Hafnium isomer nuclear weapons are a myth

  • Toxicological responses in SW mice exposed to inhaled pyrolysates of polymer / tobacco mixtures and blended tobacco.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; Lee, K Monika; Lemus-Olalde, Ranulfo

    2009-12-01

    . There was a marked sensory irritation response that recovered slowly for some polymers. Sustained body weight depression, lesions of the respiratory epithelium of the nose, and morphological changes in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were observed after exposure to some polymer / tobacco pyrolysates. These responses were increased compared to exposure to tobacco pyrolysate alone. No moribundity or mortality occurred during the study. The data suggest that polymeric inclusions pose a minimally additional toxicological hazard in humans.

  • Intermediate pyrolysis of agro-industrial biomasses in bench-scale pyrolyser: Product yields and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Tinwala, Farha; Mohanty, Pravakar; Parmar, Snehal; Patel, Anant; Pant, Kamal K

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis of woody biomass, agro-residues and seed was carried out at 500 ± 10 ° C in a fixed bed pyrolyser. Bio-oil yield was found varying from 20.5% to 47.5%, whereas the biochar and pyrolysis gas ranged from 27.5% to 40% and 24.5% to 40.5%, respectively. Pyrolysis gas was measured for flame temperature along with CO, CO2, H2, CH4 and other gases composition. HHV of biochar (29.4 MJ / kg) and pyrolitic gas (8.6 MJ / kg) of woody biomass was higher analogous to sub-bituminous coal and steam gasification based producer gas respectively, whereas HHV of bio-oil obtained from seed (25.6 MJ / kg) was significantly more than husks, shells and straws. TGA-DTG studies showed the husks as potential source for the pyrolysis. Bio-oils as a major by-product of intermediate pyrolysis have several applications like substitute of furnace oil, extraction of fine chemicals, whereas biochar as a soil amendment for enhancing soil fertility and gases for thermal application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Effects of Heat Flux, Oxygen Concentration and Glass Fiber Volume Fraction on Pyrolysate Mass Flux from Composite Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, D. B .; Lautenberger, C. W .; Yuan, Z .; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental work on the effects of heat flux, oxygen concentration and glass fiber volume fraction on pyrolysate mass flux from samples of polypropylene / glass fiber composite (PP / G) is underway. The research is conducted as part of a larger project to develop a test methodology for flammability of materials, particularly composites, in the microgravity and variable oxygen concentration environment of spacecraft and space structures. Samples of PP / G sized at 30 x 30 x 10 mm are flush mounted in a flow tunnel, which provides a flow of oxidizer over the surface of the samples at a fixed value of 1 m / s and oxygen concentrations varying between 18 and 30 %. Each sample is exposed to a constant external radiant heat flux at a given value, which varies between tests from 10 to 24 kW / sq m. Continuous sample mass loss and surface temperature measurements are recorded for each test. Some tests are conducted with an igniter and some are not. In the former case, the research goal is to quantify the critical mass flux at ignition for the various environmental and material conditions described above. The later case generates a wider range of mass flux rates than those seen prior to ignition, providing an opportunity to examine the protective effects of blowing on oxidative pyrolysis and heating of the surface. Graphs of surface temperature and sample mass loss vs. time for samples of 30% PPG at oxygen concentrations of 18 and 21% are presented in the figures below. These figures give a clear indication of the lower pyrolysis rate and extended time to ignition that accompany a lower oxygen concentration. Analysis of the mass flux rate at the time of ignition gives good repeatability but requires further work to provide a clear indication of mass flux trends accompanying changes in environmental and material properties.

  • Effects of Heat Flux, Oxygen Concentration and Glass Fiber Volume Fraction on Pyrolysate Mass Flux from Composite Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, D. B .; Lautenberger, C. W .; Yuan, Z .; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental work on the effects of heat flux, oxygen concentration and glass fiber volume fraction on pyrolysate mass flux from samples of polypropylene / glass fiber composite (PP / G) is underway. The research is conducted as part of a larger project to develop a test methodology for flammability of materials, particularly composites, in the microgravity and variable oxygen concentration environment of spacecraft and space structures. Samples of PP / G sized at 30x30x10 mm are flush mounted in a flow tunnel, which provides a flow of oxidizer over the surface of the samples at a fixed value of 1 m / s and oxygen concentrations varying between 18 and 30%. Each sample is exposed to a constant external radiant heat flux at a given value, which varies between tests from 10 to 24 kW / m2. Continuous sample mass loss and surface temperature measurements are recorded for each test. Some tests are conducted with an igniter and some are not. In the former case, the research goal is to quantify the critical mass flux at ignition for the various environmental and material conditions described above. The later case generates a wider range of mass flux rates than those seen prior to ignition, providing an opportunity to examine the protective effects of blowing on oxidative pyrolysis and heating of the surface. Graphs of surface temperature and sample mass loss vs. time for samples of 30% PPG at oxygen concentrations of 18 and 21% are presented in the figures below. These figures give a clear indication of the lower pyrolysis rate and extended time to ignition that accompany a lower oxygen concentration. Analysis of the mass flux rate at the time of ignition gives good repeatability but requires further work to provide a clear indication of mass flux trends accompanying changes in environmental and material properties.

  • Stabilization of metal (loid) s in two contaminated agricultural soils: Comparing biochar to its non-pyrolysed source material.

    PubMed

    Trakal, Lukáš; Raya-Moreno, Irene; Mitchell, Kerry; Beesley, Luke

    2017-08-01

    Two metal (loid) contaminated agricultural soils were amended with grape stalk (wine production by-product) -derived biochar as well as its pre-pyrolysed origin material, to investigate their geochemical impacts on As, Cr, Cu and Zn. Detailed physico- chemical evaluation combined with a column leaching test determined the retention of metal (loid) s from soil solution by each amendments. A pot experiment measured metal (loid) s in soil pore water and their uptake to ryegrass when the amendments were mixed into soils at 1 and 5% (w / w). Total Cr and Zn concentrations were reduced furthest in column leachates by the addition of raw material and biochar respectively, compared to the untreated soil; Cr (III) was the predominant specie initially due to rapid acidification of leachates and organic complexation resulting from raw material addition. Loadings of metal (loid) s to the amendments recovered from the post-leached columns were in the order Cu »Zn> Cr ≈ As. In the pot test ryegrass Cr uptake was initiated by the addition of both amendments, compared to the untreated soil, whereas only biochar addition resulted in significant increases in Zn uptake, explained by its significant enhancement of ryegrass biomass yield, especially at 5% dosage; raw material addition significantly decreased biomass yields. Inconsistent relationships between pore water parameters and ryegrass uptake were common to both soils investigated. Therefore, whilst both amendments modified soil metal (loid) geochemistry, their effects differed fundamentally; in environmental risk management terms these results highlight the need to investigate the detailed geochemical response of contaminated soils to various organic amendment additions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • German Through Audio-Visual Method: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

    This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3) ...

  • Evolution of the atomic order and valence state of rare-earth atoms and uranium in a new carbon-metal composite — diphthalocyanine pyrolysate C64H32N16 Me (Me = Y, La, Ce, Eu, and U)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovestnov, A. E .; Kapustin, V. K .; Tikhonov, V.I .; Fomin, E. V .; Chernenkov, Yu. P.

    2014-08-01

    The structure of a metal-carbon composite formed by the pyrolysis of diphthalocyanine of some rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Eu) and uranium in the temperature range T ann = 800-1700 ° C has been investigated for the first time by the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis and X-ray line shift. It has been shown that, in the general case, the studied pyrolysates consist of three phases. One phase corresponds to the structure of graphite. The second phase corresponds to nitrides, carbides, and oxides of basic metal elements with a crystallite size ranging from 5 to 100 nm. The third phase is amorphous or consisting of crystallites with a size of ˜1 nm. It has been found that all the basic elements (Y, La, Ce, Eu, U) and incorporated iodine atoms in the third phase are in a chemically bound state. The previously unobserved electronic configurations have been revealed for Europe. The possibility of including not only atoms of elements forming diphthalocyanine but also other elements (for example, iodine) in the composite structure is of interest, in particular, for the creation of a thermally, chemically, and radiation resistant metal-carbon matrix for the radioactive waste storage.

  • Retrospective analysis of incidental findings obtained in patients with cutaneous malignancy by (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET / CT.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Franziska; Winkens, Thomas; Kaatz, Martin; Goetze, Steven; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-08-01

    (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography / computed tomography (FDG-PET / CT) often results in incidental findings. In the present study, we concentrated on incidental findings obtained by means of FDG-PET / CT in patients with cutaneous melanoma and examined their relevance with regard to further diagnostic measures and interventions. The medical records of 181 consecutive melanoma patients were retrospectively evaluated to document the management of incidental findings. The focus was on the histological findings. In 33 of 181 (18%) patients there were 39 relevant incidental findings, namely in the colorectal region (n = 15 patients), in the thyroid (n = 8), the prostate (n = 2), the musculoskeletal system (n = 2) , in lymph nodes (n = 2), the parotid gland (n = 1), the tonsils (n = 1), the kidneys (n = 1) and the gallbladder (n = 1). Further diagnostic procedures followed in 25 patients, with a clinical correlate being demonstrated in 21 cases. 16 of 21 patients developed neoplasia, including five malignant lesions (four colon cancer and one prostate cancer). The malignancies were diagnosed early and in the majority of cases successfully removed. The use of FDG-PET / CT as routine diagnostics is recommended in the guidelines and is indicated for malignant melanoma from stage IIC. In this study, otherwise undetected cancers, especially colon cancer, were effectively detected. In most cases, early intervention was possible. Incidental findings from FDG-PET / CT should be clarified with the appropriate diagnostic measures, taking into account the patient's condition and wishes. © 2016 German Dermatological Society (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • Challenges from German reunification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    The reunification also presented statistics with great tasks. The statistic of the GDR, which was oriented towards the state as an organ of state planning, had to be converted to the system of the Federal Republic, which was bound to neutrality and scientific independence. The universities also demanded a reorientation. The German Statistical Society has taken on three tasks with great commitment, but also with caution: Accepting and integrating statisticians from the new federal states into society, accompanying the reorientation of the field of statistics at their universities and securing and using data from the former GDR.

  • Conversion of microwave pyrolysed ASR's char using high temperature agents.

    PubMed

    Donaj, Pawel; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; Yang, Weihong; Forsgren, Christer

    2011-01-15

    Pyrolysis enables to recover metals and organic feedstock from waste conglomerates such as: automotive shredder residue (ASR). ASR as well as its pyrolysis solid products, is a morphologically and chemically varied mixture, containing mineral materials, including hazardous heavy metals. The aim of the work is to generate fundamental knowledge on the conversion of the organic residues of the solid products after ASR's microwave pyrolysis, treated at various temperatures and with two different types of gasifying agent: pure steam or 3% (v / v) of oxygen. The research is conducted using a lab-scale, plug-flow gasifier, with an integrated scale for analyzing mass loss changes over time of experiment, serving as macro TG at 950, 850 and 760 ° C. The reaction rate of char decomposition was investigated, based on carbon conversion during gasification and pyrolysis stage. It was found in both fractions that char conversion rate decreases with the rise of external gas temperature, regardless of the gasifying agent. No significant differences between the reaction rates undergoing with steam and oxygen for char decomposition has been observed. This abnormal char behavior might have been caused by the inhibiting effects of ash, especially alkali metals on char activity or due to deformation of char structure during microwave heating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Learning through Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Hermann-Gunter

    "Experiences in Acculturation: What Is Being Learned?" is the first of two papers in this volume. It reports on a study of social representations and their development during cultural contacts conducted with beginning teachers who were studied over time and through comparison with cross-culturally competent experts with the aim of ...

  • Spray pyrolysed Ru: TiO2 thin film electrodes prepared for electrochemical supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugare, B. Y .; Thakur, A. V .; Kore, R. M .; Lokhande, B. J.

    2018-04-01

    Ru doped TiO2 thin films are prepared by using 0.06 M aqueous solution of potassium titanium oxalate (pto), and 0.005 M aqueous solution of ruthenium tri chloride (RuCl3) precursors. The deposition was carried on stainless steel (SS) by using well known ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique (USPT) at 723 ° K by maintaining the spray rate 12 cc / min and compressed air flow rate 10 Lmin-1. Prepared Ru: TiO2 thin films were characterized by structurally, morphologically and electrochemically. Deposited RuO2 shows amorphous structure and TiO2 shows tetragonal crystal structure with rutile as prominent phase at very low decomposition temperature. SEM micrographs of RuO2 exhibits porous, interconnected, spherical grains type morphology and TiO2 shows porous, nanorods and nanoplates like morphology and also Ru doped TiO2 shows porous, spherical, granular and nanorods type morphology. The electrochemical cyclic voltammetery shows mixed capacitive behavior. The achieved highest value of specific capacitance 2692 F / g was Ru doped TiO2 electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4.

  • Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC).

    PubMed

    Kleemann, Rosanna; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Clift, Roland; Morse, Stephen; Pearce, Pete; Saroj, Devendra

    2017-02-01

    This research compares and contrasts the physical and chemical characteristics of incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysis sewage sludge char (PSSC) for the purposes of recovering phosphorus as a P-rich fertilizer. Interest in P recovery from PSSC is likely to increase as pyrolysis is becoming viewed as a more economical method of sewage sludge thermal treatment compared to incineration. The P contents of ISSA and PSSC are 7.2-7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Relative to the sludge, P concentrations are increased about 8-fold in ISSA, compared to roughly 3-fold in PSSC. Both PSSC and ISSA contain whitlockite, an unusual form of calcium phosphate, with PSSC containing more whitlockite than ISSA. Acid leaching experiments indicate that a liquid / solid ratio of 10 with 30min contact time is optimal to release PO 4 -P into leachate for both ISSA and PSSC. The proportion of P extracted from PSSC is higher due to its higher whitlockite content. Heavy metals are less soluble from PSSC because they are more strongly incorporated in the particles. The results suggest there is potential for the development of a process to recover P from PSSC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Cell motility under the microscope: Vorsprung durch Technik.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Graham A; Jones, Gareth E.

    2004-08-01

    The fashion today is to disparage technology-led research but our view is that cell biologists, in particular, should be proud of their 'progress through technology'. The 'cell theory' itself, arguably the oldest cornerstone in the theoretical foundations of biology, emerged because Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek and others had, more than a century earlier, pioneered the enabling technology - the microscope. We develop this theme with reference to our own field of research: the locomotion of cultured tissue cells.

  • Dioxin-like effects from groundwater at the Zeitz industrial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, Kristin; Bopp, Stephanie; Russold, Sandra; Popp, Peter

    Abstract As part of the establishment of the Zeitz site (Saxony-Anhalt) as a reference test field for the implementation of the natural attenuation approach, we examined groundwater for its ability to produce a dioxin-like effect. The dioxin-like effect is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated induction of the protein complex cytochrome CYP1A, which was measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) enzyme activity in a fish liver cell line.Of 32 sampling points, seven showed a significant EROD induction, which was to a small extent due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Another part of the EROD induction could be attributed to the substances benzofuran, indan and indene, which were identified here for the first time as EROD inducers. All sampling points with significant EROD induction were in the upstream or west of the former location of the benzene plant in Zeitz, which suggests a significant influence of benzene, especially on the transport and dissolution behavior of EROD-inducing groundwater contaminants. Overall, these studies show how a combination of chemical and biological analysis leads to a significantly improved informative value and thus can contribute to sustainable monitoring of the quality of groundwater. As part of setting up the test field Zeitz (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany) as a reference site for the implementation of Natural Attenuation as a remediation option, we have investigated groundwater for its ability to cause a dioxin-like response. The dioxin-like response is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated induction of the protein complex cytochrome CYP1A, which was measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) enzyme activity in a fish liver cell line. Out of 32 sampling locations, seven showed significant EROD induction, which could be explained, to a minor extent, by the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Another small portion of the EROD induction was attributed to the low molecular weight compounds, Benzofuran, Indane and Indene, which were shown for the first time to act as EROD inducers. All sampling locations showing significant EROD induction were located upstream or to the west of the former benzene production site in Zeitz. This indicates that benzene is likely to affect the transport and dissolution of EROD-inducing groundwater contaminants. In sum, this study shows how a combination of chemical and biological analysis can greatly augment knowledge about site characteristics and thus contribute to a sustainable monitoring of groundwater quality.

  • Torrefaction reduction of coke formation on catalysts used in esterification and cracking of biofuels from pyrolysed lignocellulosic feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Hilten, Roger; That, Keshav C

    2015-11-04

    A bio-oil production process involving torrefaction pretreatment, catalytic esterification, pyrolysis, and secondary catalytic processing significantly reduces yields of reactor char, catalyst coke, and catalyst tar relative to the best-case conditions using non-torrefied feedstock. The reduction in coke as a result of torrefaction was 28.5% relative to the respective control for slow pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. In fast pyrolysis bio-oil processing, the greatest reduction in coke was 34.9%. Torrefaction at 275.degree. C. reduced levels of acid products including acetic acid and formic acid in the bio-oil, which reduced catalyst coking and increased catalyst effectiveness and aromatic hydrocarbon yields in the upgraded oils. The process of bio-oil generation further comprises a catalytic esterification of acids and aldehydes to generate such as ethyl levulinate from lignified biomass feedstock.

  • Etude de production et de caracterisation de biocharbons de panic erige (Panicum virgatum L.) obtenus par pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilon, Guillaume

    This research aimed at the production of biomass char under pyrolytic conditions, targeting biochar as soil amendment, while also considering its application as biocoal, either for bioenergy or subsequent upgrading. The production of biomass char was performed using two bench-scale, batch-type, fixed-bed reactors, each with an operating capacity of 1 and 25 gw.b. / batch, respectively. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been used for the tests. Production conditions studied implied temperatures of 300, 400 and 500 ° C with short residence times (2.5 and 5 min). As well, the effect of using CO2 as vector gas has been compared to a common inert environment of N2. The effects of the previously mentioned parameters were correlated with some important physicochemical characteristics of biomass char. Analyzes were also performed on complementary pyrolytic products (bio-oil and gas). The biomass char extraction was performed using a Soxhlet and dichloromethane was used as extracting solvent. The extracts were then characterized by GC-MS thus allowing the identification of several compounds. Specific pyrolysis conditions used at 300 ° C - N2 with the 1 g / batch reactor, such as high heating rates as well as high convection conditions, presented advantegeous biomass char yields and properties, and, possible torrefaction process productivity improvement (in comparison to reported literature, such as Gilbert et al. [2009]). The char extracts as well as the bio-oils analysis (also performed using GC-MS), all generated from the 25 g / batch reactor, showed major differences among the compounds obtained from the CO2 and N2 environments, respectively. Several compounds observed in the char extracts appeared less concentrated in the CO2 environment vs N2, for the same reaction temperatures. As an example, at 400 ° C, furfural was found only in char extracts from N2 environment as compared to the CO2 environment. Among all studied conditions (for both reactors), only naphthalene and naphthalene derivatives constituted the PAHs content, which was only detected for the chars produced at 500 ° C. The use of CO2 as pyrolysis vector gas led to a significant difference for every temperature conditions studied for the biomass char as well as for the liquid and gas products. At 300 ° C, in CO 2 environment, it is possible to observe a bio-oil production significantly lower than within a N2 environment (18.0 vs 24.6%; CO2 vs N2 for P

  • Deposition and characterization of spray pyrolyzed p-type Cu2SnS3 thin film for potential absorber layer of solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiruvenkadam, S .; Sakthi, P .; Prabhakaran, S .; Chakravarty, Sujay; Ganesan, V .; Rajesh, A. Leo

    2018-06-01

    Thin film of ternary Cu2SnS3 (CTS), a potential absorber layer for solar cells was successfully deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The GIXRD pattern revealed that the film having tetragonal Cu2SnS3 phase with the preferential orientation along (112), (200), (220) and (312) plane and it is further confirmed using Raman spectroscopy by the existence of Raman peak at 320 cm- 1. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to estimate the surface roughness of 28.8 nm. The absorption coefficient was found to be greater than the order of 105 cm-1 and bandgap of 1.70 eV. Hall effect measurement indicates the p type nature of the film with a hole concentration of 1.03 × 1016cm-3 and a hall mobility of 404 cm2 / V. The properties of CTS thin film confirmed suitable to be a potential absorber layer material for photovoltaic applications.

  • A catalyst layer optimization approach using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for PEM fuel cells operated with pyrolysed transition metal-N-C catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malko, Daniel; Lopes, Thiago; Ticianelli, Edson A .; Kucernak, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the ionomer to carbon (I / C) ratio on the performance of single cell polymer electrolyte fuel cells is investigated for three different types of non-precious metal cathodic catalysts. Polarization curves as well as impedance spectra are recorded at different potentials in the presence of argon or oxygen at the cathode and hydrogen at the anode. It is found that an optimized ionomer content is a key factor for improving the performance of the catalyst. Non-optimal ionomer loading can be assessed by two different factors from the impedance spectra. Hence this observation could be used as a diagnostic element to determine the ideal ionomer content and distribution in newly developed catalyst electrodes. An electrode morphology based on the presence of inhomogeneous resistance distribution within the porous structure is suggested to explain the observed phenomena. The back-pressure and relative humidity effect on this feature is also investigated and supports the above hypothesis. We give a simple flowchart to aid optimization of electrodes with the minimum number of trials.

  • Elaboration et caracterisation de couches minces de CuInS2 deposees par la pyrolysis par pulverisation ultrasonique a base de transducteur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petuenju, Eric Nguwuo

    The present thesis study is part of the work of The Laboratory of New Materials for Energy and Electrochemistry systems (LaNoMat) that search new techniques to elaborate new materials for photovoltaic solar applications. This aims to contribute to the development of the exploitation of solar energy into electrical energy by the maximum of the population throughout the world. This work deals with the determination of CuInS2 thin film deposition parameters by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method for applications in the technology of three dimensional (3D) solar cells. The structure of the band gap of CuInS2 (a semiconductor material with a direct band gap of 1.55 eV) makes it an excellent candidate for the role of the absorber in thin film technology for solar photovoltaic applications. 3D solar photovoltaic technology requires the production of a p-n junction with n and p-type semiconductors to make networks. The production and growth of such networks depends on the creation of thin films which have the characteristics of an ultrathin nanocomposite or extremely thin absorber (typically a few tens of nanometers) or which act as a quantum dot. To allow the emergence of 3D photovoltaic technology, it is important to develop methods for the growth of thin layers of materials such as CuInS 2, which are potentially interesting for this purpose. But the development of methods for thin film deposition, for the reasons of competition and accessibility, must be considered as an important factor in the context of the development of three-dimensional photovoltaic solar cells at low cost (production costs: of the order of 0 , 5 a $ 0.3 US / watt peak) (Beard et al., 2014). To do this it is necessary to use materials manufacturing technology readily available and inexpensive, and allowing to have materials on large surface, such as pyrolysis which allows to reduce costs by a factor of 100 compared to the crystallogenesis. Pyrolysis is defined as a process for decomposing one or more compounds by heat to obtain the formation of a new compound. The main objective of this thesis focuses on the use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique to grow CuInS2 thin films and characterize them by different techniques. This choice is linked to the fact that the CuInS2 is a direct gap semiconductor material, which can act as absorber in solar photovoltaic technology. However, the growth of thin films of this material is subject to a problem of creation of interpenetrating networks of different types of semiconductors (n and p-type), which implies a suitable choice of deposition technique. It should be noted that the interest in existing methods, the ALCVD (Atomic Layer Vapor Deposition) and ILGAR (Ion Layer Gas Reaction) developed in paragraphs 2.4.1 and 2.4.2, is confronted with time limits of these methods. Indeed these two methods, owing to the principle of sequential production process, take place very slowly; and we showed that the thickness of the obtained thin film is proportional to the deposition time. In this work, spray pyrolysis is carried out in two different ways, namely ultrasonic and pneumatic spraying. Of these two methods, we showed that the transducer based ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is the method that can be used to grow thin films of CuInS2 a good homogeneity of the crystallites size (of the order of 110 A) and the morphology of the layers. Ultrasonic spraying was done with a piezoelectric system using a transducer. This system consists of a cylindrical container made of Teflon 5 cm diameter and 15 cm long in which is introduced the solution containing the precursor. The container is mounted on an ultrasonic transducer, component of the piezoelectric system TDK nebulizer unit NB-80E-01, which transforms the solution into aerosol. The aerosol is transported through a Teflon tube by a carrier gas, the nitrogen, into a floating motion to the substrate. The substrate is placed on a heating plate whose temperature is controlled by a control monitor. The supply in solution of the container is done with the aid of an electric pump. The nature of the samples obtained is dependent on the supporting electrolyte for the deposition of the precursors. We showed that the use of precursors in an aqueous solution leads to the production of thin layers of indium sulfide In 2S3 clusters while the use of the precursors in alcoholic solution leads to the production of thin layers of CuInS2. The precursors ratio for deposition of CuInS2 is Cu: In: S = 1: 1: 4. The thickness of thin films of In2S3 is of the order of 812 nm. These layers are composed of microaggregates with size ranging from 3 to 20 microns. The particle size in the thin films of In2S 3 is of about 220 A. The thickness of the thin film of CuInS 2 is of the order of 600 nm. Spectrophotometry has identified that all obtained CuInS2 thin films have an average band gap value of 1.40 eV. This indicates the presence of intermediate states, such as copper vacancies in the material band gap. The absorption spectra also allowed us to distinguish peaks that can be attributed to the contribution of sub-bands corresponding to the indium-sulfur bond and the sulfur 3s-band. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction to identify crystalline structure while their surface morphology as well as their semi-quantitative chemical composition were determined using the energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The ensuing results show that the thin films obtained are homogeneous, transparent and polycrystalline with the crystallites size of the order of 110 A. The thin films obtained by this method do not require annealing to improve their crystallinity. The growth of thin films depends on the substrate humidification period. For a wetting time of about 3 minutes, thin layers are obtained with stoichiometry of Cu: In: S = 1: 1.81: 3.18. The obtained samples are indexed as CIS1. For a wetting time of about 7 minutes, thin layers are obtained with stoichiometry of Cu: In: S = 1: 1.23: 2.07. The obtained samples are indexed as CIS2. Contrary to layers CIS1, the layers CIS2 also contain chlorine. The obtained thin films are p-type and, under illumination of 100 mW / cm 2 by a xenon lamp, an increase of the density of charge carriers of about 62% is obtained, but this value does not account for the recombination phenomena. In the case of the pneumatic spraying method, the spraying principle is based on the application of Venturi effect, which allows to spray the solution of precursors using a carrier gas. This method is called gas blasting spray pyrolysis. The gas used here is nitrogen. The sprayer is an airbrush - Iwata hp-eclipse bcs - which aspires the solution through a tube connected to the bottle containing the precursor solution, and sprays it through a nozzle according to the principle of the Venturi effect. The precursors ratio is Cu: In: S = 1: 1: 4. The obtained thin films are CuInS2. They are heterogeneous, dense, opaque, and polycrystalline with a crystallites size of the order of 550 A. The stoichiometry of the obtained layers is of order of 1: 1.45: 2.28. The thin films obtained by this method require annealing (heating of the samples in an oven for one hour at a temperature of 300 ° C) to improve their crystallinity. The thickness of the obtained thin film of CuInS2 is of the order of 1190 nm. The comparative analysis of the samples obtained by the two types of spray pyrolysis is then performed. It shows that ultrasonic aerosol spray would provide CuInS2 thin films for solar applications both in the roles of nanocomposite ultra-thin absorber and extremely thin absorber as in that of quantum dot absorber. In conclusion, transducer based ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is therefore a method that would allow the deposition of CuInS2 on TiO 2 and contribute to resolve a major limitation in three-dimensional photovoltaic solar cells technology, namely the realization of interpenetrating networks of n-type and p -type semiconductors, on a large scale and without time constraint.