What is frontal sinus hypoplasia

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The Frontal sinus (Frontal sinus) is one of the sinuses (Paranasal sinus). It creates a cavity lined with mucous membrane in the frontal bone (Frontal bone), which is connected to the middle nasal passage ("sinus duct") of the nasal cavity. In addition, there is a connection to the ethmoid cells, which is particularly spacious in horses, so that both sinuses in this species also act as Conchofrontal sinus be summarized. The frontal sinuses on both sides are separated by a thin septum (Septum sinuum frontalium) separated from each other.

Table of Contents

Species particularities


The size and shape of the frontal sinus vary widely. This applies not only to the comparison between different species, but also between different individuals in humans. There are four basic shapes described for humans: bean, leaf, mitral and pyramid shape. The size of the human frontal sinus varies between 0.05 and 7.8 cm3Not infrequently the frontal sinus is not developed at all (aplasia) or only slightly (hypoplasia).[1] The bony roof of the eye socket can also be pneumatized to a variable extent by the frontal sinus.[2]

In cattle and pigs, the frontal sinus is particularly large and extends to the occiput (Occipital bone). In horn-bearing ruminants, the frontal sinus extends into the horny process (Processus cornualis) of the skull. Therefore, the frontal sinus is opened when the horn is broken off or when adult ruminants are surgically dehorned.

development


In newborns, the frontal sinus cannot be separated from the ethmoid cells. Pneumatization of the frontal bone does not begin in humans until the age of 2, and in seven to eight year olds it reaches the upper edge of the eye socket.[1]

Diseases


Like the other paranasal sinuses, the frontal sinus can also be affected in diseases of the nose. Inflammation of the frontal sinus is called sinusitis, and a collection of pus is called frontal sinus empyema.

In the event of illnesses or accumulation of secretions, the frontal sinus can be rinsed. In chronic cases, radical frontal sinus surgery, i. H. the surgical removal of the diseased mucous membrane of the frontal sinus may be indicated.

In humans, osteomas are occasionally found in the frontal sinus.

If the frontal sinus is ruptured, there is a risk of infection of the interior of the skull (meningitis or encephalitis) and / or the development of a CSF fistula if the posterior wall is involved.

literature


  • Franz-Viktor Salomon: Bony skeleton. In: Franz-Viktor Salomon, Hans Geyer, Uwe Gille (Eds.): Veterinary anatomy. Enke, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8304-1007-7, pp. 37-110.
  • Theodor H. Schiebler (Ed.): Anatomy. Histology, history of development, macroscopic and microscopic anatomy, topography. Taking into account the item catalog. 9th, completely revised edition. Springer, Berlin et al. 2005, ISBN 3-540-21966-8.

Individual evidence


  1. abAnton Waldeyer: Human anatomy. 17th, completely revised edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and others 2003, ISBN 3-11-016561-9, p. 324.
  2. ↑ H. Wechalekar: Extension of the frontal sinus into the roof of the optic canal: a cadaveric case report. In: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy Volume 38, No. 5, 2016, pp. 609-613. doi: 10.1007 / s00276-015-1560-2; accessed on March 8, 2018









Categories:Skull | Respiratory system




Status of information: 11/23/2020 11:03:27 AM CET

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