Who invented radium and when
Marie Curie - The discoverer of radioactivity
<Marie Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in two different fields (physics and chemistry).
In the professional world she became admirable too "Madame Curie" called because she has influenced the history of chemistry and physics, but also medicine and applied natural sciences like no other woman.
The unit of radioactivity bore her name for years (Curie unit). In the medical sector, however, this is rare today "Curie Therapy" applied.
Marie Curie was born as Marie Sklodowska on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw.
The profession of her father Wladyslaw, math and physics teacher, and the profession of her mother Bronislawa, teacher and head of a boarding school for girls, were trend-setting for her future. A good school education and the fun of physics smoothed her life.
During school, Marie, like her four siblings, had to struggle with the political situation in her country. Poland was under Russian rule.
Their national language was not officially allowed to be spoken in the Russian girls' school. But in order to get a decent school leaving certificate, she had to bow to it.
In 1883 she finished high school with distinction.
Since the family lost their entire fortune due to a financial failure, she initially worked as a kindergarten teacher to help her eldest sister financially while studying medicine in France.
Marie, like her siblings, was heavily involved in the Polish liberation movement.
With the intention of taking up a degree, she moved to her sister in France in 1891, as women were not admitted to Polish universities. With the support of her sister, she studied physics and chemistry at the Sorbonne in Paris. As the best of the year, she completed her physics diploma in 1893 and, a year later, the second best, the mathematical final examination.
In 1894 she became the assistant to the physicist Becquerel. From the beginning of her research, she was convinced that new elements, from which previously unknown rays emanated, existed.
On July 25th In 1895 she married the physicist Pierre Curie (1859-1906).
In 1896, Becquerel discovered the radiation of the element uranium. Marie Curie was convinced that the radiation could also be detected in other elements.
Despite poor working conditions and financial difficulties, she and her husband worked on it Mineral pitchblende (Radioactive, uranium-containing mineral (UO2) with admixtures of different amounts of, for example, thorium and lead).
In 1898, in an improvised laboratory, they both succeeded in detecting two elements, polonium (element was named after their homeland) and radium. The radiation was named by her as radioactive.
Their daughter Irene was born in 1897 and their daughter Eve in 1904.
In 1898 Marie Curie discovered the radioactivity of the element thorium.
In 1900 she taught physics at the École Normale Supérieure for girls in Sèvres. The method of experimental demonstration was introduced by Marie Curie. In June 1903 she received her PhD in physics.
In December 1903 the Curies and Becquerel received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the development and pioneering work in the field of spontaneous radioactivity and radiation phenomena”.
In 1904 her dissertation "Investigations into radioactive substances" was published.
On April 19, 1906, her husband was killed in a traffic accident. Her husband's lectures at Paris University were continued by Marie Curie. She was the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne. In 1908 she was given the full professorship for physics.
In December 1911, Marie took the Nobel Prize for chemistry for the isolation of the element radium in reception. In 1914 she headed the Radium Institute at Paris University.
In the years 1914-1918 she and her eldest daughter Irène developed a mobile X-ray station. This made it possible to investigate injured soldiers on the spot.
In the years 1918-1927 she and her daughter did research at the Radium Institute. Under her leadership, this institute developed into a center for nuclear physics. She has lectured in countries such as Brazil, Czechoslovakia, Spain and Belgium.
In 1921 she went on a trip to the USA with her children. In symbolic recognition of her research, the President of the United States, Warren G. Harding (1865-1923) presented her with a gram of radium, the purchase of which had been funded by donations from American women.
Since 1922 Marie Curie was a member of the Academy of Medicine. She carried out chemical examinations of radioactive substances and looked for their medical uses.
On July 4, 1934, Marie Curie died in Sancellemoz (Savoy, France) of leukemia, the result of her many years of contact with radioactive substances.
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