:50, 1:20 scale floor plan usually contains axes and the construction grid. The construction, i.e. the components, are shown with the appropriate hatching and line thickness. The floor plan should contain the following information: the dimensions of all components all dimensions to prove the room areas and the room volume all necessary height information: clear room dimensions of the shell and the prefabricated construction (height points) and the height of the building above sea level (sea level) room stamp with details of the: room designation , Clear height, area (sqm), circumference (running meters), material of the wall cladding (e.g. paint), ceiling cladding (e.g. acoustic ceiling) and ceiling coverings (e.g. parquet) door openings with directions of movement of the doors, window openings TU DORTMUND I DOCUMENTATION ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES SS

51 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M. 1:50 I EXECUTION PLANNING Floor plan, upper floor M. 1:50 Figure: The young architect, 4th edition Details of the construction type and building materials, unless these can be found in the structural drawings Position and course of seals Constructive joints ( Component joints) the arrangement of the technical systems with cross-sections of the ducts, shafts and chimneys all information about recesses and fixtures in the event of changes to structural systems: all information about components to be preserved, removed and newly constructed, representations according to DIN ISO 7518 references to further drawings (Detailed references) Information on the surface quality of the building materials used in the case of special surface requirements, the arrangement of the equipment of the technical extension, the arrangement of the operational fixtures, if necessary in a schematic representation, built-in cupboards, kitchen equipment, outdoor furniture with terrain heights, planting, parking space zen etc., cut with cut designations. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

52 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M. 1:50 I EXECUTION PLANNING East view I West view M. 1:50 Illustrations: The young architect, 4th edition The 1:50 scale view should contain the following information: Facade structure including building joints Dimensioning and height information, as far as these cannot be seen from the floor plan and section hidden ceilings and foundations behind the facade windows and doors with details of the division and type of opening roof overhangs chimneys and other technical extensions the existing and planned course of the terrain, any subsequent surrounding buildings (traffic areas and green areas) to be taken into account . Upstream steps and stairs Gutters and rain pipes TU DORTMUND I ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT AREA I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

53 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES 1:50 I EXECUTION PLANNING Example: Cross-section I Longitudinal section 1:50 Figures: The young architect, 4. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

54 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES 1:20 I DETAILED PLANNING Roof structure: Corrugated sheet aluminum 18/76 mm battens / counter battens 50/40 mm Sarking membrane Formwork spruce rough sawn mm Rafters spruce 80/220 mm Between-rafter insulation mineral fiber 200 mm Vapor barrier battens spruce mm plasterboard 12.5 mm Coating, three-layer spruce board, 25 mm Floor structure, upper floor: Carpet or PVC covering, screed 50 mm, separating layer PE film, thermal / impact sound insulation 50 mm Precast concrete element 200 mm Floor structure, ground floor: Carpet or PVC covering, screed 50 mm, separating layer, PE film, thermal / impact sound insulation 50 mm Floor slab in-situ concrete 200 mm Separating layer PE film Perimeter insulation 80 mm External wall structure Mineral external plaster, grain size 2-3 mm Masonry Flat brick 365 mm (λ R = 0.11 W / mK) Internal plaster 10 mm paint Structure of the basement external wall: dimpled drainage film Perimeter insulation 50 mm Moisture seal Precast concrete elements 180 mm interior plaster 10 mm detail section M. 1:20 Image source: in detail cost-efficient building, Woh nsiedlung in Neu-Ulm Architects: G.A.S.-Sahner, Stuttgart TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

55 PLANNING STAGES I EXAMPLES M I DETAIL PLANNING Attic detail I Stair detail M. 1:10 Image source: The young architect, 4th edition The detailed drawings supplement the work drawings in certain excerpts to the extent necessary with additional information. TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

56 SOURCES I LITERATURE RECOMMENDATIONS DIN STANDARDS DIN, I construction drawings DIN EN ISO, I writings DIN ISO, I technical drawings, general principles of representation DIN ISO, I technical drawings, lines DIN 4172, I scale in building construction LITERATURE architectural drawing and model construction, Alexander Ratensky, Julius Hoffmann, Stuttgart 1985 Design and Representation, Roland Knauer, 2nd edition, Ernst & Sohn Technical Drawing, Bert Bielefeld, Isabella Skiba, Birkhäuser 2007 Construction tables for engineers, Schneider, Werner Verlag, 19th edition Shell drawings Reinforcement drawings, K.-H. Dahmes, Bauverlag 1997 Masonry Atlas, Günter Pfeifer, Rolf Ramcke, Joachim Achtziger, Konrad Zilch, Edition Detail 2001 Baubauslehre 1 + 2, Frick / Knöll, Ulf Hestermann, Ludwig Rongen, Vieweg & Teubner Verlag, 35th edition of building construction, Schmitt, Heene , Vieweg & Teubner Verlag, 2001 Worksheets on building construction, Chair of Building Construction and Designing RWTH Aachen Building Design, Ernst Neufert, Vieweg & Teubner Verlag, 39th edition Standard-Detail-System, Peter Beinhauer, Verlagsgesellschaft Rudolf Müller, Cologne 2006 TU DORTMUND I TEACHING AREA ARCHITECTURAL REPRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

57 DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I CHAIR CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION PROF. GOTTFRIED MÜLLER I PROF. DR.-ING. REINHARD MAURER ANNEXES TO THE SCRIPT PRESENTATION PRINCIPLES I TECHNICAL DRAWING 5th EDITION SUMMER SEMESTER 2016 (IN REVISION) Editor Technical University of Dortmund Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering Department of Architectural Representation I Prof. Gottfried Müller Chair of Concrete Construction I Prof. Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Maurer August-Schmidt-Strasse Dortmund Dipl. Ing. Sophia Pachiadakis Dr. Ing. Mechthild Sternberg Dipl. Ing. Simone Kattenstedt Dipl. Ing. Guido Heeke TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL REPRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

58 CONTENTS BASIS OF PRESENTATION I PLANTS FOR BAUINGENIEURE PROJECTION METHOD FOR drawings I PLAN TYPE AIB TYPES AND CONTENT OF drawings FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN REPRESENTATIONS I LABELING OF RECESSES POSITION PLAN CEILING ON GROUND FLOOR REINFORCEMENT PLAN CEILING ON GROUND FLOOR POSITION PLAN CEILING ON 1ST FLOOR REINFORCEMENT PLAN CEILING ON FLOOR POSITION PLAN SECTION AA I SECTION BB TU DORTMUND I DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR TEACHING PURPOSES STAND SS

59 PROJECTION TYPES FOR BUILDING DRAWINGS Floor plans of the architect's plans are shown in projection type A. "FLOOR PLAN TYPE A The floor plan is the top view of the lower part of a horizontally cut building object. Limitations and kinked edges of the component tops visible from above are shown as visible edges by solid lines. Edges lying below this surface are shown as hidden edges by dashed lines Edges of components that are above the cutting plane (beams, ceiling openings, protrusions, etc.) are represented by dotted lines if necessary. Cut surfaces are highlighted in the drawing. In floor plans, the horizontal cutting plane - also protruding - lies in the building or component so that the essential details, e.g. walls or other supporting members, stairs, openings for windows and doors, are cut. " Floor plans of formwork plans or shell drawings are shown in projection type B. "FLOOR PLAN TYPE B According to ISO 2594, Section 3, the floor plan can also be the mirrored soffit under the upper part of a horizontally cut building object. This type of representation is typical for structural planning. All load-bearing components on the respective storey are shown together with the reflection of the ceiling Above this floor ("View into the empty formwork"). Limitations and edges of the component underside are shown as visible edges by solid lines. Components lying above these undersides (coverings, slots, raised edges, parapets, etc.) are shown as hidden edges by dashed lines . The cuts are made in such a way that the structure and construction of the structure are clear. " see DIN TU DORTMUND I ARCHITECTURAL DEPARTMENT I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

60 TYPES AND CONTENT OF CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS FOR STRUCTURAL PLANNING R-Mats are welded wire mesh that is prefabricated at the factory for use in flat reinforcement, e.g. in reinforced concrete ceilings. In contrast to the Q-mats, R-mats are usually used for uniaxial load transfer. The main direction of support is the direction of the greater length (of the entire mat). POSITION PLANS "Position plans are drawings of the supporting structure - possibly in sketch form - to explain the static calculation with details of the individual positions. They are created on the basis of the design drawings of the object planner (architect)." SHELL PLANS "Shutter plans are construction drawings of the concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete construction with a representation of the components to be shuttered. When executing, additional information can be found in the construction drawings of the object planner Floor plans are generally shown as floor plans type B, foundations as a rule as floor plans type A (DIN, Section 4.3). As a rule, the scale 1:50 applies, scales for detail and / or partial drawings are according to type and Specify the size of the details to be displayed. " BODY CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS "Carcass drawings are construction drawings with all the information required for the execution of the skeleton (extended formwork plans). They are made on the basis of the construction drawings of the object planner. The stipulations in DIN, Section 3.2 apply as presentation rules and standards." see DIN TU DORTMUND I ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS

61 TYPES AND CONTENT OF STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS FOR STRUCTURAL PLANNING Example: Reinforcement ceiling ground floor, area A, lower layer REINFORCEMENT DRAWINGS "Reinforcement drawings are construction drawings of the reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete construction with all the information required for bending and laying the reinforcement. They are produced in accordance with DIN. The reinforcement is Highlighted by wider lines compared to the component boundaries. The scale is to be determined according to the type and difficulty of the structure, as a rule the scales 1:50, 1:25 or 1:20 apply. " FINISHED PART DRAWINGS "Prefabricated part drawings are construction drawings for the production of prefabricated parts made of concrete, reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete or masonry in the prefabricated part factory or on the construction site. As a rule, shell and reinforcement drawings for prefabricated parts are summarized on one sheet Scales 1:25, and 1:20. " INSTALLATION DRAWINGS "Installation drawings are construction drawings for the use of precast elements. They contain all the information required for the installation and connection of the precast elements, possibly in a sketch. This depends on the type of precast element construction. The floor plans are shown as type A or type B; the stipulations of DIN, Section 3.2. " see DIN TU DORTMUND I ARCHITECTURAL PRESENTATION I ONLY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES STAND SS