What steroids are bodybuilders using nowadays
Anabolic steroids - a growing problem in popular sports
The misuse of anabolic steroids primarily affects strength and speed strength sports as well as cosmetic purposes. For the majority of people, the intake is certainly not necessary, as the athletic performance can be achieved through adequate nutrition and a suitable training program in the same way. In addition, one should not overestimate the properties of these substances in terms of improving performance and stature. In any case, this is only of minor importance in the leisure sector. Many of the side effects described are reversible, although special attention should be paid to the effects on the cardiovascular system and liver toxicity, as more severe consequences are to be expected here.
Pharmacological knowledge about these substances is mostly based on subjective experience. Often only the occurrence of side effects is considered to be the onset of the anabolic effect. There is a need for clarification about the potential dangers here. Due to the easy access to these substances, the anabolic problem has reached a broad basis, especially since such pharmaceuticals are available on the black market and the abuse can hardly be controlled. Based on the literature published so far, including some very dramatic descriptions of individual cases, adolescents should be made aware of the health risk.
1. Labre MP. Adolescent boys and the muscular male body ideal. J Adol Health 2002; 30: 233-42.
2. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Health competition foundation national survey on performance enhancing drugs in sports. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association [online]. From URL: http://www.bcbs.com, 2001.
3. Boos C, Wulff P, Kujath P, Bruch HP. Medication abuse in recreational sports in the fitness area. Dt Ärzteblatt 1998; 95: A953-5.
4. Grains HH. Medicines Act, Narcotics Act. In: Beck'sche Kurzkommentare, Vol. 37. Verlag CH Beck: München, 1994: 211, BtMG § 29.
5. Shahidi NT. A review of the chemistry, biological action, and clinical application of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Clin Ther 2001; 23: 1355-90.
6. Saartok T, Dahlberg E, Gustafson JA. Relative binding affinity of anabolic steroids: Comparison of the binding to the androgen receptors in skeletal muscle and prostate as well as to sex hormone-binding globulin. Endocrinology 1984; 114: 2100-6.
7. Mottram DR, George AJ. Anabolic steroids. Baillière's Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2000; 14: 55-69.
8. Parssinen M, Seppala T. Steroid use and long-term health risks in former athletes. Sports Med 2002; 32: 83-94.
9. Hickson RC, Ball KL, Faludo MT. Adverse effects of anabolic steroids. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp 1989; 4: 254-71.
10. Pertusi R, Dickerman RD, McConathy WJ. Evaluation of aminotranferase elevations in a bodybuilder using anabolic steroids: hepatitis or rhabdomyolysis? JAMA 2001; 101: 391-4.
11. Ishak KG, Zimmerman HJ. Hepatotoxic effects of the anabolic / androgenic steroids. Semin Liver Dis 1987; 7: 230-6.
12. Strauss RH, Wright JE, Finnerman GA. Side effects of anabolic steroids in weight-trained men. Phys Sportsmed 1983; 11: 87-96.
13. Hartung R, Gerth J, Fünfstück R, Gröne HJ, et al. End-stage renal disease in a body-builder: a multifactorial process or simply doping? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 163-5.
14. Sader MA, Griffiths KA, McCredie RJ, Handelsman DJ, et al. Androgenic anabolic steroids and arterial structure and function in male bodybuilders. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 37: 224-30.
15. Sullivan ML, Martinez CM, Gennis P, Gallagher EJ. The cardiac toxicity of anabolic steroids. Prog Cardiovasc Disc 1998; 41: 1-15.
16. Vogt AM, Geyer H, Jahn L, Schänzer W, et al. Cardiomyopathy associated with the uncontrolled self-medication of anabolic steroids. Z Kardiol 2002; 91: 357-62.
17. Roberts JT, Essen high DM. Adenocarcinoma of prostate in 40-year old bodybuilder. Lancet 1986; 2: 742.
18. Bahrke MS, Yesalis CE, Kopstein AN, Stepkens JA. Risk factors associated with anabolic-androgenic steroid use among adolescents. Sports Med 2000; 29: 397-405.
19. Laseler JT, Russell JA. Anabolic steroid-induced tendon pathology: A review of the literature. Sci Sports Executive 1991; 23: 1-3.
20. Braseth NR, Allison Jr. EJ, Gough JE. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a body builder abusing anabolic androgenic steroids. Eur J Emer Med 2001; 8: 155-7.
21. Yates WR, Perry PJ, MacIndoe J, Holman T, et al. Psychosexual effects of three doses of testosterone cycling in normal men. Biol Psych 1999; 45: 254-60.
22. Choi PYL, Pope HG. Violence toward women and illicit androgenic anabolic steroid use. Ann Clin Psych 1994; 6: 22-5.
23. Uzych L. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and psychiatric-related effects: A review. Can J Psych 1992; 37: 23-8.
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Ulrich Hoffmann, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald, Institute for Pharmacology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Str. 23 d, 17487 Greifswald, email: [email protected]-greifswald.de
- Where's Kiana Alaska
- What is C and C ++
- What are Windows File Management Features
- How were BlackBerry phones advertised
- Helps fast walking with weight loss
- What is more important joy or greatness
- How much does physiotherapy cost
- Can any police officer serve a restraining order
- What exactly do stock markets do
- In what cases is ignorance bliss?
- What were the rules of Daoism
- Are force fields real
- Who is your favorite Spanish author?
- Why is monochrome photography popular
- Can diseases counteract each other
- Can you dye a sheep's wool
- Job vacancies in London England
- What are the best e-learning programs
- What is a network and standalone printer
- What do you think of Tomi Lahren
- Why did you choose IITB instead of IISc
- What's your best rhubarb pie recipe
- What is an important date
- Which iPhone is better 6s or 6plus