Why is tin an element 1

tin

Tin: characteristics

Atomic number:

50

Symbol:

Sn

Name (German):

tin

Name (English):

Tin (official name according to IUPAC)

Outdated:

Stannum

Group:

Carbon group

IUPAC group:

14 (old nomenclature: Group IV A)

Period:

5

Dimensions (rounded):

118.71 u (rounded to the five significant digits)

Dimensions (exact):

118.71 u +/- 7 digit (s) [1]

Occurrence:

Naturally

Frequency:

3,00 · 10-3 % (percentage by mass of the earth's shell, i.e. the earth's crust / oceans up to 16 km depth)

CAS number [2]:

7440-31-5

Tin: atomic properties

Atomic radius (empirical):

145 pm

Atomic radius (calculated):

145 pm

Covalent radius:

141 pm

Van der Waals radius:

217 pm

Atomic volume:

16.3 cm3/ mol

Ionization energies:

kJ / moleV
1.708.6 kJ / mol7.344 eV
2.1411.8 kJ / mol14.632 eV
3.2943 kJ / mol30.502 eV
4.3930.3 kJ / mol40.735 eV
5.7456 kJ / mol77.276 eV

Oxidation numbers:

IV, II
(most important highlighted in bold)

Electronegativity (Pauling):

1,96

Electronegativity (Allred / Rochow):

1,7

Ionic radius:

71 pm

Grid energy:

3.12 eV / particle

Number nat. Isotopes:

10

Number of stable isotopes:

10

Number of unstable isotopes:

16

Stable isotopes:

isotopefrequency
112Sn1,0%
114Sn0,7%
115Sn0,4%
116Sn14,7%
117Sn7,7%
118Sn24,3%
119Sn8,6%
120Sn32,4%

Radioactive isotopes:

isotopeHalf-life
113Sn115d (i.e. days, from lt. this)

(The list contains only the most important isotope with a known half-life.)

Electron configuration:

[Kr] 4d105s25p2
OrbitalElectrons
1s2
2s2
2p6
3s2
3p6
3d10
4s2
4p6
4d10
4f0
5s2
5p2
5d0
5f0

Shell model:

  • 4 electrons in the outermost occupied shell
  • 18 electrons in the second to last occupied shell
  • 18 electrons in the occupied shell below

Tin: material properties

Melting point:

505.21 K (~ 232.06 ° C)

Boiling point:

2875 K (~ 2601.85 ° C)

State of aggregation:

fixed (under normal conditions)

Crystal structure:

Metal properties:

metal

Specific heat of fusion:

7.2 kJ / mol

Specific heat of vaporization:

290.37 kJ / mol

Thermal conductivity:

66.6 W / m / K

Specific heat capacity:

0.228 J / gK

Electric conductivity:

9,09 · 106 S / m

Specific density:

7.287 g / cm3
(under normal conditions)

Hardness (according to Mohs):

1,5

Expansion coefficient:

27 · 10-6/ K
(linear thermal expansion coefficient α)

Main lines in the spectrum:

452.5 nm
533.1 nm
556.3 nm
579.9 nm


 
Remarks:
  1. 1 digit = least significant digit, i.e. 2.435 +/- 3 digits means 2.432 ... 2.438
  2. The "CAS Registry Number" is that of the element tin from Chemical Abstracts Service Assigned key number, which makes it easier to find specialist articles about this element in all publications and databases structured according to the CAS system.
    Legal notice: CAS registry number is a registered trademark of the American Chemical Society.