Who created politics in Europe

The treaties - the basis of European politics

The European Union is based on the rule of law. The action of the Union is derived from treaties that are negotiated and passed by all member states. Three so-called founding treaties form the foundation of today's Union:

  • the Treaty on European Union (EU Treaty, TEU)
  • the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty, EC Treaty)
  • the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom Treaty)

In addition, numerous contracts were concluded that changed and updated the existing contracts in order to adapt them to developments in the company. International treaties must also be concluded for each accession, which extend the scope of the existing treaties to the new member states.

The most important contracts in chronological order

Lisbon Treaty (2007)

On December 13, 2007, the European heads of state and government signed the Lisbon Treaty, thus ending the multi-year negotiations on the institutional reform of the EU. The Lisbon Treaty was subsequently ratified by the 27 EU member states and will enter into force on December 1, 2009.
The reform treaty revises the existing EU treaties, namely the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty establishing the European Community (EGV). The latter is renamed the "Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union" (TFEU). The TEU lists the basic provisions of the EU, but the types and areas of competence of the Union for the various policy areas are set out in the TFEU. The new treaty removes the area of ​​police and judicial cooperation from the TEU and integrates it into the TFEU, while the common foreign and security policy is located in the TEU. With the Treaty of Lisbon, the Charter of Fundamental Rights becomes a binding part of EU primary law.

The Nice Treaty was signed on February 26, 2001. It has been in force since February 1, 2003. The Treaty of Nice made changes to the founding treaties (EU Treaty and EC Treaty) in order to guarantee the functionality of the Union after its expansion to 25 member states. The amendments of Nice, the EU Treaty and the EC Treaty have been brought together in a consolidated version, which represents the applicable contractual basis for the EU's actions.

Details on the Treaty of Nice

Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)

The Amsterdam Treaty, signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force on May 1, 1999. The EU was further deepened and its efficiency and capacity to act strengthened. Parliament was given more opportunities for codecision. The foundations for European cooperation in the fields of employment and internal security have been improved.

Treaty on European Union (1992)

The Treaty on European Union was signed in Maastricht on February 7, 1992 and entered into force on November 1, 1993. On the one hand, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union (EU): New forms of cooperation between the governments of the member states in the areas of foreign and security policy, justice and home affairs were introduced. By linking intergovernmental cooperation with the existing community system, the Maastricht Treaty created a new structure: The European Union (EU) combines three pillars (European Community, common foreign and security policy, cooperation in domestic and judicial policy) and forms the common one Top, roof. On the other hand, the Maastricht Treaty also made changes to the Treaty on European Community. The "European Economic Community" was renamed "European Community".

Single European Act (1986)

The Single European Act (EEA) was signed in Luxembourg and The Hague on February 17 and 28, 1986, respectively, and entered into force on July 1, 1987. It contained the adjustments to the EEC Treaty necessary for the implementation of the internal market, introduced majority decisions in the Council of Ministers and strengthened the role of the European Parliament.

The "Treaties of Rome" (1957)

  • Treaty establishing the European Economic Community
  • Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

In Rome, the six countries Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands signed the so-called "Treaty of Rome" on March 25, 1957, which came into force on January 1, 1958. With the establishment of a European Economic Community (EEC) the free movement of goods, services and people should be secured. The aim of the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) was to promote the establishment and development of the nuclear industry in the member states.

Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (1951)

On April 18, 1951, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands signed the treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in Paris. It came into effect on July 23, 1952 and created a common market for coal and steel, which enabled joint control over these raw materials. The contract expired on July 23, 2002

The full text of the contracts can be found at Eur-Lex, the legal and legal portal of the European Union

A brief overview of the contract development can be found on the EUROPA website