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Quoting correctly - all citation rules with examples

Quoting sources is an essential basis for scientific workThis chapter explains why, what and how to quote. The differences between the American and German citation styles are explained, and you will also find information on how to do this bibliography shape.

All citation rules simply explained

In this chapter and in our extensive Knowledge base you will find all information and tips on all citation rules. Each individual citation is presented with many practical and practical examples. Correct citation in a term paper, bachelor thesis, master thesis and dissertation is a prerequisite for a good one Grading. In addition to the Harvard citation and the German citation, we also provide citation according to the APA style, MLA style, Chicago style and Vancouver style represent.

A characteristic of scientific work is the traceability of your statements. It must always be clear from a text which ideas, statements and trains of thought were taken literally or indirectly from external sources. You have to mark these adopted statements with literature and references so that your readers can check the facts in cases of doubt. This process is called scientific quoting.

In every scientific work you refer to the findings and research results of other scientists. You have to deal with the State of research critically examine your research area. This means that you draw on the points of view and insights of others and include them in your discussion and argumentation. You have to analyze the relevant literature critically and refer to it in your text. With this you underpin your lines of thought, but you are also obliged to use quotations to indicate where you are getting your statements from. It doesn't matter whether you are direct or indirect quotations, use. You have to pay attention to the correct citation.

Only this possibility of verifiability allows your own thoughts and ideas and ultimately your own scientific evidence to become credible and reliable.

In the event that unmarked insights from others appear in your work, one speaks of one plagiarism. This is a violation of scientific practice and can have consequences under university law. In these cases, academic titles can be revoked. It is therefore worthwhile with the topic cite correctly to be carefully disassembled.

Avoid plagiarism by citing carefully.

In principle, you have to prove all thoughts and statements of other people. Therefore, you have to learn to quote correctly. Not only written statements have to be quoted, but also figures, tables or data that you have for the Creation of graphics or tables have used. Only general knowledge and facts that are part of the basic knowledge of your field of study do not have to be proven.

Pay attention to the sources when quoting

Make sure that you use specific specialist literature as sources. Check the sources for their scientific nature. Popular magazines, daily newspapers, popular scientific literature etc. should not be used to support scientific statements unless they are themselves the subject of investigation. You should be careful with internet sources and weigh up whether their quality meets scientific standards. You can find the information you need, e.g. B. biographical data, historical developments, theoretical principles, etc., also in printed publications, one should prefer the printed editions.

To give a striking example: If you write about the history of philosophy in East Asia, you should take your information from relevant literature, not from Wikipedia. However, if you refer to statements made by politicians who are still alive and whose interviews are only available on the Internet, you naturally have to refer to and cite the Internet pages.

If possible, take quotations from the original text, i. H. the so-called primary source.

Unpublished work and archive documents must be marked as "unpublished sources". Oral information, Lectures etc. may be quoted, but you have to mark them as such, stating the author, without including them in the bibliography.

How can you quote correctly?

On the one hand, a distinction is made between literal (direct) and analogous (indirect) quotations. On the other hand, there are different ways of citing. With regard to these citation methods, observe the conventions in your subject area and adhere to the guidelines of your institute.

Literal vs. analogous quotation

Verbatim quote - direct quoting

The decision as to whether a statement should be quoted verbatim or correspondingly is not always easy to make. As a rule of thumb for direct quotes The following applies: Concise statements that are either intended to illustrate something or to which reference is made are quoted verbatim. Sentences and thoughts that can easily be written in your own words are usually quoted accordingly.

Formal rules for literal quoting:

  • Verbatim quotations must be marked with quotation marks. The source reference is inserted directly after the quote (even if it is in the middle of the text!). Short quotations are included in the running text. In this example you can see a direct quote in the German citation style:

[...] which is not just a theme or a beautiful melody, but rather the "logic of musical development" 11.

  • Longer passages are indented left and right, the line spacing is simple and, if necessary, the font size can also be reduced.

“It seems to me that since Beethoven the proof of the senselessness of the symphony has been provided. In any case, with Mendelssohn and Schumann it is only the respectable repetition of the same forms with weaker forces. ”15

These words come from Claude Debussy on the occasion of the premiere of Georges-Martin Witkowski's Symphony in D minor in 1901. Debussy, who used the genre of the symphony as the […]

Direct quotations - examples

  • Be careful not to change the wording of a quote. If you still want to change something, you have to mark these changes and additions.
  • error (except old spelling, orthography) is marked with [sic!]: "Errors in the quotation must be taken over [sic!]."
  • Omissions and grammatical adjustments are indicated with square brackets. In the case of omissions, write three points […].
  • Highlighting: You can either underline the relevant text, fatin italics or in italics, but it is important that you add a reference to the emphasis at the end: [emphasis of the author] or [Herv. d. Author]. You can
    decide for one of the two variants. Emphasis in the original must be included in the quote and is marked with: [Emphasis in the original].
  • Explanationswhich are sometimes necessary for a better understanding are marked with square brackets.

Direct quotes - more examples

  • A Quote in quote put in single quotation marks, e.g. E.g. "Scofield describes this as 'the outstanding characteristic in Mozart's harmony'."
  • Foreign language quotations take over into the running text, but write the German translation in a footnote (except for English quotations).
  • Second quotes are statements from secondary sources. You mark this with quoted from (quoted from): Mention of the original publication, quoted after: Mention of the publication from which you have the statement. An example to clarify:

Hausmann, Martin: Pädagogik im Grundschulalter, Mainz 2000, p. 20, quoted from: Zenger, Roswitha: Pedagogical Methods, Munich and others. 2010, p. 209.

Analogous quotation - indirect quoting

One speaks of analogous or indirect quoting when one does not want to reproduce the content of a text literally, but in one's own words. You have to observe less formal rules in this regard. Make sure, however, that you reproduce the statements correctly! Indirect quotations are not indicated by quotation marks, but rather by a “cf.” (compare) in the source reference.

Make sure that you write analogous quotations in the subjunctive of indirect speech. This indicates that you are reproducing the statements of other scientists.

Mauner is of the opinion that precise formulation is an essential feature of scientific work (cf. 1983: 17).

The German citation: In the German citation style, footnotes are used. After each quote you add a superscript number that refers to a footnote with the source reference. If the publication in question appears in your text for the first time, you write one Full receipt. From the second appearance of a publication onwards, you will use the Brief reference.

Correct quotation: Direct, analogous quotations in the text

Arnold Schering in particular was of the opinion that music as "tone poetry" is the symbolization of meaning, affects, feelings and moods, and that composers have created "tone symbols" for this reason, which should be deciphered taking the historical basis into account. formative. 21

Citing correctly: The source reference in the footnote

21See Hans Aerts, “Model” and “Topos” in German-language music theory since Riemann, in: Journal of the Society for Music Theory 4/12 (2007), p. 153.

This footnote is a full reference; all information about the publication is given here. If this source appears again in the work, only the short reference is mentioned:

See Hans Aerts, “Model” and “Topos” in German-language music theory since Riemann, p. 154.

Here only the author, the title (abbreviated if necessary) and the page number have to be given.

Quotes: Note special cases

SPECIAL CASE: If a publication is quoted two or more times in a row, the abbreviation “ibid.” [For ibidem] or in Latin “ibid.”, “Ibd.” Or “ib.” [For ibidem] can be used. This means that a quotation which is marked with "ibda." Or "ibid." Has the same references as the source reference directly before it.

Be careful with subsequent changes and corrections: If you add a quote between a receipt and the following “ebda.”, You must also change the original “ebda.”! Not all supervisor are followers of "ibid." or "ibid.". You prefer the short documents.

Beware of page breaks: New pages should not begin with “ebda.”, But with a full source reference.

Quotes: note other special cases

The following overview explains which information you need for full receipts. There is a hint here: Many institutes write parts of the quotation in italics, while others do not. Inform you! In principle, each type of publication has its own form:

A monograph (independent work, mostly only one author) is quoted according to this model:

First name, last name, title. Subtitle, place of publication, year of publication, page number.

Hermann Jacobs, Introduction to Primary Education, Vienna 1984, p. 88.

  • Multiple authors: If a publication has several authors, you have to name them in your source reference. Two authors: Wolfgang Moser and Roswitha Absenger, title etc…; if there are three authors, separate with commas: Wolfgang Moser, Roswitha Absenger and Romana Mair, title etc ... If a work has more than three authors, it is sufficient to name the first author, followed by the Latin et al. (and other).
  • Edition of the publication: Information on the edition is given as follows: Either the edition number is added as a reference, e.g. B. "2. revised edition "," 5.
    Aufl. ”Etc., in front of the place and year, or man
    indicates the edition number with a superscript number in front of the year, e.g. E.g .: Kassel 52012.

Further special cases for quotations

  • No information on place of publication and / or year of publication: Sometimes there is no information on the place of publication and / or the year of publication. This is abbreviated as follows:
    o. O. [no place] and no year [no year], z. B .: Anonymus, A Christian train against the Turks, o. O. o. J.
  • Several publishing locations
    if one enumerates, if there are more than three, one can use [u. a.] abbreviate,
    z. E.g .: Kassel, Basel, Munich 2012; or if there are more than three: Berlin [u. a.] 2009.
  • Publication in a row: Some monographs appear in a row, this information is given as follows:

First name, last name, title. Subtitle, place year (series title series volume), page number.

Florian Absenger, Architecture in the 20th Century, Mainz 2009 (Architektur im Wandel 7), p. 450.

Quotes from an anthology

  • One Article in an anthology (i.e. the essays of several authors are collected in one book) is quoted as follows:

First name, last name, title of the article, in: title of the anthology, ed. from first name surname, place year, page number

Karlheinz Meister, Stravinskijs Neoklassizismus, in: Festschrift for Egon Zaucher on his 70th birthday, ed. by Heinrich Schmal and Karlheinz Schlager, Frankfurt 1980, p. 579.

If this anthology was published in a row, this information is given in the same way as for a monograph. If several editors are involved, write: ed. Of first name surname, first name surname etc. The last editor is added with "and first name surname",
z. E.g .: edited by Hubert Traxner, Stefan Lofer, Johanna Fuchs and Manuel Winter.

  • An essay in a magazine one quotes according to the following pattern:

First name, last name, title of the article, in: name of the journal, year of publication, page number.

John Igudesman, Gothic Architecture in Vienna, in: Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 99 / No. 3 (2003), p. 336.

The publisher and the place of publication are not given in this case.

Quotes from an encyclopedia article

  • Lexicon article In terms of citation, one treats like articles from anthologies, i. H.:

First name Last name, Art. Title of the article, in: Name of the lexicon Volume number, ed. from: first name last name, place year, page number.

Stevens Walsh, Art. Stravinsky, Igor, in: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians 24, ed. by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrell, London (et al.) 2001, p. 529.

Art. Abbreviates the fact that one is quoting an article. In some dictionaries, the columns are numbered rather than the pages. In this case it is abbreviated with Sp.

Quotes for dissertations and habilitation theses

  • Dissertations and Habilitations (and other university publications) are quoted according to the following model:

Max Mangart: The Reception of Chinese Philosophy in Europe, unv. Diss., University of Munich 2013, p. 117.

First name, last name, title of the university font, type of university font, university place of publication year, page number.

The place of publication in this case is the university at which the work was submitted; the year of publication is the year of submission (is on the title page). The information on the type of university font is handled variably. For example, you can write: unpublished master's thesis or unpublished dissertation (unpublished dissertation), habilitation (habilitation).

Quotes from newspaper articles

  • Newspaper articles is marked like this:

First name, last name, title of the article. Subtitle, in: name of the newspaper (year), no. X, page number.

Quotations from internet sources

  • Web sources is occupied with the help of the URL, e.g. B .:

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz-Ulrich_Hartl (status: 09.09.2014).

As soon as it is an essay, an author and the date of the article are known, you can quote for example like this:

Ulrich Möller-Arnsberg, SWR Orchestra Fusion. Protest is expanding (02/10/2014), URL: http://www.br.de/radio/br-klassik/sendung/allegro/swr-orchester- fusion100.html (as of 09/09/2014).

Page references and publishers

If your quote relates to several pages, you must also state these. Some institutes require precise information, such as pp. 4-5; others allow the following notation: p. 4f. This means that the quote refers to page 4 and the following page. If there is more than one following page, it is written on p. 4ff.

Publishers do not need to be specified. If you still consider it necessary to mention it, you can do so in this form:

Place (s) of publication: name of publisher year, page number.

Harvard method - American citation style

In the Harvard citation style the source references are not written as a footnote, but as a short reference that refers to the bibliography, directly after the citations. The following examples should help you to understand this citation method.

Direct quotations are given in this excerpt

As already mentioned, Tāla is one of the two basic principles of Indian art music traditions. This is a "cyclical [s] time measure" (Junius 1983: 17), which is used in the form of recurring "rhythmic-metric [n] time circles" (Junius 1983: 17).

(Junius 1983: 17) in this case is the reference to the bibliography and is made up of the author's last name, the year of publication and the page number.

Indirect quotations are used in this text

There are several different views on the origin of the word "tāla": Śārngadeva, an important Indian theorist of the 13th century and author of the treatise Samgītaratnākara, believes that tālā (= "palm") is the origin of the term tāla (cf. Kuckertz 1996a : 719). Manfred Junius shares this view, but he cites two further possibilities with tālī and karatāla (these two words also mean “palm”) (see 1983: 25). This derivation is based on the habit of representing the tāla cycle by clapping hands.

Indologists, however, believe that tāla could have developed from the word tāda (= striking, blow) (cf. Kuckertz 1996a: 719; Kuckertz 1970: 56); [...]

With the cf. you indicate that you have quoted indirectly.

More information on indirect quotations

In the source reference (cf. Kuckertz 1996a: 719) you will find further important information: Two publications by Kuckertz were used in this work, both of which coincidentally both appeared in 1996. In order to be able to clearly assign a source reference, you mark the year with a, b, c, d ... in order to be able to distinguish the publications of an author from the same year.

If you already mention the name of the author in the text, you do not need to enter this information again in the source reference.

If you refer to two or more sources for a statement, separate them with a semicolon.

If a publication has been written by more than one author, they are indicated provided that there are not more than three, e.g. E.g .: (Reisner / Jacobsen / Johnson 1984). If more than three authors are involved, only the first is given, but an et al. or among others a: (Clifford et al. 1988) or (Clifford et al. 1988).

Page references look like this

Jacobsen 1999: 44 → You can find the quote on p. 44.

Jacobsen 1999: 44f. → You can find the quote on pp. 44 and 45.

Jacobsen 1999: 44ff. → You can find the quote on pp. 44, 45 and 46.

Jacobsen 1999: 44–49 → You can find the quote on pp. 44 to 49.

Jacobsen 1999: 44 and 52 → quote is on pp. 44 and 52.

Further information on the American citation style

In the American way of citing it is irrelevant in the short reference in the text which type of publication it is.

There are several ways of creating a short reference. There are also these variants, for example: (Johnson 1985, p. 14), (Johnson, 1985, p. 14), (Johnson 1985: 14) [with spaces between colon and page number].

If a publication is quoted two or more times in a row, the abbreviation “ibid.” [For ibidem] or in Latin “ibid.”, “Ibd.” Or “ib.” [For ibidem] can be used. This means that a quotation which is marked with "ibda." Or "ibid." Has the same references as the source reference directly before it.

Attention in the case of subsequent changes and corrections: If you add a quote between a receipt and the following “ebda.”, You must also change the original “ebda.”!

Not all supervisors are supporters of “ibda.” Or “ibid.”. Some prefer brief references.

CORRECT QUOTATION: Tips and tricks

  • Follow the citation guidelines of your institute and ask your supervisor which citation method is preferred.
  • Make a note of all information correctly and completely, keep the format you have selected and do not forget any page numbers. Subsequent formatting takes a lot of time.
  • Write the source information for your quotes immediately, because it is easy to forget the relevant passages and, in the worst case, have to look for them again. This takes a lot of time for extensive publications.

CORRECT QUOTATION: More tips and tricks

  • By the way, our specialist editors can teach you a Editing of the dissertation, Bachelor thesis or master thesis also give valuable feedback on academic writing and other abnormalities. Especially with one bachelor thesis as a first work, there is often a lack of experience in dealing with sources and correct citation. A systematic onePlagiarism check for yourmaster thesis or bachelor thesis can then also provide you with a certain form of security.

You can find all citations here

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Creation of the source index

Correct citation in the bibliography

All sources that you have used in your work must appear in the bibliography. Sources that you can find at the Literature research found, but not used, you will not include it in your bibliography. Arrange your bibliography alphabetically so that readers should be able to find the entries quickly.

Depending on the citation method used and the institute, there are formal guidelines that you should follow. It is important that you choose a uniform design. Find out about the applicable guidelines of your institute and follow the instructions exactly. On the one hand, your work leaves a “clean” impression if the formal requirements are correct, on the other hand, compliance with them is usually required by the supervisors.

Bibliography in German citation:

In the German citation style, you only have to consider two aspects when creating the bibliography. Basically, all information that you already have in the Footnotes mentioned, also in the bibliography. Exceptions: In the footnotes the authors are named by first name and surname, in the bibliography, however, in the order surname, first name.

In the case of journal articles or articles that have appeared in collective publications, the scope of the article must be specified.

For better clarity, a commented example (the comments are in square brackets and are formatted in bold):

Annotated bibliography

Bibliography in the Harvard Method:

While you have only inserted shortened sources in the text, with the Harvard method you now have to enter all information about the type of publication (monograph, article in an anthology, article in a journal, lexicon articles, university papers, newspapers, Internet) of your source in the bibliography . In the chapter "German citation" you will find information about the individual publication types. More about the APA style can be found in our knowledge database!

Please note that some institutes write parts of the source references in italics. Inform you!

This is how monographs are cited

Surname, first name (year). Publication title: Subtitle. Place: Publisher.

Dick, Robert (1993). New way through new technology. Frankfurt am Main: carpenter.

If there are several authors, all authors must be listed in the order in which they appear in the book: last name 1, first name 1; Last name 2, first name 2 & last name 3, first name 3 (year). Title of the publication, etc. You can also separate the individual authors with slashes.

Series titles and works in several volumes