What if Svalbard were to gain independence from Norway?

  • information
  • General
    The Kingdom of Norway is the fifth largest country in Europe with an area of ​​385,178 km². It borders in the west on the European Arctic Ocean, in the north on the Arctic Ocean and in the south on the Skagerrak, which separates Norway from Denmark. In the east, Norway borders Sweden, Finland and Russia. Norway can be divided into five parts of the country: Nord-Norge, Østlandet, Sørlandet, Vestlandet and Trøndelag. These main regions are divided into 19 administrative provinces, the so-called fylker. Norway also includes the Svalbard archipelago (Spitzbergen) in the Arctic Ocean and the island of Jan Mayen in the North Atlantic.

    Norway is known worldwide for its extraordinary landscapes and the many fjords. If, taking into account all fjords that extend up to 200 km deep into the interior, one were to drive the entire coastline of the mainland, this would result in half the circumference of the earth. The fjords were formed by glaciers during the Ice Age and later flooded by the sea. At 1308 m, the Sognefjord is the deepest and at 204 km the longest fjord in Norway.

    However, it is not only the impressive fjords that characterize the picture, the so-called fjell landscapes, which means the mountains and plateaus above the coniferous forest border, are also striking. The largest plateau in Europe forms the Hardangervidda Plateau in southern Norway with around 8000 km². The highest mountain in Norway is Galdhøppigen with a height of 2469 m. Furthermore, there is the Jostedalsbreen, which is the largest mainland glacier in Europe with an area of ​​over 470 km². Also worth a visit is the Kjelfossen waterfall, which at 840 m is the highest waterfall in Norway. The largest lake in the country is the Mjøsa lake, the longest and widest river is the Glomma.


    The approximately 150,000 small islands off the coast are also characteristic of Norway, the most famous of which are the Lofoten and Vesterålen archipelagos. These islands are sometimes only a few hundred meters, sometimes up to 50 km wide. For farmers and fishermen, these beach flats represent a favorable settlement and economic area, as they offer plenty of fish banks and sheltered harbors.

     

    history
    The fact that the Norwegians have a strong connection to their ancestors and are a people conscious of tradition is shown, among other things, by the fact that the members of the royal family still bear names such as Håkon, Olav or Magnus. The Viking Age means the approximate period from 800 - 1050 AD. At that time Norway was a strong, well-organized state with regular trade contacts. The Vikings were seafaring Norsemen from Sweden, Norway and Denmark. There was a kind of international community of northerners. Norwegian Vikings have settled Iceland since 874, and at the turn of the millennium the colonization of Greenland began under Erik the Red. His son Leif came to the east coast of North America near Newfoundland some time later and gave the country the name Vinland, which is why it is claimed by many to this day that it was not Columbus but Leif Eriksson who discovered America. The first imperial collection took place under Harald Schönhaar (860-930) and was consolidated under Olav the Holy, who finally Christianized Norway and introduced the feudal system. His burial place Nidaros became the most important place of pilgrimage in the north.

    The Middle Ages in Norway are mainly characterized by the heyday that the country experienced under Håkon IV. Håkonson (1217 - 1263), who introduced the tradition of art and culture in Norway. At this time the country also experienced its greatest expansion as a North Atlantic power, with Bergen becoming Norway's most important trading city due to the export of dry fish. However, the Hanseatic League soon caused difficulties for Norway and used the country's lack of grain for economic and political privileges. In 1349 the plague was brought in over Bergen, which killed about a third of the population.

    In 1397 Queen Margarete, Mrs. Håkons VI. and daughter of the Danish king Waldemar Atterdag, with the Kalmarer Union the amalgamation of Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The union lasted until 1523, after which Norway became a province of Denmark. In 1536 the Reformation was enforced in Norway. In the 17th century the Hanseatic League weakened and trade and commerce in Norway flourished again.

    On May 17, 1814, Christian Friedrich of Denmark, governor in Norway, was elected Hereditary King of Norway, and a new constitution was passed. May 17th has been declared a national holiday in Norway. Subsequently, Norway was linked to Sweden by a personal union. The majority of the country voted for Norway's independence, the unanimously adopted constitution made the country a constitutional monarchy and Prince Frederik was elected king. After a war against Sweden was waged a short time later, the Swedish King Karl XIV. Johan was elected King of Norway, who, however, largely left the Norwegians with their constitution. Due to the relatively slow economic development in relation to the rapid demographic changes, the so-called America fever arose in the 19th century, and many Norwegians emigrated to Canada and the United States.

    In a referendum in the second half of the 19th century, the clear desire for the dissolution of the Union became clear. In 1905 Oskar II finally laid down the Norwegian crown. Many political, economic and social reforms followed after the Union. In 1884 the Liberal Party, the Conservative Party and the Norwegian Workers' Party came into being. In 1913 women were given universal suffrage, 15 years after men.

    During the First World War, Norway, Sweden and Denmark declared their neutrality. However, the Nordic countries were not to be spared from the Second World War. On April 9, 1940, the attack on Norway took place. Vidkun Quisling, appointed Minister of State of a national government by Hitler, called for the resistance against the Germans to be given up, which is why his name is synonymous worldwide with traitors in the service of a foreign power. Nevertheless, the Norwegian resistance initially increased. On June 7th of the same year, the king and government finally gave up the fight and planned further military action from Britain. For the next few years, Norwegian citizens offered passive resistance. The surrender of the Germans was announced on May 7, 1945. By the end of the war around 40,000 Norwegians had been in concentration camps, and more than 10,000 people were killed or perished. On June 7, 1945, exactly five years after the start of exile, the king returned to Norway.

    Modern Norway is based on a constitution based on the Basic Law from 1814. As head of state, the Norwegian king has a representative function. In 1994 almost 53% spoke out against Norwegian EU membership, but thanks to the EEA Agreement, the country is able to compete on an equal footing with other countries on the European market.

     

    Form of government
    The Kingdom of Norway, which has been independent since 1905, is a constitutional monarchy with parliamentary features based on the constitution of 1814. King Harald V has been the Norwegian head of state since 1991. The king is advised by the members of the government, which consists of the prime minister and 18 ministers, the so-called Council of State. This Council of State is composed of nine women and new men. In addition, the king is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Nevertheless, the head of state largely has a representative function and has a limited right of objection to the legislative decisions of the parliament, which is above the State Council. This parliament, the Storting, consists of 169 members who are elected by direct and secret proportional representation for a term of four years. Norway is also divided into 19 regions (Fylke) and around 430 municipalities. These represent self-governing bodies. The local elections are held two years apart from the parliamentary elections. Despite this partly decentralized state administration, traditional values ​​such as solidarity and togetherness are of great importance in Norway.

     

    Demographic structure
    The Kingdom of Norway has approx. 5.1 million inhabitants. The distribution is an average of 14 inhabitants per km², but it should be noted that some areas are far more sparsely populated than others. The fact that the coastal areas are proving to be particularly important economic and living areas is evident from the fact that around 4/5 of the total population live in the immediate vicinity of the coast. The population density around the Oslofjord is about 100 times higher than in the northern province of Finnmark. There is also a large population concentration in western Rogaland and around Trondheim.

    The life expectancy of men in Norway is 80 years and that of women 84 years. The age structure of the country leads to a high burden on society. 18% of the population are under 15 years old, 16% over 65 years old. Another challenge is to maintain the settlement in the extensive and inhospitable areas and, above all, to be able to offer the population in the north of the country an equally good standard of living as in the more densely populated parts of the country. It is mainly due to the high birth rate in the north, which is well above the national average, that the north has not been completely depopulated. For a long time, moving to central areas such as Oslo or Trondheim was particularly tempting for young people in order to escape the almost eight-month winter, the cold and the hard life in the Arctic Circle.

    Finnmark, for which these living conditions are characteristic, is home to a large part of the Sami population, also known as the Lapps, which, however, is considered by them to have negative connotations. The Sami are an ethnic minority and a people of their own, but are Norwegian citizens.

    Over 97% of the population is of Norwegian descent, the rest of the population is mostly of Swedish, Danish or American roots.

    The country's official language is Norwegian, but it is divided into two written languages: Bokmål and Nynorsk. The Sami have their own language related to Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian.

    Almost 80% of the population belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, about 2% to the Roman Catholic Church. Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and a few other religious communities are also represented. 12% of the population do not belong to any religion.

     

    The health system
    The Norwegian health system is financed by the compulsory membership of the citizens in the state social insurance. In 1967 the general national insurance fund was created, into which employees and freelancers, for example, pay almost 8% of their gross income. Furthermore, taxes levied by the municipalities flow into the insurance fund. Every municipality is obliged to offer primary care care. In addition, home nursing, retirement and nursing homes, mother counseling and other services must be made available.

    The principle of equal treatment applies in Norway. Every patient, regardless of their income, should have the opportunity to receive appropriate treatment. Citizens of the country largely agree that the public sector has a special responsibility for people who are poor, sick, old or disabled. The general national insurance fund thus not only finances health benefits, but also unemployment benefits, pensions and sick pay.

    Patients pay around 15 € for a visit to the family doctor. The treatment costs at the specialist doctor are only covered by the health insurance if the family doctor has referred the patient to a specialist. The free card system stipulates that the state pays the costs for medical services and essential medication that exceed the amount of around € 200 per year. This means that all other medical services above this amount are free of charge for the patient. The national insurance fund also reimburses medication for the chronically ill and cancer patients.

    The state's clinics and practices are generally owned by the state, but it is also possible to set up private practices. The majority of general practitioners work in group practices. Specialists or specialists only work in hospital outpatient departments. With the exception of the gynecologist, treatment by a specialist is only possible by referral. Since 2001, patients have been able to freely choose in which hospital they would like to be treated. However, treatment of private patients is not permitted in public hospitals. The problem with the Norwegian health system is that there are often long waiting lists, which is why the so-called patient bridge to Kiel was created. This means that many Norwegian citizens have an operation in Germany if they have to wait too long for an appointment in Norway. Nowadays, the waiting time is no longer regulated by law, but is determined by the respective treating doctor.

    Since there was a high shortage of doctors in Norway at the end of the 1990s, foreign doctors had a good chance of getting a job in Norway at the time. Therefore, around 15% of doctors today are of foreign origin.

    There are four universities in Norway that offer medical studies, namely in Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim and Tromso. However, the number of applicants is about 5 times as high as the number of places on the course. The medical course lasts up to six and a half years and contains a much higher practical component than in Germany. This is followed by an 18-month internship, which is completed both in the hospital and in primary care. The further training to become a specialist then takes another 5-6 years.

     

    The education system
    The motto of the Norwegian education system is 'Education for All'. This aspired equal opportunity is characterized, among other things. by the fact that immigrant children of school age can attend free language courses offered by the respective municipality. Refugees can also take advantage of free language and integration courses for adults. The Sami minority also has an official right to Sami lessons, provided the people live in Sami areas or the group concerned consists of at least ten people.

    Compulsory schooling was introduced in Norway in 1739. After the duration of compulsory schooling was initially seven years, it was set at ten years in 1997. Today every city or municipality is responsible for the administration and maintenance of the compulsory schools, the respective region is responsible for the secondary schools.

    The pre-school takes care of children between one and five years of age and is similar to the German kindergarten. After that, ten years of compulsory schooling begin with elementary school. English is taught from the 1st grade onwards; in the 8th grade, German, French and Spanish are available when choosing a second foreign language. The primary school is divided into the primary level from grades 1-7 and the lower secondary level from grades 8-10. This is followed by the upper secondary level. This means that you can either attain higher education entrance qualification within three years at secondary schools, or alternatively complete four-year vocational training. The training takes place in the first two years at a vocational school, followed by the practical phase in the company in the second half. During this time, trainees can take additional courses in order to obtain university entrance qualifications at the same time. The majority of Norwegian students take up the opportunity to attend one of the secondary schools.

    There are 38 public and 32 private higher education institutions in Norway. Norwegian students are entitled to a student loan. As a rule, there are no tuition fees, but there are some exceptions for certain training programs or visits to private institutions.


    The University of Oslo is the largest in the country with over 30,000 students. It is also the best national university and ranks fourth among the best Nordic universities in the international ranking.

  • Climate, fauna, flora
  • climate
    At first one might assume that only icy winters and also cool summers await in Norway, after all, the country is at roughly the same height as Greenland. However, Norway offers a wonderful variety of weather, which is mainly due to the fact that the country extends over a total of 13 degrees of latitude.For example, while temperatures over 10 ° C prevail on the south coast for more than 4 months a year, north of Lofoten this is the case on about 60 days. The variety of weather is particularly reflected in Lapland, i.e. in the north of the country, where winter temperatures of over -30 ° c can be expected, but summer inland can be enjoyed in mid-July at a wonderful + 30 ° c. The temperature differences between north and south are greatest in spring, as are the temperature differences between day and night.


    The weather does not only differ in the north-south ratio, the differences between the east and west of the country are particularly noticeable. The Skanden, the mountains that separate the country's coast from the east, keep the inland dry, but create icy winds. While inland the winters are very cold and most of the country is covered with snow, Norway's coastal areas have mild winters, which are caused by the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic and are more characterized by rain and storms. On the city of Bergen and the surrounding area, precipitation falls with an annual mean of around 2,000 mm on around 240 days a year. The January mean for Bergen, for example, is + 1.7 ° C, while at this time in the continental east in Lillehammer -8 ° C.


    Even in autumn there are temperature differences between the coastal strip and the eastern part, as temperatures in the interior of the country fall faster. The popular mushroom and berry season in Norway also begins with the beginning of autumn.


    In winter, the northern lights, also known as the northern lights, fascinate people in Norway. Often the dim, cozy, mostly yellow-green light can be seen in the sky as a dormant arc for several hours at a height of approx. 100 km. At that time the arcs of light were explained in myths and fairy tales as flashing shields on which the souls of the fallen warriors were supposed to get to Valhalla - the hall of those who fell in battle.


    The phenomenon of the midnight sun above the Arctic Circle also inspires visitors to Norway again and again. The polar day, namely June 21, lasts 24 hours there. On this day the sun stays above the horizon and gives the north a longer sunshine duration than the south. Further north in Bodø, the midnight sun can be seen from June 7th to July 8th, at the North Cape, the northernmost sightseeing point in Europe, you can even see it from mid-May to the end of July, depending on the cloudiness. The change between polar day and night is caused by the inclination of the earth's axis: the entire north polar region faces the sun in summer, while the south polar region receives no light. In winter these lighting conditions are exactly the opposite, which is why the winter months are also called mørketid, i.e. dark time.


    In any case, the suitcase should be equipped for exciting snow hikes as well as for bathing fun in summer, because Norway is worth a trip with its weather diversity in every season.

     

    Fauna & flora
    A quarter of Norway is covered with forest. Due to the past ice ages, which destroyed large parts of the flora and fauna, as well as the relatively short and cool summer, the flora of the country is relatively poor in species. However, the existing plant species are perfectly adapted to the circumstances. The country is 70% covered by coniferous forests, which are predominant in the north. In the south, deciduous and mixed forests with beech, maple and oak characterize the landscape. The west coast is climatically favored, which is why the deciduous and mixed forest zone extends far north here. In the boreal coniferous forest area, i.e. the northernmost vegetation zone in which forest growth is possible, there are spruce and pine stands rich in moss and lichen. These conifers are perfectly adapted to the harsh climate. The transition zone connected to the taiga is mainly characterized by mountain birches. Fjell describes the landscapes above the tree line. In the northern part of Norway is the Arctic region, where the growing season is quite short at three months. Here you will find shrubs and moss species that are insensitive to the cold, which despite this short vegetation period can grow in the so-called tundra, the area beyond the polar tree line.

    The height record for flowering plants in Northern Europe is achieved by the glacier buttercup, which can be found in the fell up to a height of 2370m. The herb willow is also very well adapted to the conditions of the snow-covered soil.

    A special spectacle is offered to Norway lovers in autumn, when the fell landscapes shine in wonderful yellow, red or orange tones due to the luminosity of the dwarf shrub heaths and birch forests. On a trip to the fells, however, it is advisable to grab your rubber boots, as you trudge through many streams and moors. Norway has over 800 species of moss and over 12,000 species of lichens.

    Due to the special weather and food conditions, Norway's fauna does not have a huge biodiversity, but it does offer some great, extraordinary animal species. The greatest threat to wildlife is environmental changes. At the end of the 1980s, the wolf, salamander and four bird species were on the list of endangered animals in Norway, as well as many more on the list of animal species worthy of protection. Fortunately, some stocks have since recovered, such as B. the sea parrot. For these and countless other birds, the cliffs and bird cliffs of Lofoten represent a true paradise. Due to the abundance of fish on Norway's coasts, terns, oystercatchers and cormorants nest here.

    Unfortunately the wolf has almost been exterminated, which is why a group of few animals now exists in Norway and moves around between Hedmark and Värmland in Sweden.

    The most fascinating thing for visitors to Norway is still the moose, which can be found on many cars in the form of a sticker after a holiday in Scandinavia. Moose live in large numbers in the forests of Norway, but you can also encounter them on the roads, especially in the south and west of the country.

    The reindeer is also one of the animals of the north. Reindeer belong to the deer family and are raised from the Sami. There are wild reindeer in the wild, especially in the Hardangervidda. This plateau is also preferred by lemmings as a habitat. These voles, around 15 cm in size, often have to travel long distances due to a lack of food, which unfortunately many animals do not survive.

    In Dovrefjell you can meet the musk ox. This Greenlandic breed, strangely related to the goat and sheep genus, was reintroduced to Norway after World War II. Musk ox can weigh up to 400kg, have dark brown fur, white hair on the forehead and top of the head and yellowish horns. Although these adorable animals will not grow any larger than a Shetland pony, caution should be exercised when encountering a musk ox.

    Another furry contemporary is the brown bear, who prefers life in wooded mountain regions. There are still around 30 brown bears living in isolated areas of Norway, most of which only become really dangerous to humans when they are injured or feel seriously threatened.

    Salmon and trout frolic in the country's rivers, as well as cod, herring and mackerel in the sea. With a little luck, you can see seals, whales and harbor seals in the coastal regions.

    The only poisonous animal in Norway is the adder. For adults, a bite is not fatal, but usually very painful, but you should consult a doctor immediately. Prompt treatment is particularly important for children and the elderly or sick, for whom an adder bite can be life-threatening.


    The mosquitoes prove to be a nuisance, as they like to romp around in the interior of the country on large bodies of water and marshland. B. on the Hardangervidda. If you want to be spared from these insects on holiday, it is best to stay on the coastal areas or stock up on the tried and tested Norwegian insect repellants in advance to guarantee perfect holiday fun.

  • Culinary
  • Culinary
    Due to the long and important fishing tradition, the Norwegian range of dishes is mainly characterized by fish dishes. Norway not only convinces with a large selection, but also with the internationally valued quality. But also some meat dishes belong on the list of typical dishes. Many dishes, especially smoked meat and dried fish, date back to the Viking tradition, when long-life foods were needed for long journeys.

    Typical fish dishes include Norwegian salmon, which is available in many different variations, e.g. B. cooked, smoked, fried or pickled can be prepared. So it's no wonder that in the land of farmed salmon even at McDonalds laksburgere (Salmon burger) can be found on the dining table. Especially gravet lakswhich is soaked in a marinade made from salt, pepper, sugar and dill for at least two days is one of the salmon specialties.

    Even with marinated or pickled herring, Norwegian sild, different variations are available, depending on whether you have more appetite for mustard sauce or a sweet and sour sauce. The reker are prawns that like to go to one rekekveld, in German “shrimp evening”, can be peeled in a cozy get-together and then eaten with bread and lemon or fried in garlic, for example. Stockfish, Norwegian, is particularly popular internationally torrfisk. The stockfish is particularly popular to soak in brine and water. This specialty, too lutefisk called, is especially popular at Christmas.

    Two other dishes that are often on the table at Christmas are pinnekjøtt, smoked or dried mutton with cabbage or potatoes, and ribbe, Pork ribs. The national dishes definitely include the kjøttkaker, these are meatballs or meatballs in brown sauce. Meatballs are not only available with meat, but also with fish, these are then called fiskeboller.

    With home cooking fårikål if it is lamb in cabbage, potatoes are often served. In addition to these dishes, there is also a large selection of soups and stews, such as B. lapskaus with lots of vegetables and meat. If you want to try something completely different in Norway, you can also order elk, reindeer or whale meat in some restaurants.

    Norwegian is one of the typical types of bread flatbrød, a thin, hard flatbread, similar to crispbread, which is particularly durable. The soft variant of the flatbread is called lefse and is made from potatoes and flour. That is also typically Norwegian geitost or brunost, a caramelized, sweet goat cheese made from whey and brown in color.

    One of the popular traditional desserts is first of all rømmegrøt, a porridge made from thick sour cream and flour or semolina, which is eaten with cinnamon and sugar and, depending on your taste, with raisins. The Norwegian rice pudding, risgrøt, is also refined with cinnamon and sugar, apples or almonds. They are typical for Norway multebær, German cloudberries, which grow mainly in Northern Europe and are served with cream for dessert, for example.
      
    In general, it can be said about the Norwegian food culture that the meals are somewhat different from those in Germany. The day starts with a sumptuous breakfast, Norwegian frokost. At lunchtime, the lunch, you only have a bite to eat or a few slices of bread. The main meal is called in Norway middag and takes place as an early dinner between 5 and 6 p.m. Around 9 p.m. there is usually a smaller meal, aftensmat called, which often consists of coffee and cake. Coffee is the most popular drink among Norwegians and is enjoyed at any time of the day. But Norway is not only known for its enormous coffee consumption, also Norwegian beer, oil, is popular with locals and tourists.

    A very well-known Norwegian spirit that is also popular with some fish and meat dishes is the potato-based one Aquavit line. During its maturation process, this schnapps is shipped in barrels across the equator (hence the line) and back again. According to several legends, the constant movement and temperature differences give rise to the fine taste of the Aquavit conditions.

    Even if the Norwegian cuisine may take some getting used to, there are enough different dishes to choose from so that everyone gets their money's worth. No matter if you are a fish eater or a dessert lover, one or the other recipe will certainly be included in your own cookbook after your vacation!

  • Good to know
  • continentEurope
    Official languageNorwegian (different dialects possible)
    MarkN
    National holidays

    May 17th (Constitution Day)

    Area over all islands323,802 km2
    Geographical location5 - 31 ° east longitude 58 - 71 ° north latitude
    CapitalOslo (lies ....)
    Time difference CET+1 hour
    Highest elevationGaldhopiggen 2,469m
    Medium temperatureJanuary -2ºC / July 22ºC
    growth of population0.949 % 
    Population density13 inhabitants per km2
    Head of stateKing Harald V (since 1991)
    Form of governmentMonarchy (since 1905), 169 members
    Regional breakdown19 provinces (Fylker)
    Mains voltage220 V, 50 Hz
    Annual rainfall-
    Population (2017)4.700.000
    Biggest townOslo (575,475 inhabitants)
    International phone code+47
    Average life expectancy

    -

    Illiteratebelow 0.1%
    Ethnic groups

    Norwegians 94.4% / Semen 0.5% / Others 2%

    Average annual income- U.S$
    currency

    Norwegian NOK / 1 NOK = 100 Øre

    Most important import goods-
    Most important export goods

    -

    Sectors of the economy

    -

    Internet identifier.no

    Entry requirements
    As a citizen of an EU / EEA or Schengen country, you can stay in Norway for up to 3 months without registering. For German citizens, a passport, identity card or a temporary identity card is sufficient. The same applies to entering and leaving Spitsbergen. Children from 0-16 years of age need their own child ID (passport) with a photo.


    Further information, including For stays longer than 3 months, go to: http://www.norwegen.no/travel/pass_und_visum/

    Customs regulations and information on entry with animals can be found at: http://www.norwegen.no/travel/zoll/

     

    Embassies
    Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany
    Oscars gate 45
    N-0244 Oslo
    Tel .: (+47) 23 27 54 00
    Fax: (+47) 22 44 76 72
    Email: [email protected]
    Visiting hours: Mon-Fri: 8.30 a.m.-11.30 a.m.
    By phone: Mon-Thu: 8 a.m.-12 p.m. and 1 p.m.-3.30 p.m., Fri: 8 a.m.-12 p.m.
    On-call service: (+47) 90 85 08 02
    Homepage: http://www.oslo.diplo.de/Vertretung/oslo/de/Startseite.html


    Royal Norwegian Embassy
    Rauchstrasse 1
    10787 Berlin
    Tel .: (+49) 30 50 50 58 600
    Fax: (+49) 30 50 50 58 601
    Email: [email protected]
    Opening times: Mon-Fri: 9 a.m. - 4 p.m.
    Consular section: Mon-Fri: 9 a.m.-12 p.m.
    Homepage: http://www.norwegen.no/Embassy/

     

    Traveling by car
    First the ferry-free variant: You drive on the A7 in the direction of Flensburg to Denmark, then in Denmark you turn onto the E20 in the direction of Copenhagen. First you cross the Great Belt by bridge (www.storebaelt.dk). You can then take the Öresund Bridge (www.oresundsbron.com) from Copenhagen to Malmö in Sweden (pay attention to the toll when crossing the bridges). From here it is another 600km to Oslo by car.

    Ferry connections: There is a ferry from Puttgarden to Rødby in Denmark. Afterwards you can either cross the Öresund by bridge or by ferry from Helsingør to Helsingborg. If you don't want to go to Sweden, you can also take a ferry from Copenhagen to Oslo.

    Another option is to take the Color Line from Kiel to Oslo (20 hours). The prices are relatively high, but you save yourself the long drive.

    Another possibility is to cover approx. 500km by car from Hamburg to Northern Denmark and to cross over from Northern Denmark by ferry to Norway. From Hirtshals there are ferries to Langesund, Larvik and Kristiansand or to Stavanger and Bergen in the west. There is also a ferry to Oslo from Frederikshavn. For all ferries it is recommended to book early up to 2-4 months before departure. The maximum speed outside built-up areas is 80 km / h. On some of the signposted expressways you are allowed to travel 100 km / h, but only 80 km / h for buses, campers and cars with trailers. Unless otherwise signposted, the speed limit 80 also applies on motorways, norw. Motorvei. Combined vehicles with unbraked trailers (weight over 300 kg) may drive a maximum of 60 km / h.As in Germany, the speed limit is 50 km / h in built-up areas and 30 km / h in residential areas.

    Exceeding the speed limit can result in a fine of up to NOK 7800 (around € 1000). In more serious cases, prison terms are even imposed. If you drive 6 km / h too fast, you can expect a fine of 100 €. 20 km / h too fast will result in a fine of around € 400. The prohibition of overtaking (fines of around € 600) should also be strictly observed in Norway, as well as mandatory seat belts and the ban on cell phones at the wheel. The blood alcohol limit is 0.2. In contrast to Germany, in Norway there is also a compulsory light during the day! Motorists must also pay attention to this in order to avoid a fine of almost € 200.

    Particular care should be taken with cows, sheep, goats and other animal traffic participants, as they like to cross the street unexpectedly or graze along the way! Refueling Norway has a high density of petrol stations, but this decreases towards the north. Therefore, it is best to fill up the car again before driving into more remote regions and, if necessary, have an emergency canister with you. The prices in such regions can also be slightly higher than in more densely populated areas. Most petrol stations are open from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m., and some are closed on weekends. You should always have enough cash with you, as some petrol stations do not accept credit cards.

    Note: The diesel fuel "avgiftsfri" may only be used in certain commercial vehicles in Norway. So tourists should use normal, more expensive diesel fuel in order not to have to pay a fine. All drivers have to pay a fee, norw. Bompenge, on Norwegian toll roads. There are two different tariffs: light vehicles up to 3.5 t and heavy vehicles over 3.5 t. Motorcycles are not subject to tolls. Toll payments are used to finance roads, bridges, tunnels and, in individual cases, public transport.

    Most toll roads are equipped with a so-called AutoPASS system, which makes the debit automatically. There is no need to stop at these toll stations. However, at some toll stations you have to stop and pay manually. They are marked with the sign Manuell. There are two ways to pay the toll:

    1. AutoPASS stations can be passed without stopping, the license plate is photographed (if you do not have an AutoPASS chip). The vehicle owner receives the invoice by post. This can be paid online with a credit card.

    2. The credit card can be registered for 1 NOK. AutoPASS stations can be passed without stopping. A prepaid amount of NOK 300 for small vehicles and NOK 1000 for large vehicles is automatically debited from the credit card after each station. Each passage will then be debited from this prepayment. Unused remaining credit will be credited 85 days after prepayment has been made.

    The exceptions for both payment alternatives are the Svinesund connection on the E6 and the Atlanterhavstunnel on the Fv 64. You have to stop at these manually operated toll stations and pay the toll on site.

    Further information on the subject of tolls in Norway is available on the AutoPASS website: http://www.autopass.no/de/zahl-fur-besucher

     

    Arrival by plane
    The airline Norwegian offers flights from Hamburg or Munich to the following Norwegian cities: Ålesund, Alta, Bardufoss, Bergen, Bodø, Harstad, Narvik, Haugesund, Kristiansand, Molde, Oslo, Stavanger, Tromsø, Trondheim and Longyearbyen on Svalbard. These destinations as well as Andenes and Lakselv can also be reached from Berlin with Norwegian.

    The airline SAS also offers a total of 40 different flights to Norway from 12 German airports, either as direct flights or via Copenhagen.

    There are a few other airlines that offer cheap flights to Norway, such as Airberlin or Ryanair. Thanks to this large offer and the well-developed airline network, even remote regions in the north of the country are fully accessible.

     

    Arrival by train
    From Hamburg the train travels via Copenhagen, Malmö and Gothenburg to Oslo. The journey takes over 17 hours and you have to change trains at least twice.

    The Norwegian State Railways (NSB) operate within Norway. The route network extends from the southwest coast to Bodø, near Lofoten. The Bergen Railway runs from Oslo over the mountains to Bergen. Traveling by train is very cheap in Norway due to special offers and discounts.

     

    Internet & mobile telephony
    Internet access is available in many hotels and in internet cafes in many larger towns. Norwegian telephone numbers can be found on the websites gulesider.no and telefonkatalogen.no.

    In Norway there are public telephone booths where you can pay with both kroner and euro coins. There are also around 3000 card phones that accept VISA, American Express, Diners, Eurocard and Mastercard.

    The Norwegian operators in mobile telephony are Netcom and Telenor Mobil. The network coverage in Norway is generally very good, only in remote areas such as B. in the mountains one should not rely on the mobile network.

    In order to be able to surf the web cheaply and call home while on vacation, it is best to contact your mobile operator beforehand. One possibility would be to order a Norwegian prepaid card before going on holiday and insert it in Norway. Of course, you can also buy these cards spontaneously in the local shop, whereby you should make sure that no minimum terms or minimum sales are required. There are offers for Norwegian prepaid cards, for example. More colorful:
    http://www.simlystore.com/de/

    Phone code
    Dialing code from Germany to Norway: 0047
    Dialing code from Norway to Germany: 0049

    Emergency numbers
    Fire department: 110
    Police: 112
    Emergency doctor: 113
    Emergency rescue: 120
    Breakdown emergency service: 81 00 05 05 (day and night, free for ADAC members)

     

    currency
    In Norway you pay with Norwegian kroner (NOK). 1 crown is 100 Øre.
    Exchange rates: http://www.finanzen.net/devisen/euro-norwegische_krone-kurs

    Norwegian banknotes are available in sizes of 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 kroner. Coins are available at 1, 5, 10 and 20 kroner. Since Øre coins have not been in circulation since 2012, the prices are rounded when paying in cash.

    The most common credit cards that are accepted almost everywhere are Visa, American Express, Diners Club, Mastercard and Eurocard. However, since you can often not pay by credit card at petrol stations, you should always have enough cash with you.

    ATMs are marked as mini banks in Norway and are available in large numbers. Most ATMs can also be used to withdraw money with an EC card.

     

    opening hours
    Most shops are open on weekdays from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. or 6 p.m. (in large cities until 8 p.m.). On Saturdays, the opening times are from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. or 4 p.m. (in large cities until 6 p.m.). Shops are closed on Sundays.

    Supermarkets are open on weekdays from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. (in large cities until 10 p.m.), on Saturdays from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. (in large cities until 8 p.m.). Some supermarkets are open on Sundays.

     

    public holidays
    Most shops and government offices as well as many sights are closed on the following days.

    January 1st: New Years Day
    Easter: Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday
    May 1st: Labor Day
    May 17th: National Day
    Ascension of Christ
    Whit Sunday, Whit Monday
    December 25th and 26th: Boxing Day and Boxing Day.

     

    Time zone
    Like Germany, Norway is in the time zone CET (Central European Time) or CEST (Central European Summer Time). This corresponds to GMT (Greenwhich Mean Time) + 1 hour.

     

    Power supply
    No travel plug is required for a holiday in Norway. The sockets are the same as in Germany, with the same frequency and mains voltage.

     

    Drinking water
    The quality of tap water in Norway is generally very good. Unless otherwise stated, the tap water can be drunk without hesitation. For water from wells, streams or rivers, it is better to boil or filter it beforehand. In the holiday home you should let the water run hot for a few minutes after arrival before using it for drinking or cooking.

     

    Tip
    The service is already included in the bill in Norway, which is why a tip is not expected. However, the amount in restaurants, hotels or when taking a taxi can be rounded up to the nearest straight amount or around 5 percent.

    Fishing license for amateur anglers

    Fishing license for hobby anglers
    Anglers over the age of 16 must first pay a state fishing fee in order to obtain a fishing license. In many inland areas such a fishing license is required, which is valid for a limited area and for a limited period of time. The fishing licenses are available on site in sports shops, tourist information centers, campsites or at the kiosk, although the prices vary depending on the location.

    As for inshore fishing, it is free to fish saltwater fish all year round. There are restrictions on salmon, sea trout and char.

    An export quota limits the amount of fish and fish products that can be exported out of the country to 15kg per person. This does not apply to freshwater fish, salmon, trout and char.

     

    Tourist health insurance
    The European Health Insurance Card, or EHIC (European Health Insurance Card) for short, is required for treatment in Norway. This can be obtained from the health insurance company on request. This card can be used for medical treatment and hospital treatment. It is recommended to find out about the best health insurance from the respective health insurance company before going on holiday and, if necessary, to take out private health insurance abroad. Since some services have to be pre-financed by the insured person on site, you should have the attending physician create an invoice with an exact list of the services and present this to the health insurance company in Germany.

    The German Health Insurance Liaison Office provides more detailed information at: http://www.dvka.de/oefflicheSeiten/UrlaubAusland/MerkblaetterUrlaub.htm → Norway


    Editorial note:
    The research was carried out very carefully, but we cannot guarantee that it is up-to-date. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the current status on the websites indicated.

  • General
    The Kingdom of Norway is the fifth largest country in Europe with an area of ​​385,178 km². It borders in the west on the European Arctic Ocean, in the north on the Arctic Ocean and in the south on the Skagerrak, which separates Norway from Denmark. In the east, Norway borders Sweden, Finland and Russia. Norway can be divided into five parts of the country: Nord-Norge, Østlandet, Sørlandet, Vestlandet and Trøndelag. These main regions are divided into 19 administrative provinces, the so-called fylker. Norway also includes the Svalbard archipelago (Spitzbergen) in the Arctic Ocean and the island of Jan Mayen in the North Atlantic.

    Norway is known worldwide for its extraordinary landscapes and the many fjords. If, taking into account all fjords that extend up to 200 km deep into the interior, one were to drive the entire coastline of the mainland, this would result in half the circumference of the earth. The fjords were formed by glaciers during the Ice Age and later flooded by the sea. At 1308 m, the Sognefjord is the deepest and at 204 km the longest fjord in Norway.

    However, it is not only the impressive fjords that characterize the picture, the so-called fjell landscapes, which means the mountains and plateaus above the coniferous forest border, are also striking. The largest plateau in Europe forms the Hardangervidda Plateau in southern Norway with around 8000 km². The highest mountain in Norway is Galdhøppigen with a height of 2469 m. Furthermore, there is the Jostedalsbreen, which is the largest mainland glacier in Europe with an area of ​​over 470 km². Also worth a visit is the Kjelfossen waterfall, which at 840 m is the highest waterfall in Norway. The largest lake in the country is the Mjøsa lake, the longest and widest river is the Glomma.


    The approximately 150,000 small islands off the coast are also characteristic of Norway, the most famous of which are the Lofoten and Vesterålen archipelagos. These islands are sometimes only a few hundred meters, sometimes up to 50 km wide. For farmers and fishermen, these beach flats represent a favorable settlement and economic area, as they offer plenty of fish banks and sheltered harbors.

     

    history
    The fact that the Norwegians have a strong connection to their ancestors and are a people conscious of tradition is shown, among other things, by the fact that the members of the royal family still bear names such as Håkon, Olav or Magnus. The Viking Age means the approximate period from 800 - 1050 AD. At that time Norway was a strong, well-organized state with regular trade contacts. The Vikings were seafaring Norsemen from Sweden, Norway and Denmark. There was a kind of international community of northerners. Norwegian Vikings have settled Iceland since 874, and at the turn of the millennium the colonization of Greenland began under Erik the Red. His son Leif came to the east coast of North America near Newfoundland some time later and gave the country the name Vinland, which is why it is claimed by many to this day that it was not Columbus but Leif Eriksson who discovered America. The first imperial collection took place under Harald Schönhaar (860-930) and was consolidated under Olav the Holy, who finally Christianized Norway and introduced the feudal system. His burial place Nidaros became the most important place of pilgrimage in the north.

    The Middle Ages in Norway are mainly characterized by the heyday that the country experienced under Håkon IV. Håkonson (1217 - 1263), who introduced the tradition of art and culture in Norway. At this time the country also experienced its greatest expansion as a North Atlantic power, with Bergen becoming Norway's most important trading city due to the export of dry fish. However, the Hanseatic League soon caused difficulties for Norway and used the country's lack of grain for economic and political privileges. In 1349 the plague was brought in over Bergen, which killed about a third of the population.

    In 1397 Queen Margarete, Mrs. Håkons VI. and daughter of the Danish king Waldemar Atterdag, with the Kalmarer Union the amalgamation of Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The union lasted until 1523, after which Norway became a province of Denmark. In 1536 the Reformation was enforced in Norway. In the 17th century the Hanseatic League weakened and trade and commerce in Norway flourished again.

    On May 17, 1814, Christian Friedrich of Denmark, governor in Norway, was elected Hereditary King of Norway, and a new constitution was passed. May 17th has been declared a national holiday in Norway. Subsequently, Norway was linked to Sweden by a personal union. The majority of the country voted for Norway's independence, the unanimously adopted constitution made the country a constitutional monarchy and Prince Frederik was elected king. After a war against Sweden was waged a short time later, the Swedish King Karl XIV. Johan was elected King of Norway, who, however, largely left the Norwegians with their constitution. Due to the relatively slow economic development in relation to the rapid demographic changes, the so-called America fever arose in the 19th century, and many Norwegians emigrated to Canada and the United States.

    In a referendum in the second half of the 19th century, the clear desire for the dissolution of the Union became clear. In 1905 Oskar II finally laid down the Norwegian crown. Many political, economic and social reforms followed after the Union. In 1884 the Liberal Party, the Conservative Party and the Norwegian Workers' Party came into being. In 1913 women were given universal suffrage, 15 years after men.

    During the First World War, Norway, Sweden and Denmark declared their neutrality. However, the Nordic countries were not to be spared from the Second World War. On April 9, 1940, the attack on Norway took place. Vidkun Quisling, appointed Minister of State of a national government by Hitler, called for the resistance against the Germans to be given up, which is why his name is synonymous worldwide with traitors in the service of a foreign power. Nevertheless, the Norwegian resistance initially increased. On June 7th of the same year, the king and government finally gave up the fight and planned further military action from Britain. For the next few years, Norwegian citizens offered passive resistance. The surrender of the Germans was announced on May 7, 1945.By the end of the war around 40,000 Norwegians had been in concentration camps, and more than 10,000 people were killed or perished. On June 7, 1945, exactly five years after the start of exile, the king returned to Norway.

    Modern Norway is based on a constitution based on the Basic Law from 1814. As head of state, the Norwegian king has a representative function. In 1994 almost 53% spoke out against Norwegian EU membership, but thanks to the EEA Agreement, the country is able to compete on an equal footing with other countries on the European market.

     

    Form of government
    The Kingdom of Norway, which has been independent since 1905, is a constitutional monarchy with parliamentary features based on the constitution of 1814. King Harald V has been the Norwegian head of state since 1991. The king is advised by the members of the government, which consists of the prime minister and 18 ministers, the so-called Council of State. This Council of State is composed of nine women and new men. In addition, the king is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Nevertheless, the head of state largely has a representative function and has a limited right of objection to the legislative decisions of the parliament, which is above the State Council. This parliament, the Storting, consists of 169 members who are elected by direct and secret proportional representation for a term of four years. Norway is also divided into 19 regions (Fylke) and around 430 municipalities. These represent self-governing bodies. The local elections are held two years apart from the parliamentary elections. Despite this partly decentralized state administration, traditional values ​​such as solidarity and togetherness are of great importance in Norway.

     

    Demographic structure
    The Kingdom of Norway has approx. 5.1 million inhabitants. The distribution is an average of 14 inhabitants per km², but it should be noted that some areas are far more sparsely populated than others. The fact that the coastal areas are proving to be particularly important economic and living areas is evident from the fact that around 4/5 of the total population live in the immediate vicinity of the coast. The population density around the Oslofjord is about 100 times higher than in the northern province of Finnmark. There is also a large population concentration in western Rogaland and around Trondheim.

    The life expectancy of men in Norway is 80 years and that of women 84 years. The age structure of the country leads to a high burden on society. 18% of the population are under 15 years old, 16% over 65 years old. Another challenge is to maintain the settlement in the extensive and inhospitable areas and, above all, to be able to offer the population in the north of the country an equally good standard of living as in the more densely populated parts of the country. It is mainly due to the high birth rate in the north, which is well above the national average, that the north has not been completely depopulated. For a long time, moving to central areas such as Oslo or Trondheim was particularly tempting for young people in order to escape the almost eight-month winter, the cold and the hard life in the Arctic Circle.

    Finnmark, for which these living conditions are characteristic, is home to a large part of the Sami population, also known as the Lapps, which, however, is considered by them to have negative connotations. The Sami are an ethnic minority and a people of their own, but are Norwegian citizens.

    Over 97% of the population is of Norwegian descent, the rest of the population is mostly of Swedish, Danish or American roots.

    The country's official language is Norwegian, but it is divided into two written languages: Bokmål and Nynorsk. The Sami have their own language related to Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian.

    Almost 80% of the population belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, about 2% to the Roman Catholic Church. Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and a few other religious communities are also represented. 12% of the population do not belong to any religion.

     

    The health system
    The Norwegian health system is financed by the compulsory membership of the citizens in the state social insurance. In 1967 the general national insurance fund was created, into which employees and freelancers, for example, pay almost 8% of their gross income. Furthermore, taxes levied by the municipalities flow into the insurance fund. Every municipality is obliged to offer primary care care. In addition, home nursing, retirement and nursing homes, mother counseling and other services must be made available.

    The principle of equal treatment applies in Norway. Every patient, regardless of their income, should have the opportunity to receive appropriate treatment. Citizens of the country largely agree that the public sector has a special responsibility for people who are poor, sick, old or disabled. The general national insurance fund thus not only finances health benefits, but also unemployment benefits, pensions and sick pay.

    Patients pay around 15 € for a visit to the family doctor. The treatment costs at the specialist doctor are only covered by the health insurance if the family doctor has referred the patient to a specialist. The free card system stipulates that the state pays the costs for medical services and essential medication that exceed the amount of around € 200 per year. This means that all other medical services above this amount are free of charge for the patient. The national insurance fund also reimburses medication for the chronically ill and cancer patients.

    The state's clinics and practices are generally owned by the state, but it is also possible to set up private practices. The majority of general practitioners work in group practices. Specialists or specialists only work in hospital outpatient departments. With the exception of the gynecologist, treatment by a specialist is only possible by referral. Since 2001, patients have been able to freely choose in which hospital they would like to be treated. However, treatment of private patients is not permitted in public hospitals. The problem with the Norwegian health system is that there are often long waiting lists, which is why the so-called patient bridge to Kiel was created. This means that many Norwegian citizens have an operation in Germany if they have to wait too long for an appointment in Norway. Nowadays, the waiting time is no longer regulated by law, but is determined by the respective treating doctor.

    Since there was a high shortage of doctors in Norway at the end of the 1990s, foreign doctors had a good chance of getting a job in Norway at the time. Therefore, around 15% of doctors today are of foreign origin.

    There are four universities in Norway that offer medical studies, namely in Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim and Tromso. However, the number of applicants is about 5 times as high as the number of places on the course. The medical course lasts up to six and a half years and contains a much higher practical component than in Germany. This is followed by an 18-month internship, which is completed both in the hospital and in primary care. The further training to become a specialist then takes another 5-6 years.

     

    The education system
    The motto of the Norwegian education system is 'Education for All'. This aspired equal opportunity is characterized, among other things. by the fact that immigrant children of school age can attend free language courses offered by the respective municipality. Refugees can also take advantage of free language and integration courses for adults. The Sami minority also has an official right to Sami lessons, provided the people live in Sami areas or the group concerned consists of at least ten people.

    Compulsory schooling was introduced in Norway in 1739. After the duration of compulsory schooling was initially seven years, it was set at ten years in 1997. Today every city or municipality is responsible for the administration and maintenance of the compulsory schools, the respective region is responsible for the secondary schools.

    The pre-school takes care of children between one and five years of age and is similar to the German kindergarten. After that, ten years of compulsory schooling begin with elementary school. English is taught from the 1st grade onwards; in the 8th grade, German, French and Spanish are available when choosing a second foreign language. The primary school is divided into the primary level from grades 1-7 and the lower secondary level from grades 8-10. This is followed by the upper secondary level. This means that you can either attain higher education entrance qualification within three years at secondary schools, or alternatively complete four-year vocational training. The training takes place in the first two years at a vocational school, followed by the practical phase in the company in the second half. During this time, trainees can take additional courses in order to obtain university entrance qualifications at the same time. The majority of Norwegian students take up the opportunity to attend one of the secondary schools.

    There are 38 public and 32 private higher education institutions in Norway. Norwegian students are entitled to a student loan. As a rule, there are no tuition fees, but there are some exceptions for certain training programs or visits to private institutions.


    The University of Oslo is the largest in the country with over 30,000 students. It is also the best national university and ranks fourth among the best Nordic universities in the international ranking.

    climate
    At first one might assume that only icy winters and also cool summers await in Norway, after all, the country is at roughly the same height as Greenland. However, Norway offers a wonderful variety of weather, which is mainly due to the fact that the country extends over a total of 13 degrees of latitude. For example, while temperatures over 10 ° C prevail on the south coast for more than 4 months a year, north of Lofoten this is the case on about 60 days. The variety of weather is particularly reflected in Lapland, i.e. in the north of the country, where winter temperatures of over -30 ° c can be expected, but summer inland can be enjoyed in mid-July at a wonderful + 30 ° c. The temperature differences between north and south are greatest in spring, as are the temperature differences between day and night.


    The weather does not only differ in the north-south ratio, the differences between the east and west of the country are particularly noticeable. The Skanden, the mountains that separate the country's coast from the east, keep the inland dry, but create icy winds. While inland the winters are very cold and most of the country is covered with snow, Norway's coastal areas have mild winters, which are caused by the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic and are more characterized by rain and storms. On the city of Bergen and the surrounding area, precipitation falls with an annual mean of around 2,000 mm on around 240 days a year. The January mean for Bergen, for example, is + 1.7 ° C, while at this time in the continental east in Lillehammer -8 ° C.


    Even in autumn there are temperature differences between the coastal strip and the eastern part, as temperatures in the interior of the country fall faster. The popular mushroom and berry season in Norway also begins with the beginning of autumn.


    In winter, the northern lights, also known as the northern lights, fascinate people in Norway. Often the dim, cozy, mostly yellow-green light can be seen in the sky as a dormant arc for several hours at a height of approx. 100 km. At that time the arcs of light were explained in myths and fairy tales as flashing shields on which the souls of the fallen warriors were supposed to get to Valhalla - the hall of those who fell in battle.


    The phenomenon of the midnight sun above the Arctic Circle also inspires visitors to Norway again and again. The polar day, namely June 21, lasts 24 hours there. On this day the sun stays above the horizon and gives the north a longer sunshine duration than the south. Further north in Bodø, the midnight sun can be seen from June 7th to July 8th, at the North Cape, the northernmost sightseeing point in Europe, you can even see it from mid-May to the end of July, depending on the cloudiness. The change between polar day and night is caused by the inclination of the earth's axis: the entire north polar region faces the sun in summer, while the south polar region receives no light. In winter these lighting conditions are exactly the opposite, which is why the winter months are also called mørketid, i.e. dark time.


    In any case, the suitcase should be equipped for exciting snow hikes as well as for bathing fun in summer, because Norway is worth a trip with its weather diversity in every season.

     

    Fauna & flora
    A quarter of Norway is covered with forest. Due to the past ice ages, which destroyed large parts of the flora and fauna, as well as the relatively short and cool summer, the flora of the country is relatively poor in species. However, the existing plant species are perfectly adapted to the circumstances. The country is 70% covered by coniferous forests, which are predominant in the north. In the south, deciduous and mixed forests with beech, maple and oak characterize the landscape. The west coast is climatically favored, which is why the deciduous and mixed forest zone extends far north here. In the boreal coniferous forest area, i.e. the northernmost vegetation zone in which forest growth is possible, there are spruce and pine stands rich in moss and lichen. These conifers are perfectly adapted to the harsh climate. The transition zone connected to the taiga is mainly characterized by mountain birches. Fjell describes the landscapes above the tree line. In the northern part of Norway is the Arctic region, where the growing season is quite short at three months. Here you will find shrubs and moss species that are insensitive to the cold, which despite this short vegetation period can grow in the so-called tundra, the area beyond the polar tree line.

    The height record for flowering plants in Northern Europe is achieved by the glacier buttercup, which can be found in the fell up to a height of 2370m. The herb willow is also very well adapted to the conditions of the snow-covered soil.

    A special spectacle is offered to Norway lovers in autumn, when the fell landscapes shine in wonderful yellow, red or orange tones due to the luminosity of the dwarf shrub heaths and birch forests. On a trip to the fells, however, it is advisable to grab your rubber boots, as you trudge through many streams and moors. Norway has over 800 species of moss and over 12,000 species of lichens.

    Due to the special weather and food conditions, Norway's fauna does not have a huge biodiversity, but it does offer some great, extraordinary animal species. The greatest threat to wildlife is environmental changes. At the end of the 1980s, the wolf, salamander and four bird species were on the list of endangered animals in Norway, as well as many more on the list of animal species worthy of protection. Fortunately, some stocks have since recovered, such as B. the sea parrot. For these and countless other birds, the cliffs and bird cliffs of Lofoten represent a true paradise. Due to the abundance of fish on Norway's coasts, terns, oystercatchers and cormorants nest here.

    Unfortunately the wolf has almost been exterminated, which is why a group of few animals now exists in Norway and moves around between Hedmark and Värmland in Sweden.

    The most fascinating thing for visitors to Norway is still the moose, which can be found on many cars in the form of a sticker after a holiday in Scandinavia. Moose live in large numbers in the forests of Norway, but you can also encounter them on the roads, especially in the south and west of the country.

    The reindeer is also one of the animals of the north. Reindeer belong to the deer family and are raised from the Sami. There are wild reindeer in the wild, especially in the Hardangervidda. This plateau is also preferred by lemmings as a habitat. These voles, around 15 cm in size, often have to travel long distances due to a lack of food, which unfortunately many animals do not survive.

    In Dovrefjell you can meet the musk ox. This Greenlandic breed, strangely related to the goat and sheep genus, was reintroduced to Norway after World War II.Musk ox can weigh up to 400kg, have dark brown fur, white hair on the forehead and top of the head and yellowish horns. Although these adorable animals will not grow any larger than a Shetland pony, caution should be exercised when encountering a musk ox.

    Another furry contemporary is the brown bear, who prefers life in wooded mountain regions. There are still around 30 brown bears living in isolated areas of Norway, most of which only become really dangerous to humans when they are injured or feel seriously threatened.

    Salmon and trout frolic in the country's rivers, as well as cod, herring and mackerel in the sea. With a little luck, you can see seals, whales and harbor seals in the coastal regions.

    The only poisonous animal in Norway is the adder. For adults, a bite is not fatal, but usually very painful, but you should consult a doctor immediately. Prompt treatment is particularly important for children and the elderly or sick, for whom an adder bite can be life-threatening.


    The mosquitoes prove to be a nuisance, as they like to romp around in the interior of the country on large bodies of water and marshland. B. on the Hardangervidda. If you want to be spared from these insects on holiday, it is best to stay on the coastal areas or stock up on the tried and tested Norwegian insect repellants in advance to guarantee perfect holiday fun.

    Culinary
    Due to the long and important fishing tradition, the Norwegian range of dishes is mainly characterized by fish dishes. Norway not only convinces with a large selection, but also with the internationally valued quality. But also some meat dishes belong on the list of typical dishes. Many dishes, especially smoked meat and dried fish, date back to the Viking tradition, when long-life foods were needed for long journeys.

    Typical fish dishes include Norwegian salmon, which is available in many different variations, e.g. B. cooked, smoked, fried or pickled can be prepared. So it's no wonder that in the land of farmed salmon even at McDonalds laksburgere (Salmon burger) can be found on the dining table. Especially gravet lakswhich is soaked in a marinade made from salt, pepper, sugar and dill for at least two days is one of the salmon specialties.

    Even with marinated or pickled herring, Norwegian sild, different variations are available, depending on whether you have more appetite for mustard sauce or a sweet and sour sauce. The reker are prawns that like to go to one rekekveld, in German “shrimp evening”, can be peeled in a cozy get-together and then eaten with bread and lemon or fried in garlic, for example. Stockfish, Norwegian, is particularly popular internationally torrfisk. The stockfish is particularly popular to soak in brine and water. This specialty, too lutefisk called, is especially popular at Christmas.

    Two other dishes that are often on the table at Christmas are pinnekjøtt, smoked or dried mutton with cabbage or potatoes, and ribbe, Pork ribs. The national dishes definitely include the kjøttkaker, these are meatballs or meatballs in brown sauce. Meatballs are not only available with meat, but also with fish, these are then called fiskeboller.

    With home cooking fårikål if it is lamb in cabbage, potatoes are often served. In addition to these dishes, there is also a large selection of soups and stews, such as B. lapskaus with lots of vegetables and meat. If you want to try something completely different in Norway, you can also order elk, reindeer or whale meat in some restaurants.

    Norwegian is one of the typical types of bread flatbrød, a thin, hard flatbread, similar to crispbread, which is particularly durable. The soft variant of the flatbread is called lefse and is made from potatoes and flour. That is also typically Norwegian geitost or brunost, a caramelized, sweet goat cheese made from whey and brown in color.

    One of the popular traditional desserts is first of all rømmegrøt, a porridge made from thick sour cream and flour or semolina, which is eaten with cinnamon and sugar and, depending on your taste, with raisins. The Norwegian rice pudding, risgrøt, is also refined with cinnamon and sugar, apples or almonds. They are typical for Norway multebær, German cloudberries, which grow mainly in Northern Europe and are served with cream for dessert, for example.
      
    In general, it can be said about the Norwegian food culture that the meals are somewhat different from those in Germany. The day starts with a sumptuous breakfast, Norwegian frokost. At lunchtime, the lunch, you only have a bite to eat or a few slices of bread. The main meal is called in Norway middag and takes place as an early dinner between 5 and 6 p.m. Around 9 p.m. there is usually a smaller meal, aftensmat called, which often consists of coffee and cake. Coffee is the most popular drink among Norwegians and is enjoyed at any time of the day. But Norway is not only known for its enormous coffee consumption, also Norwegian beer, oil, is popular with locals and tourists.

    A very well-known Norwegian spirit that is also popular with some fish and meat dishes is the potato-based one Aquavit line. During its maturation process, this schnapps is shipped in barrels across the equator (hence the line) and back again. According to several legends, the constant movement and temperature differences give rise to the fine taste of the Aquavit conditions.

    Even if the Norwegian cuisine may take some getting used to, there are enough different dishes to choose from so that everyone gets their money's worth. No matter if you are a fish eater or a dessert lover, one or the other recipe will certainly be included in your own cookbook after your vacation!

    continentEurope
    Official languageNorwegian (different dialects possible)
    MarkN
    National holidays

    May 17th (Constitution Day)

    Area over all islands323,802 km2
    Geographical location5 - 31 ° east longitude 58 - 71 ° north latitude
    CapitalOslo (lies ....)
    Time difference CET+1 hour
    Highest elevationGaldhopiggen 2,469m
    Medium temperatureJanuary -2ºC / July 22ºC
    growth of population0.949 % 
    Population density13 inhabitants per km2
    Head of stateKing Harald V (since 1991)
    Form of governmentMonarchy (since 1905), 169 members
    Regional breakdown19 provinces (Fylker)
    Mains voltage220 V, 50 Hz
    Annual rainfall-
    Population (2017)4.700.000
    Biggest townOslo (575,475 inhabitants)
    International phone code+47
    Average life expectancy

    -

    Illiteratebelow 0.1%
    Ethnic groups

    Norwegians 94.4% / Semen 0.5% / Others 2%

    Average annual income- U.S$
    currency

    Norwegian NOK / 1 NOK = 100 Øre

    Most important import goods-
    Most important export goods

    -

    Sectors of the economy

    -

    Internet identifier.no

    Entry requirements
    As a citizen of an EU / EEA or Schengen country, you can stay in Norway for up to 3 months without registering. For German citizens, a passport, identity card or a temporary identity card is sufficient. The same applies to entering and leaving Spitsbergen. Children from 0-16 years of age need their own child ID (passport) with a photo.


    Further information, including For stays longer than 3 months, go to: http://www.norwegen.no/travel/pass_und_visum/

    Customs regulations and information on entry with animals can be found at: http://www.norwegen.no/travel/zoll/

     

    Embassies
    Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany
    Oscars gate 45
    N-0244 Oslo
    Tel .: (+47) 23 27 54 00
    Fax: (+47) 22 44 76 72
    Email: [email protected]
    Visiting hours: Mon-Fri: 8.30 a.m.-11.30 a.m.
    By phone: Mon-Thu: 8 a.m.-12 p.m. and 1 p.m.-3.30 p.m., Fri: 8 a.m.-12 p.m.
    On-call service: (+47) 90 85 08 02
    Homepage: http://www.oslo.diplo.de/Vertretung/oslo/de/Startseite.html


    Royal Norwegian Embassy
    Rauchstrasse 1
    10787 Berlin
    Tel .: (+49) 30 50 50 58 600
    Fax: (+49) 30 50 50 58 601
    Email: [email protected]
    Opening times: Mon-Fri: 9 a.m. - 4 p.m.
    Consular section: Mon-Fri: 9 a.m.-12 p.m.
    Homepage: http://www.norwegen.no/Embassy/

     

    Traveling by car
    First the ferry-free variant: You drive on the A7 in the direction of Flensburg to Denmark, then in Denmark you turn onto the E20 in the direction of Copenhagen. First you cross the Great Belt by bridge (www.storebaelt.dk). You can then take the Öresund Bridge (www.oresundsbron.com) from Copenhagen to Malmö in Sweden (pay attention to the toll when crossing the bridges). From here it is another 600km to Oslo by car.

    Ferry connections: There is a ferry from Puttgarden to Rødby in Denmark. Afterwards you can either cross the Öresund by bridge or by ferry from Helsingør to Helsingborg. If you don't want to go to Sweden, you can also take a ferry from Copenhagen to Oslo.

    Another option is to take the Color Line from Kiel to Oslo (20 hours). The prices are relatively high, but you save yourself the long drive.