Can terrorism be abolished and how?
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Collective bargaining employees
Before 2005, a distinction was made in collective bargaining law for the federal public service between salaried employees on the one hand and blue-collar workers on the other. The collective agreement for the public service, the TVöD, which has been in force since 2005, has repealed this separation under labor law. Since then, the term "employees" has been used uniformly in the TVöD for both groups of employees. To distinguish it from the status group of civil servants, the term “collective bargaining employees” is used.
You can find more information about the collective bargaining employees of the federal government here.
Reform of collective bargaining law
With the signing of the collective agreement for the public service (TVöD) on September 13, 2005, the federal government, municipalities and trade unions decided on a comprehensive reform of collective bargaining law.
On October 1, 2005, the new collective bargaining law replaced the Federal Employees' Collective Agreement (BAT) of February 23, 1961, the collective wage agreement for workers of the Federation and the Länder of December 6, 1995 (MTArb) and the majority of the supplementary, replacing and amending collective agreements replaced.
The previous differentiation between the two status groups (blue-collar workers) has been largely abolished. The previous regulations for the East and West tariff areas were merged in a collective agreement, content was modernized, and superfluous provisions were repealed. The TVöD makes the employment relationships of the collective bargaining employees of the federal government and municipalities more flexible, performance-oriented and more transparent than before.
Public Service Collective Agreement
As in the private sector, public sector employees are employed on the basis of an employment contract under private law. These employment contracts are subject to the general rules of labor law and the specific regulations of the relevant collective agreements.
On September 13, 2005, the Federation and the Association of Local Employers' Associations (VKA) as well as the trade unions ver.di and dbb tarifunion signed the collective agreement for the public service (TVöD) and supplementary collective agreements. On October 1, 2005, the new collective bargaining law replaced the general collective agreements BAT / BAT-O and MTArb / MTArb-O, including the majority of the supplementary, replacing and amending collective agreements, which had previously been applicable to the federal public service. The previously applicable differentiation between the two status groups (blue-collar workers) has largely been abolished. The partially different regulations for the East and West tariff zones were merged in a collective agreement, content was modernized, and superfluous provisions were repealed.
The TVöD regulates almost all essential working conditions.
technical aid organization
The Technische Hilfswerk (THW) provides technical assistance in civil protection and in the fight against disasters, public emergencies and major accidents at the request of the authorities responsible for hazard prevention, on behalf of the federal government also outside the federal territory.
Obligation to participate (integration course)
Foreigners who reside legally and permanently in the federal territory are obliged to take part in an integration course under the conditions specified in the Residence Act (Section 44a, Paragraph 1, No. 1a) or b) AufenthG) if they cannot simply speak German be able to communicate verbally.
Foreigners who receive benefits in accordance with Book II of the Social Code (SGB II) can be obliged by the providers of basic security to take part in an integration course. This is done through a public law contract as part of the integration agreement.
Foreigners who are particularly in need of integration are also obliged to take part in an integration course if they are requested to do so by the immigration authorities.
If a foreigner does not comply with his obligation to participate for reasons for which he is responsible, this can have effects on residence rights and lead to cuts in social benefits.
Employees in the public sector can work part-time and thus adapt their individual working hours to their personal needs within the framework of the official requirements. This therefore applies to collective bargaining employees and civil servants based on collective bargaining agreements or statutory regulations.
The Unconditional application part-time makes it possible to reduce the working time by up to 50% on request without the existence of further requirements.
In the Part-time employment for family reasons the working hours can also be reduced to less than 50% for a maximum of 15 years. The prerequisite is that at least one child under the age of 18 is actually cared for or cared for or a relative in need of care is actually cared for or cared for.
During the period there is also the possibility of part-time employment for up to 30 hours per week.
It applies to all forms of part-time employment that they must not impair professional advancement. A different treatment of part-time employees versus full-time employees is therefore fundamentally inadmissible. The return to full-time employment is facilitated by giving priority to the filling of jobs, taking into account the performance principle.
Terrorism is the most aggressive and militant form of political extremism, in which the extremist goals are pursued by means of a sustained violent struggle through the systematic use of massive acts of violence. A hallmark of terrorism is the perpetration of severe attacks by groups that are organized according to the division of labor and that generally operate covertly. In the 70s and 80s, the perpetrators hoped for a mass mobilizing and revolutionizing effect through terrorist actions, whereas today's phenomenon of Islamist terrorism with massive attacks on "soft" targets with high casualties aims to destabilize and intimidate entire societies and states.
In the European Union, with the framework decision of the Council of June 13, 2002 on the fight against terrorism (2002/475 / JHA), the following definition was made in Article 1 (1) for a core area of terrorist offenses:
"Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the willful acts listed under points a) to i), defined as criminal offenses under national law, which, by the nature of the commission or the context in question, seriously affect a country or an international organization can be classified as terrorist offenses if they are committed with the aim of
- to intimidate the population in a serious way or
- to unlawfully compel public authorities or an international organization to do or not to act or
- seriously destabilize or destroy the basic political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an international organization:
a) Attacks on a person's life that can lead to death;
b) attacks on the physical integrity of a person;
c) kidnapping or hostage-taking;
d) Serious destruction of a government facility or a public facility, a means of transport, an infrastructure including a computer system, a fixed platform located on the continental shelf, a generally accessible location or private property that endangers human life or leads to significant economic loss can;
e) capturing aircraft and watercraft or other means of public transport or goods transport;
f) Manufacture, possession, acquisition, transport or supply or use of firearms, explosives, nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, as well as research and development in connection with biological and chemical weapons;
g) Release of dangerous substances or induction of fires, floods or explosions if this endangers human life;
h) disruption or interruption of the supply of water, electricity or other vital natural resources if this endangers human life;
i) Threatening to commit one of the offenses mentioned in a) to h). "
In German criminal law, this is implemented in Section 129a of the Criminal Code, also in conjunction with 129b of the Criminal Code.
The Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI) gives special priority to promoting the coaching sector in top-class sport.
The coaching concept of the German Sports Federation for top-class sport primarily provides for more athlete-oriented coaching, greater flexibility in the use of coaches, strengthening of independent decision-making by the central associations and limiting the financial framework for coaching funds, as well as simplifying the administrative process, changing the terms of employment for coaches and making a change the allocation of federal funds.
A distinction must be made between the coaching funding and the funding mentioned above. By means of mixed financing for coaches, the Olympic training centers, in close coordination with the federal sports associations, ensure continuous high-performance training for senior athletes in the transition from state to federal funding.
In addition to the BMI, the respective state, the respective municipality or other sponsors contribute to the mixed coaching financing to varying degrees.
Training facility funding
By way of funding for training facilities, the Federal Ministry of the Interior can contribute to the operating and maintenance costs of special training facilities that serve the main sports / disciplines of an Olympic base and, in a national comparison, have an outstanding position in the daily training of athletes in the A to C ranks as well take in central measures of the federal sports associations. In addition, recognition as a federal base is generally required.
Trialogues are informal negotiating meetings between representatives of the three bodies involved in the EU legislative process - the Commission, Parliament and the Council of Ministers. They take a central role in EU legislation. Informal trialogue negotiations enable compromises to be found in a timely manner and legislative acts to be concluded at an early stage of the procedure. The aim of the trialogue negotiations is to agree on a common text, which then has to be formally approved by the European Parliament and the Council.
The trialogue negotiations are based on the negotiating mandates. In the Council, these are usually issued on the basis of a politically approved complete text (so-called general approach) or on the basis of parts thereof or on the basis of principles (partial general approach) by the Council or also by Coreper. In the European Parliament, the lead committee has to submit the negotiating mandate to start trialogue negotiations, which is based on the report on the Commission proposal adopted by the committee, to plenary for approval.
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