Who is the real culprit in Mahabharat

The great Mahabharata

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5th Book - Udyoga Parva The Book of Efforts

Complete German translation by Undine & Jens from the English versions by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883-1896) and Manmatha Nath Dutt (1895-1905) First edition: August 2011 / revision: July 2012 www.pushpak.de

Table of Contents
5th book - Udyoga Parva - The book of efforts ....................................... .................... 6 Sainyodyoga Parva ........................... .................................................. ................................ 6
Chapter 1 - The assembly of the kings at the court of Virata ....................................... .............................. 6 Krishna's speech about the next steps of the Pandavas ......... .................................................. .. 6 Chapter 2 - The speech of Balarama for reconciliation ...................................... ............................................. 7 Chapter 3 - The Speech of satyaki for the fight ............................................ ............................................. 8 Chapter 4 - The Drupada's speech on the appeal to the allies .......................................... ................... 9 Chapter 5 - Krishna's Response and Armies Mobilization .................. .................................... 10 Chapter 6 - Drupada sends his priest to the Kurus as a messenger. .................................................. .. 10 Chapter 7 - Duryodhana and Arjuna courting Krishna ...................................... .......... ............................ 11 Chapter 8 - King Salya and his great army ............ .................................................. ....................... 13 Chapter 9 - The Story of Indra and Vritra ................. .................................................. ..................... 15 Chapter 10 - The Death of Vritra and the Sin of Indra ................. .................................................. ............ 18 Chapter 11 - Nahusha is chosen as the new King of the Gods .......................... ...................................... 20 Chapter 12 - King Nahusha loses himself in lust. .................................................. .............................. 21 Chapter 13 - The cleansing of Indra from his sin .......... .................................................. ..................... 22 Chapter 14 - Sachi in search of her master .................. .................................................. .............. 23 Chapter 15 - Nahusha and p an arrogance against the Rishis ............................................. ........................... 24 Chapter 16 - Indra is found again and strengthened ............. .................................................. ................ 25 Chapter 17 - Nahusha Falls from Heaven's Throne ........................ .................................................. ..... 27 Chapter 18 - Indra becomes king again .................................... .................................................. ........... 28 Chapter 19 - The Gathering of Armies on Both Sides ............................ ....................................... 29

Sanjayayana Parva ................................................ .................................................. ......... 30


Chapter 20 - The Drupada's Speech for Peace ...................................... ....................... 30 Chapter 21 - The Speech of Bhishma and the Protest of Karna .............. .................................................. 31 Chapter 22 - Dhritarashtra speaks to his messenger Sanjaya ....................................... ............................... 32 Chapter 23 - The Conversation Between Sanjaya and Yudhishthira ......... .................................................. ..... 34 Chapter 24 - The Answer of Sanjaya ..................................... .................................................. ................ 35 Chapter 25 - The Message of Sanjaya .......................... .................................................. ........................ 36 Chapter 26 - Yudhishthira's Answer .................. .................................................. ............................ 37 Chapter 27 - The Sanjaya Speech for Peace ........ .................................................. ........................ 38 Chapter 28 - Yudhishthira's Answer .................. .................................................. ............................ 40 Chapter 29 - Krishna's speech on action ........... .................................................. .................. 41 Chapter 30 - Yudhishthira's Mission to Sanjaya ........................ .................................................. ................ 44 Chapter 31 - Yudhishthira says goodbye to Sanjaya ........................... .................................................. ......... 46 Chapter 32 - Sanjaya's allegations against King Dhritarashtra .............................. .................................... 47

Prajagara Parva ................................................ .................................................. .............. 49


Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 33 - The teaching of Vidura before King Dhritarashtra ........................... ...................................... 49 34 - Continuation of the teaching of Vidura .... .................................................. ............................. 54 35 - The story of Virochana and Sudhanwan ............ .................................................. ....... 57 36 - The story of the son of Atri and the Sadhyas ............................... .............................. 61 37 - Continuation of the instruction from Vidura ............ .................................................. ..................... 65 38 - Continuation of the instruction from Vidura ..................... .................................................. ............ 67 39 - Continuation of the instruction from Vidura .............................. .................................................. ... 69 40 - Krnender A Conclusion of the instruction from Vidura ............................................. ........................ 73 41 - Vidura calls the eternal Rishi Sanatsujata for help ............... .................................................. 75 42 - The secret teaching of Sanatsujata for Dhritarashtra ........................................ .............. 75 43 - Sanatsujata on the Supreme Being and Renunciation ......................... ............................. 78 44 - Sanatsujata on the way of renunciation ............ .................................................. ............... 81 45 - Continuation of the secret teaching of Sanatsujata .......................... ................................. 83 46 - The Song of the Eternal .......... .................................................. .......................................... 84

Sanatsujata Parva ................................................ .................................................. ........... 75

Yanasandhi Parva ................................................ .................................................. .......... 87


Chapter 47 - The Assembly of Kings at Dhritarashtra Court ....................................... .................. 87 Chapter 48 - Sanjaya Conveys the Words of Arjuna ...................... .................................................. ...... 87 Chapter 49 - The Answer of Bhishma, Karna, and Drona ................................ .......................................... 93 Chapter 50 - Sanjaya reports on the Powers of the Pandavas ............................................... ...................... 94 Chapter 51 - Dhritarashtra's Lament and Fear of Bhima ................. ................................................. 96 Chapter 52 - Dhritarashtra's Lament and Fear of Arjuna ........................................ .......................... 99 Chapter 53 - Dhritarashtra's Lament and Desire for Peace ............. ................................................. 99 Chapter 54 - Sanjaya's Answer to the King's Complaint .......................... ................................. 100 Chapter 55 - Duryodhana's Answer to the King ........ .................................................. .......................... 101 Chapter 56 - Duryodhana Asks Sanjaya About the Pandavas .............. .................................................. 103 Chapter 57 - Interview with Sanjaya continues ......................................... .................................................. ...... 104 Chapter 58 - Dhritarashtra Desperately Warns His Son ................................... ..................................... 107 Chapter 59 - Sanjaya reports on Krishna and Arjuna ... .................................................. ..................... 108

Chapter 60 - Dhritarashtra's Fear of the Power of Arjuna ......................................... .................................. 109 Chapter 61 - Duryodhana's Presentation of His Power ........ .................................................. ..................... 110 Chapter 62 - Karna puts down his weapons .................... .................................................. ..................... 111 Chapter 63 - Vidura's Response to the Boast of Duryodhana .................. ............................................ 112 Chapter 64 - Vidura's Teaching .................................................. .................................................. .......... 113 Chapter 65 - Dhritarashtra Urges His Son Again to Peace ............................ ........................ 114 Chapter 66 - Sanjaya Conveying the Words of Arjuna ................ .................................................. .......... 114 Chapter 67 - Dhritarashtra please Sanjaya in secret ... .................................................. ........................ 115 Chapter 68 - Sanjaya teaches the king about Krishna ................ .................................................. ............ 116 Chapter 69 - Sanjaya Answers Dhritarashtra's Questions ............................ ................................... 116 Chapter 70 - Sanjaya Reveals the Names of Krishna ...... .................................................. ........................ 117 Chapter 71 - Dhritarashtra's Devotion to Krishna .................. .................................................. .............. 118

Bhagavat Yana Parva ............................................... .................................................. .... 119


Chapter 72 - Yudhishthira's Conversation with Krishna ........................................... ......................................... 119 Chapter 73 - The Speech of Krishna to Yudhishthira .................................................. ................................... 122 Chapter 74 - The Speech of Bhima ....... .................................................. .................................................. 124 Chapter 75 - Krishna's Reply .......................................... .................................................. ... 125 Chapter 76 - Bhima's Answer ...................................... .................................................. ................ 126 Chapter 77 - The Declaration of Krishna .......................... .................................................. ....................... 126 Chapter 78 - The Speech of Arjuna ................... .................................................. ...................................... 127 Chapter 79 - D The answer from Krishna to Arjuna ............................................ .......................................... 128 Chapter 80 - Nakula's speech .................................................. .................................................. ...... 129 Chapter 81 - The Speech of Sahadeva and Satyaki .................................. ................................................ 129 Chapter 82 - The speech of the Draupadi ............................................ .................................................. 130 Chapter 83 - Krishna's Farewell ................................... .................................................. ......................... 132 Krishna meets the rishis and ascetics on his way ............... .................................................. ........ 134 Chapter 84 - The Journey from Krishna to Hastinapura ................................ ............................................. 134 Chapter 85 - King Dhritarashtra arranged d Reception of Krishna .............................................. ....... 136 Chapter 86 - King Dhritarashtra wishes to give gifts to Krishna ................................. .......................... 136 Chapter 87 - Vidura rebukes the king for his hypocrisy ............. .................................................. .......... 137 Chapter 88 - Duryodhana expresses his avarice ................................ .................................................. ... 138 Chapter 89 - The Arrival of Krishna in Hastinapura .................................... ........................................... 139 Chapter 90 - Kuntis Sorrow and Krishna's answer .............................................. ......................... 139 Chapter 91 - Krishna's Visit to the Palace of Duryodhana ............... .................................................. ....... 144 Chapter 92 - Vidura Speaks to Krishna ................................... .................................................. ...... ......... 145 Chapter 93 - Krishna's Answer on the Purpose of His Efforts ............................ .................... 147 Chapter 94 - Krishna's Appearance in the Kurus Council Hall .................... .................................................. 148 Chapter 95 - Krishna's Appeal for Peace ....................................... .................................................. . 150 Chapter 96 - The Story of King Dambhodbhava ........................................ .................................. 152 Chapter 97 - The Story of Matali ........ .................................................. ......................................... 154 Chapter 98 - Matali meets Narada on the Way to Varuna ............................................... ................. 155 Chapter 99 - The Description of Patalam ......................... .................................................. ................ 156 Chapter 100 - The Description of Hiranyapura ............ .................................................. ..................... 157 Chapter 101 - The Description of the Kingdom of Birds ................... .................................................. ..... 158 Chapter 102 - The Description of Rasatala ..................................... .................................................. 158 Chapter 103 - The Description of Bhogavati ........................................ ............................................... 159 Chapter 104 - Sumukha is won as a bridegroom ............................................ ................................ 160 Chapter 105 - The Wrath of Garuda and His Realization ....... .................................................. .............. 161 Chapter 106 - The Story of Galava and Vishvamitra .......................... ............................................ 162 Chapter 107 - Galava's Lawsuit and his meeting with Garuda ............................................. .......................... 1 64 Chapter 108 - The Description of the East .......................................... ................................................. 164 Chapter 109 - The Description of the South ........................................... ............................................... 165 Chapter 110 - The description of the West ............................................. ............................................ 166 Chapter 111 - The Description in the north ................................................ ......................................... 167 Chapter 112 - Garuda carries Galava to the east .................................................. ..................................... 168 Chapter 113 - Meeting the Brahman Sandili ... .................................................. .......... 169 Chapter 114 - Garuda and Galava go to King Yayati ............................. .......................................... 170 Chapter 115 - Galava gets Madhavi and goes to King Hary asva ................................................. ... 171 Chapter 116 - Galava asks King Haryasva for the horses ................................... ................................... 171 Chapter 117 - Galava goes to King Divodasa with Madhavi .... .................................................. ............... 172 Chapter 118 - Galava goes to King Usinara with Madhavi ........................ ................................................ 173 Chapter 119 - Galava goes to Vishvamitra with Garuda and Madhavi ........................................ ................ 174 Chapter 120 - The Choice of Spouse by Madhavi and Ascension of Yayati ...................... ............................ 175 Chapter 121 - King Yayati falls out of heaven ............ .................................................. ...................... 175 Chapter 122 - King Yayati is raised again by his descendants ................ .............................. 177 Chapter 123 - The End of the Story about Gala va and Yayati ............................................... .............. 177 Chapter 124 - Krishna admonishes Duryodhana on behalf of Dhritarashtra ......................... ....................... 178 Chapter 125 - Further attempts to change Duryodhana ................... ................................................. 181 Chapter 126 - Bhishma and Drona once again urge peace ........................................ ................. 182 Chapter 127 - The Answer of Duryodhana ......................... .................................................. .................. 183

Chapter 128 - Duryodhana Leaves the Congregation ........................................... .................................... 184 Chapter 129 - The Appeal of Gandhari to Her Son ... .................................................. ........................ 185 Chapter 130 - The Resolve to Grasp Krishna ................ .................................................. ................. 188 Chapter 131 - Krishna reveals his universal form at the Kuru court ..................... ................................... 190 Chapter 132 - Kunti's Message to Yudhishthira ....... .................................................. .............................. 191 Chapter 133 - The Tale of Queen Vidula .......... .................................................. ..................192 Chapter 134 - Continuation of the Story ........................................... .................................................. 194 Chapter 135 - Continuation of the Story .......................................... .................................................. .. 196 Chapter 136 - The End of the Story of Queen Vidula .................................... .......................... 197 Chapter 137 - Kunti's Message to the Other Pandavas .............. .................................................. ........ 198 Chapter 138 - Bhishma and Drona speak to Duryodhana again ............................... .......................... 199 Chapter 139 - Bhishma and Drona continue speaking to Duryodhana ............. ............................................ 200 Chapter 140 - Krishna Revealed Karna his true origins .............................................. ..................... 201 Chapter 141 - Karna's Speech on the Importance of Fighting as a Sacrifice ............. ..................................... 202 Chapter 142 - Krishna's Confirmation of Doom ..... .................................................. ........................ 204 Chapter 143 - Karna Describes the omens of the struggle ................ .................................................. 205 Chapter 144 - Vidura's visit to Kunti and her great decision .................................... ............. 207 Chapter 145 - Kunti announces his true origin to Karna ........................... .......................................... 208 Chapter 146 - Karna's Answer .................................................. .................................................. .. 209 Chapter 147 - Krishna announces the speech of Bhishma ...................................... .................................... 210 Chapter 148 - Krishna preaches the speeches of Drona, Vidura and Gandhari .......................................... 212 Chapter 149 - Krishna preaches the speech from Dhritara shtra ................................................. .................. 213 Chapter 150 - Krishna reports on his attempts at peace ....................... ........................................... 215

Sainya Niryana Parva ............................................... .................................................. .... 215


Chapter 151 - The Pandavas Discuss their Generalissimo ......................................... ..................... 215 Chapter 152 - The March of the Pandava Army to Kurukshetra .................. .......................................... 217 Chapter 153 - Yudhishthira sets up his camp on Kurukshetra ................................................ .............. 218 Chapter 154 - Duryodhana Prepares for Battle .......................... ............................. 219 Chapter 155 - Doubt and decision of the Pandavas to war .......... .................................................. .... 220 Chapter 156 - Duryodhana's Preparations for War ........................................ ........................................... 221 Chapter 157 - Bhishma is served by Duryodhana appointed general .............................................. ........... 222 Chapter 158 - Yudhishthira calls the seven commanders .............................. ....................... ............. 223 Balarama appears and announces his departure .............................. ............................................ 224 Chapter 159 - Rukmi appears with the Pandavas and the Kauravas ............................................ ........... 225 Chapter 160 - Dhritarashtra Asks Sanjaya About Fate ............................. ................................. 226

Uluka Dutagamana Parva ............................................... ................................................ 227


Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 161 - Duryodhana instructs Uluka as messenger .............................. ................................................. 227 162 - Uluka delivers his message to the Pandavas ......................................... ................. 232 163 - The answer of Krishna and the Pandavas ....................... ............................................... 233 164 - Further messages and the return of Uluka ........................................... ................... 236 165 - Dhrishtadyumna orders the troops of the Pandavas ...................... ...................................... 238 166 - Bhishma describes the great fighters of the Kauravas .. .................................................. .. 238 167 - Continuation of the description .......................................... ................................................. 240 168 - Continuation of the description ............ .................................................. ............................. 240 169 - The dispute between Bhishma and Karna ............ .................................................. .............. 242 170 - Bhishma describes the great warriors of the Pandavas .......................... ............................. 243 171 - continued description ............... .................................................. .......................... 244 172 - Description continued .................. .................................................. ....................... 245 173 - Description continued ..................... .................................................. .................... 246

Rathatiratha Sankhyana Parva ............................................... ........................................ 238

Ambopakhyana Parva ................................................ .................................................. ... 247
Chapter 174 - The Story of Amba, Ambika, and Ambalika ....................................... ....................... 247 Chapter 175 - Amba wishes King Salwa to be her husband ................ ................................................ 248 chapters 176 - Amba returns to King Salwa .......................................... ......................................... 248 Chapter 177 - Amba goes to the Ascetics ................................................. ..................................... 249 Chapter 178 - Amba meets Hotravahana ... .................................................. ....................... 250 Chapter 179 - Amba meets Rama, the son of Jamadagni ............... .................................................. ..... 252 Chapter 180 - Rama is convinced of the fight .................................... .................................................. 254 Chapter 181 - Bhishma is urged to fight Rama ............................ ................................... 255 Chapter 182 - The Fight Between Rama and Bhishma ..... .................................................. ................... 257 Chapter 183 - The Second Day of Combat ...................... .................................................. ..................... 259 Chapter 184 - The Third Day of Combat .................... .................................................. ......................... 260 Chapter 185 - The Fourth Day of the 23-Day Fight ............. .................................................. .............. 261 Chapter 186 - Bhishma's Dream .............................. .................................................. ............................... 262 Chapter 187 - The Last Day of Combat Begins ......... .................................................. ....................... 263 Chapter 188 - The End of the Fight ................... .................................................. ............................... 263 Chapter 189 - The Asceticism of the Amba ........................................... .................................................. .......... 265 Chapter 190 - The Death of the Amba ................................ .................................................. .......................... 266 Chapter 191 - The Birth of Sikhandin ................ .................................................. ............................... 267

Chapter 192 - Sikhandin Is Married ............................................ .................................................. ... 268 Chapter 193 - The Wrath of Hiranyavarman ....................................... .................................................. ... 269 Chapter 194 - The Despair of Sikhandin ....................................... ................................................. 269 Chapter 195 - The End of History ........................................... .................................................. ... 271 Chapter 196 - Duryodhana asks about the power of his warriors ................................... ............................ 273 Chapter 197 - Yudhishthira asks Arjuna about his power ............ .................................................. ...... 274 Chapter 198 - The Deployment of the Kuru Army ................................... .................................................. .... 275 Chapter 199 - The deployment of the Pandava Army .................................................. ................................ 276

5th book - Udyoga Parva - The book of efforts Sainyodyoga Parva


Chapter 1 - The assembly of kings at the court of Virata
OM! Bowing to Nara and Narayana, these highest of males, and also to Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, let the word jaya (victory) sound. Vaisampayana said: And after those brave descendants of the Kurus, who were on friendly terms with King Virata, celebrated the wedding of Abhimanyu with joy, they rested at night, and at dawn they went contentedly to the palace of Virata. The chambers of the king of the Matsyas were filled with riches and decorated with exquisite jewels and precious stones. There were many splendid seats to be seen here, arranged according to the ranks and adorned with garlands. A pleasant scent hovered over everything. And those mighty rulers of great peoples all went there. On the front seats sat the two kings Virata and Drupada, these venerable rulers of the earth, together with Balarama and Krishna with their father. Right next to the king of Panchala, the great hero of the Sini family took his place with the son of Rohini. And near the king of the Matsyas sat Draupadi and Yudhishthira, with all the sons of King Drupada, as well as Bhima, Arjuna, the two sons of Madri, also Pradyumna and Samva, these two brave fighters, and Abhimanyu together with the sons of Virata . The sons of Draupadi, who as young princes strived after their fathers in bravery, strength, grace and heroism, also took their places in excellent, gold-decorated seats. And when those mighty heroes with the radiant ornaments and robes had all sat down, this magnificent gathering of kings shone as beautifully as the starry sky. And after these brave people talked to each other on various subjects, they lingered in a pensive mood for a while, while turning their eyes to Krishna. He then recalled the affairs of the Pandavas, and those mighty kings all together heard this speech from Krishna, which was sublime and profound.

The talk of Krishna about the next steps of the Pandavas
Krishna said: You all know how Yudhishthira was fraudulently defeated with the dice by the son of Suvala and robbed of his kingdom. So you also know the conditions that were set by him regarding the exile in the forest. Even though they were able to conquer the whole earth by force, and their chariots roamed the heavenly and earthly realms unhindered, the sons of the Pandu nevertheless remained steadfast in their trusting faith. And accordingly, these incomparable people endured this cruelly imposed task for six and seven years. The last, the thirteenth year, was particularly hard for her. But unrecognized by everyone, they have completed it, as you know, and endured many unsavory hardships. You all know that. These famous people sacrificed the thirteenth year, humiliating themselves for service to others. That's how it happened. Now you should all consider what is of benefit to both sides, Yudhishthira and Duryodhana, the Kurus and Pandavas, and is in accordance with the rules of justice and human dignity, and is also acceptable to all. For the virtuous King Yudhishthira would even reject the heavenly kingdom if he were to reject justice for it. But he would righteously accept government for a single village. How the sons of Dhritarashtra fraudulently robbed him of his fatherly kingdom, and how he lived a life of unbearable needs, is well known to all the kings gathered here. The sons of Dhritarashtra would never be able to overcome the power of Arjuna. Still, King Yudhishthira and his friends had and still have
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no greater desire than that of the sons of Dhritarashtra. These brave sons of the Kunti and the two sons of Madri only ask for what they themselves have achieved in the victorious battle and won from the defeated kings. You know exactly how those opponents of the Pandavas, wishing to own the whole paternal kingdom alone, endeavored by various means to destroy them when they were still little boys. They were already so disgruntled and bitter back then. Consider how greedy they reach for everything and how virtuous Yudhishthira is. But also consider the relationship that exists between them. I ask you all, may everyone go into themselves and then consult together. The Pandavas always strived for truthfulness and kept their promise down to the letter. If they continued to be treated unfairly by the sons of Dhritarashtra now, no matter how many allies they had, the Pandavas would destroy them. Because the Pandavas also have good friends who, knowing that they have been treated unworthily, are immediately ready to assist them in the fight with their adversaries and willingly destroy them even if it would cost their own lives. And if you think that there are definitely too few to win the victory over their enemies, then you should still know that since they are united together and supported by their friends, they will undoubtedly try their very best to defeat those adversaries. But what Duryodhana thinks and wants to do now is not exactly known to us. And if the intent of the other side is not known, what opinion can you make of the most useful course of action? Let, therefore, send to them a trustworthy man, virtuous, honest, cautious and of noble birth, thus a capable ambassador, who asks them with mild words to hand over half of the kingdom to Yudhishthira. After this speech by Krishna, marked by foresight and consideration for virtue and a peace-loving and righteous spirit, his older brother spoke to the congregation to praise the lofty words of his younger brother.

Chapter 2 - The Balarama Speech for Reconciliation


Balarama said: You have all heard this speech from Krishna, the elder brother of Gada, which was spoken of great virtue and prudence, for the good of Yudhishthira and for King Duryodhana. These brave sons of the Kunti are ready to give up half of their kingdom. They make this sacrifice for Duryodhana. The sons of Dhritarashtra should therefore give up half of this kingdom, live happily with us and be satisfied with it, since the dispute was so profitably resolved. The mighty Pandavas who regain power in this way would no doubt be reassured and peaceful, provided the other party did the same. If both are peaceful, it will lead to human welfare. I would be very happy if any of those here, with the aim of achieving peace between the Kurus and Pandavas, took a trip to see how Duryodhana felt and explain the views of Yudhishthira to him. Let him respectfully express our admiration for Bhishma, these heroic descendants of the Kurus, the great son of Vichitravirya (Dhritarashtra), Drona with his son, Vidura and Kripa, and also for the King of Gandhara (Shakuni) with the Son of Suta (Karna). May he pay his respects to all the other sons of Dhritarashtra, and to all who are famous for their strength and learning, devoted to proper duties, heroic and full of life experience. When all of these people are gathered together with the venerable citizens, may he speak words that are full of humility and serve the virtuous interests of Yudhishthira. And he should never allow himself to be provoked if you want to hold the kingdom in your possession with a strong hand. When Yudhishthira possessed his throne, he forgot himself playing and was expropriated from his kingdom by them. Yudhishthira, that brave Kuru, the descendant of
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Ajamida, was challenged to a fight by Shakuni, the son of the King of Gandhara, a master of dice, although he was completely inexperienced in the game of dice and all his friends advised against it. There were probably a thousand other dice players in this place who were also able to defeat Yudhishthira in this game. But he ignored them and challenged Suvala's son to the game among all those present, and so he lost. And although the dice kept falling against him, he wanted Shakuni alone as his opponent. Comparing himself to Shakuni in the game, he tolerated this devastating defeat. Shakuni cannot be blamed for this. Therefore, may the messenger use humble words, words expressing the desire to atone for the son of Vichitravirya (Dhritarashtra). Only in this way can the messenger also persuade Dhritarashtra's son to understand. He should not seek war with the Kurus, but always address Duryodhana with conciliatory words. Our lofty goal could fail if it had to be secured by war. It can only be won safely through reconciliation. And only this remedy guarantees that it can also be kept permanently. Vaisampayana continued: While this brave sprout of the Mathura tribe was still speaking, the chivalrous son of the Sinis suddenly arose and indignantly condemned the speaker's words.

Chapter 3 - The Speech of Satyaki for Combat


Satyaki said: As a person's heart is, so does it express itself! You too speak according to the nature of your heart. There are brave people and there are cowards. All people can be divided into these two well-separated classes.On a large tree there can be two branches, one bearing fruit and the other not. In this way, offspring from the same ancestral line can grow, some of which are weak and others full of strength. Oh you with the plow in the banner, I do not fundamentally condemn the words you have spoken, but I condemn those, oh son of Mathura, who quietly listen to your words! How can one speak in this congregation who shamelessly dares to blame even the slightest guilt on the virtuous King Yudhishthira? The great Yudhishthira was challenged by crafty people in this craps game, and inexperienced in playing and full of confidence in them, he was defeated! Can such people be said to have justly won the game? If they had come to Yudhishthira while he was throwing the dice with his brothers in his house in order to defeat him, then what he had gained might have been legitimate. But they challenged Yudhishthira, who was obliged by his conscience to obey the rules of the Kshatriyas, and won by their cunning. What could be fair in this behavior of them? And why should this Yudhishthira be humble here, who has met the conditions imposed by the game to the last? He is freed from his promise to stay in the forest and now has the right to his fatherly throne! Even if Yudhishthira wanted something from others, it was still not fitting for him to plead! How can they be described as righteous and not as throne robbers when they claim to have recognized the Pandavas even though they spent their time in secret and in doing so concealed themselves? They have already been implored several times by Bhishma and the great Drona, but they still do not want to agree to return the throne to the Pandavas to which they are entitled by the right of birth. The means by which I would ask them are sharp arrows. I will fight and force them with a strong hand to humble themselves at the feet of the famous son of the Kunti. However, if they do not bow to the feet of the wise Yudhishthira, then they must enter the kingdom of Yama with their allies. When Yudhishthira becomes angry and determined to fight, then they can never withstand his power, as the mountains are unable to endure the thunderbolt. And
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who could resist Arjuna in battle with the Gandiva, or him who wields the discus as a weapon, or even myself? Who could endure the aloof Bhima? And who, who loves his life, would dare to go near the twin brothers when they have firmly grasped their bows and resemble the death-bringing Yama? Or the heroes Virata and Drupada, who, like all-destroying time (kala), cut the threads of life? Who would approach Dhrishtadyumna, the son of Drupada, or those five young sons of the Pandavas who glorify the name of Draupadi and compete with their fathers in valor, who pursue them in every way and already bear the pride of warriors in them. Or Abhimanyu with the powerful bow, the son of Subhadra, who is unbeatable even for the gods? Or Gada, Pradyumna or Samva, which are like yama, thunderbolt and fire? We will defeat the son of Dhritarashtra, Shakuni and Karna in battle, and put the Pandava back on the throne. It is not a sin to kill those who want to kill us, but to be a beggar before the enemy is wicked and wicked. I ask all of you to strive for what Yudhishthira desires inwardly. Let the son of Pandu get back the kingdom abandoned by Dhritarashtra! Either Yudhishthira gets his kingdom today, or all our enemies should sink to the ground, defeated by me!

Chapter 4 - The Drupada's Call to Allies Speech


Drupada said: Oh strong-armed man, it will undoubtedly be as you have just spoken! Duryodhana will never surrender the kingdom by peaceful means, and Dhritarashtra, infatuated with his son, will follow him in this desire. And so, too, Bhishma and Drona will act out of infatuation, as will Karna and Shakuni in their delusion. So the words of Balarama also arouse my contradiction. It may well be true that the path he points out should always be followed by people who want peaceful coexistence. Still, I think that Duryodhana should never be addressed in mild terms. Malicious by nature, I can't believe that he can be brought to his senses by mildness. Mildness is in the right place for a donkey. But a bull should be treated with severity. If anyone were to speak mild words to Duryodhana with the dark soul, then that belittled creature would consider the speaker an idiot. And the fool himself would think that he has already won if he is treated so indulgently. Here's what we should do: Let us make all the preparations. Let us send messages to our friends as they mobilize the armies for us. Lat send fast messengers to Shalya, Dhristaketu, Jayatsena, and the prince of the Kekayas. For Duryodhana will also call upon all kings for his part. And righteous people usually respond to the request they hear first. Therefore, the first thing I advise you to do is to bring our complaint to the rulers of the peoples as soon as possible. I already feel that a big company is waiting for us. Immediately send our words to Shalya and the kings below him, to King Bhagadatta with the immeasurable bravery who lives on the east coast, to the wild Hardikya and Ahuka, to the wise king of the Mallas and to Rochamana.
www.mahabharata.pushpak.de -9Mahabharata - Book 5, Udyoga Parva

and also Kumara, who is invincible in battle. Quickly send our message to them. That's what recommends itself to me. And let, oh kings, this priest of mine, an experienced Brahmin, go to Dhritarashtra. Tell him the words to deliver and our message to Duryodhana and how to address Bhishma and Drona, these best of the charioteers!

Chapter 5 - Krishna's Response and Armies Mobilization