Why is culture pronounced K Lt or k lt
I. What is the root of the word?
The root of the word is the part of the word that doesn't change. With it other word forms can be formed.
drive: drive-en, Drive-t, Drive-stuff, ab-drivet, drive-bar
The root of the word does not change unless it is an umlaut (cf. Tree / trees) or an ablaut (cf. fall / feel / like).
In German as well as in Kölschen, a consonant at the end of a syllable and word is always pronounced voiceless (hard), even if the letter is voiced (soft) in another position.
child (spoken kint)
We know that there is a "d" at the end of the word when we use the plural children form.
It's the same in Kölschen.
|Zigg - Zigge||Wod - dull||Stupid - stupid / stupid|
|a)||gg in word||g [g]||ziggy|
|b)||at the end of the word||k [k]||hilly|
|c)||g at the beginning of a word and at the beginning of a syllable after light vowels||j [j]||god, fleege|
|d)||g after dark vowels in unstressed syllable||r [r]||flown|
|e)||g at the end of the syllable after light vowels||ch [me-loud]||fifty|
|f)||g at the end of the syllable after dark vowels||ch [x]||Dag|
|With the adjective, the ending -lich remains, the pronunciation is individually different:||wonderful with I-sound or with [j]|
|The ending -che remains with the diminutive, the pronunciation is either with I-sound or with "j" depending on the preceding sound:||Male with I-Laut Bötzche with [j]|
II. Writing rules for vowels
If the vowel length remains in the stddt. and in the Cologne word equal, the spelling of the Cologne word is based on that of the stddt. Word. This means in detail:
- with a single vowel in the stddt. Word, a single vowel is written in the Cologne word (vOn> vun; Fluch> FlOch);
- with double consonants after a vowel in the stddt. Word, double consonants are written after the vowel of the Cologne word (Sonne> Sonn);
- with diphthong (double vowel) in the stddt. Word is either a diphthong in the Kölsch word or, when changing to a single vowel, length marking either by vowel doubling (Feuhe> Füür) or by stretching e behind 'i' (eggle> Iel; legghen> liehne).
- with stretch marks after vowel (s) in stddt. Word is an analogous sign of expansion in the Cologne word, namely- expansion-h in stddt. and in the Kölsch word (HuHn> HoHn, leHren> liHre),
- Vowel doubling in the stddt. and in the Cologne word (Haar> Hoor),
- 'ie' in the city. Word> double vowel in the Cologne word (Brief> Breef).
- Is in the city. Word one vowel short and the vowel of the corresponding Cologne word long, we show the vowel elongation in the Cologne word by vowel doubling (machen> maache; W.irt> Weet) or 'ie' (lernen> liere), regardless of how the shortness of the vowel in the stddt. Word if necessary. is additionally marked; e.g. by accumulating consonants after the vowel (Peaen> Ääze). Although 'ß' after a vowel is on the one hand always voiceless, on the other hand it signals the length of the preceding vowel, we use explicit length markings here as well (lassen> looße) or keep it (schiessen> scheate; rreallyen> riesse), unless the length is also in stddt. Word not marked explicitly (Fuss > Foss).
- Is in the city. Word one vowel (or diphthong) long and the vowel of the corresponding Cologne word short, we show the vowel shortening in the following ways:
- becomes a diphthong of the city. Word in the Kölsch word for a short vowel, we mark the brevity by spelling the individual vowel (ouchf> Op);
- becomes a long single vowel of the stddt. Word in the Kölsch word for a short vowel, we mark the brevity by doubling the consonant (abhe> ävver), provided that the consonant sound can be doubled in writing (Bauch > Buch) and does not go back to the phoneme / g / (ZuG > ZoG). In these cases, the simple notation of the consonant (s) after the vowel remains.
|a)||a vowel remains||Ship / Scheff||Day / day|
|b)||Double consonant remains||Sun / sunday||Trap / case|
|c)||Elongation h remains||Chicken / scorn||Chair / stole|
|d)||g / ch becomes h||Rain / Rähn||made / mowed|
|e)||Double vowel remains||Hair / hoor|
|f)||ß indicates length||Foot / foot|
|G)||Diphthong remains||buy / buy||share / deile|
|H)||Dipht. becomes a double vowel||Farmer / Buur (Boor)||Disc / Schiev|
|Fire / for|
|i)||ie remains or becomes ee||Animal / thier||dear / leev|
2. German short, kölsch long
|a)||Vowel is doubled||crash / crack|
|b)||Vowel is doubled||Candle / Kaäz||Pea / Ääz (r + cons. Are omitted)|
|c)||ss becomes double vowel + ß||wet / wet||let / looße|
3. German long, kölsch short
|a)||Consonant is doubled||Furnace / Ovve|
|b)||with diphthong to single vowel||to drink / suffe|
|buy / buy||share / deile|
|a)||Peel||(Hänneschen figure; not: Schääl)|
|b)||peel sick||Proper name (according to the rules one would write "schääl Sigg")|
|c)||jeck, jeck||(not: geck, dude; see Duden)|
III. Writing rules for consonants
- The sound [g] is mostly replaced in Kölschen for the standard German sounds [k], [d] and [t], but in a few words it also remains for stddt. [g] received:
- Follows in the city. Word of the sound [k] a short vowel (e.g. Rücken, wackeln), in some cases this [k] is realized aloud by [g] in Kölsch. To identify the vowel shortening, we write 'gg' (Rögge, waggele).
- Is in the city. 'd' or 't' after a diphthong that ends with a front vowel (e.g. läuten, beautifuloathen, Ztime), there is often a short front vowel in place of the diphthong in the Kölsch word and at the same time / d / or / t / is replaced by / g /. To identify the vowel abbreviation, we also write here 'gg' (lügge, beautifuligge, Zigg).
- If [g] (orthogr .: 'gg') is in the stddt. Word after a short vowel (e.g. Roggelchen, maggeln,aggern)., the [g] is usually retained in Kölschen (Roggmoose, maggele, aanbaggere).
- Will a stddt. 'g' or 'ch' deleted from the Cologne word, we replace the deleted 'g' or 'ch' with an 'h', provided the vowel remains or becomes long (as in unterweGs> not mentionedHs, ReGen> RäHn, macht! > maHt!).
- For inflected verb forms, where 'g' or 'ch' falls out before 's' or 't', we also replace 'h' (e.g. saGst> säHs, saGt> säHt / saHt!), even if the length of the vowel of the Cologne word stem is marked by doubling the vowel (Inf .: maache; (do) muhs, (hä) muht, mAht !, but: maach!)
- Is in the city. Word 'chs' after a short vowel and is pronounced [ks] (e.g. in waxen, wechseln), the vowel in the Cologne word can become long and the following sound [k] is not spoken. We then write an 'h' instead of the deleted 'ch' to identify the vowel length and the simultaneous deletion of the [k], and to clarify the voicelessness of the [s] a 'ß' (waxen> wahhade; wechseln> wuhele). If the vowel remains short in the Kölsch word, [k] is not omitted and the spelling 'chs' remains (e.g. six).
- Is in the city. Word 'chs' after a long vowel and is pronounced [çs] (e.g. nachste), the vowel of the Cologne word remains long and instead of [çs] one speaks [ks]. We keep the spelling 'chs', as it is common for the sound combination [ks] in the stdt. (nachste> nöchste).
- Is 'right' in the city. Word after a short vowel, 'cht' is pronounced either [çt] or [xt]. In the Kölsch word, the vowel is usually long and the final [t] is omitted (Rreal > Ruh, Neight > Naach).
- Is 'right' in the city. Word after a short vowel, 'chts' is pronounced either [çts] or [xts]. In the Kölsch word, the vowel usually becomes long, [çts] becomes [ts], [xts] [ks]. [ks] we write 'ks' (neighth > naaks); [ts] we write 'ts' (rreal > rääts).
- Is 'ch' in the city. Word after a long back vowel, 'ch' is realized by the sound [x] (= Ach sound) (e.g. suchen). In the Kölsch word, the back vowel often becomes a long front vowel and instead of the [x] one speaks a [k], which we also write 'k' (cf.ece)
- Stdt. [pf] is almost always pronounced [p] in Kölschen regardless of the sound environment (Pfearth> P.ääd; hüpfen> höppe; Kopf > Kopp).
- Stdt. In- and Auslaut-'b 'becomes in Kölschen, with a few isolated exceptions, to / v /, which is pronounced voiced [v] in the interior and voiceless [f] in the final. We then write in Kölschen after long vowel or diphthong 'v' (Grfromen> Grave; Sizefrom > Grav; bleiben> blieve), after a short vowel 'vv' (overhe> üvvhe).
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