Can a diagnosed sociopath have PTSD

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Dependence, addiction): Develops after repeated use of psychotropic substances. The main characteristic is a strong, partly insurmountable desire to supply the substance. Sometimes there is a loss of control over consumption and neglect of everyday activities and other obligations. In addition, a development of tolerance with regard to the administered dose and a physical dependence syndrome can often be observed.

Mindfulness: Is a form of drawing attention to the here and now. It is about allowing all internal processes to be observed, observing them without judgment and letting go again. Developed from Buddhist forms of meditation and is also used to cope with stress (MBSR, Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction according to Jon Kabat-Zinn).

ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder): A disorder that usually begins in childhood and is characterized by difficulty maintaining attention, impulsiveness, and motor hyperactivity.

Affective disorders: Mental disorders characterized by changes in mood. These can go in the direction of depressed mood (depression) or heightened mood (mania). A distinction is made between acute and chronic forms.

Affect lability: Rapid and strong fluctuations in the basic mood, some of which are triggered by minor stimuli.

Agoraphobia: Afraid of big squares (e.g. marketplace) or traveling alone. In the majority of cases it occurs in combination with a panic disorder.

Acrophobia: Fear of heights

Acute stress reaction: Result of extreme psychological stress or a crisis situation (e.g. death of a close relative, accident, experience of violence). Colloquially often called "nervous breakdown".

Nightmares: A dream experience accompanied by feelings of fear or panic is one of the non-organic sleep disorders

Alcohol Disease: Dependence on ethanol. Consumption can no longer be controlled and is becoming a central part of life. Often there is tolerance development, neglect of important areas of life, denial of dependence, personality change and withdrawal symptoms when the amount of drinking is reduced.

Alzheimer's dementia: A neurodegenerative disease of the brain that leads to dementia. Characteristic are the decrease in cognitive abilities and the memory function.

Amnesia: Disturbance of the memory with loss of the ability to remember certain experiences (content) or temporal relationships

Persistent personality changes after extreme stress: As a result of severe, persistent trauma, a complex post-traumatic stress disorder with personality changes can develop.

Fear, generalized: Persistent fear not confined to specific situations, mostly about everyday problems.

Anxiety disorder: A mental disorder that manifests itself through an intense experience of fear. It can be directed at a specific object (phobia) as well as unspecific (generalized fear).

Anhedonia: Joylessness

Anorexia nervosa: A disorder of eating behavior in which those affected feel too fat despite being underweight and suffer from massive fears of gaining weight. Underweight is caused by an extreme reduction in calorie intake, excessive exercise or so-called purging behaviors (self-induced vomiting, use of appetite suppressants, laxatives or dehydrating agents).

Adjustment disorder: A mental disorder in which those affected react with various mental symptoms after one-off or long-lasting stressful life events. Depressive and anxious symptoms, feelings of helplessness and irritability are typical. Often there is the feeling of no longer being able to cope with the demands of everyday life.

Apathy: The person concerned appears indifferent, indifferent and disinterested. The emotional responsiveness and the reaction to external stimuli are reduced.

Aphasia: A language disorder that can be traced back to an injury to various brain structures. Various diseases (e.g. stroke, tumors, intoxication, cerebral haemorrhage) can be considered to be the cause. The linguistic impairment shows up in speaking, understanding, writing and reading in different degrees of severity.

Appetence: Innate behavior patterns aimed at achieving a specific goal. Appetence behavior describes an orientation to the situation or the stimulus in order to achieve a satisfaction of the need.

Approval: Authorization to practice certain health professions (doctor, dentist, psychotherapist) issued by the state authority. Associated with the license to practice medicine is the authorization to use the respective professional title.

Apraxia: A movement disorder in which the voluntary, purposeful execution of movements is impaired while motor function is intact. The cause is considered to be brain damage caused by strokes, brain tumors, dementia, encephalitis and other diseases that involve the brain.

Articulation disorder: A disorder of speech expression in which speech sounds are swapped, left out or incorrectly joined together. The causes are manifold and range from congenital malformations (cleft lip and palate), reduced motor functions of the tongue, to central or peripheral nerve paralysis and disorders of the hearing organs.

Asperger syndrome: A form of autism that can be diagnosed from around 4 years of age. Those affected show weaknesses in particular in the area of ​​social skills and communication and stand out due to restricted and stereotypical activities and interests. It is difficult for them to recognize non-verbal signals from other people and to send them out themselves. The intelligence performance is mostly in the normal range, people with Asperger's Syndrome sometimes appear strange to others.

Asthenic Personality Disorder: Asthenic (or dependent) personality disorder is characterized by the fact that making decisions out of fear of responsibility is best left to other people. There are great fears of not meeting the needs, expectations and ideas of others and of being rejected. Those affected perceive themselves as helpless and worthless and suffer greatly from fear of abandonment. In the eyes of others, people with asthenic personality disorder appear clinging, passive, and submissive.

Ataxia: Ataxia is used to describe various disorders of the coordination of movements that can also occur outside of the symptoms of paralysis. For example, the inability to sit upright is called trunk ataxia, and the inability to stand upright is called standing ataxia. In gait ataxia, those affected move unsteadily and with their legs apart. The causes are varied and range from a disease of the cerebellum to nerve diseases or metabolic diseases.

Autism: A developmental disorder that becomes noticeable shortly after birth (Kanner syndrome) or only after the age of 4 (Asperger syndrome). Those affected have a congenital disorder of perception and information in the brain. People with autism show weaknesses in social interaction and communication, often stereotypical behaviors. The intelligence as well as the attention and the memory are well developed. There are various manifestations and impairments due to the developmental disorder with flowing courses.

Bipolar Affective Disorder: Definable phases of mania (increased mood / activity) and depression (depressed mood / activity) occur alternately. Therefore it is also called manic-depressive illness.

Body Mass Index (BMI): The BMI expresses the ratio of body mass to the square of body height. The BMI is calculated using the formula BMI = body mass in kg / body height in square meters (BMI = kg / m2). One speaks of underweight if the BMI is below 18.5, the normal weight range is between 18.5 and 25, and people who have a BMI above 25 are referred to as overweight.

Borderline personality disorder: Shows itself in a persistent instability of interpersonal relationships, mood and self-image. Another main characteristic is the impulsiveness of those affected.

Bulimia: Eating disorder characterized by constant preoccupation with food and an irresistible greed for food as well as binge eating. Those affected often counteract the fattening effect of the excessively ingested foods by self-induced vomiting. In contrast to anorexia nervosa ("anorexia"), bulimic patients are usually not underweight.

Burnout Syndrome: Derived from the English word "to burn out", the term describes a state of severe emotional exhaustion. Further characteristic features can be physical exhaustion, concentration problems, reduced performance, reduced drive, irritability, emotional indifference or social withdrawal. Burnout syndrome usually occurs after a long period of excessive workload. The term serves as a condition description and does not represent a diagnosis within the framework of the usual classification systems.

Cannabinoids: Substances obtained from the cannabis plant (hemp plant) that have a psychoactive but also a pharmacological effect. The best known substance responsible for the intoxicating effect is THC (tetrahydrocannabis). Depending on how they are made, cannabinoids are known as hashish, marijuana, or weed.

Cluster headache: Strong unilateral headache attacks, mostly arising from sleep, in a narrowly circumscribed area of ​​the forehead or eye with a duration of approx. 15 to 180 minutes per attack. The attacks are often accompanied by local symptoms such as redness, increased tearing, or sweating in the pain area. A distinction is made between an episodic and a chronic form.

Coaching: Is a usually solution- and goal-oriented short-term consultation, which is mainly used in a professional context.

Delirium: Describes the lack of orientation with regard to time and space, the illusionary, delusional misunderstanding of the environment, optical, acoustic or haptic hallucinations as well as states of restlessness. Delirious states can occur in different contexts, such as withdrawal, drug use, an infectious disease or poisoning.

Dementia: Describes the loss of cognitive abilities due to a pathological organic brain process. Among other things, memory, logical thinking, spatial-visual abilities or social skills can be affected, which impair the sick person in coping with everyday life. There are several forms of dementia, for example Alzeimer dementia or fronto-temporal dementia.

Depersonalization: Describes the feeling that one's own person, one's own actions or one's body appear strange and unreal. The phenomenon, like derealization, occurs after a traumatic experience or a stroke of fate, but also in connection with other mental illnesses.

Depression: A mental illness characterized by depression (depressed mood), listlessness and a loss of interest and joy. During a depressive episode, increased brooding, feelings of inferiority and hopelessness, social withdrawal, difficulty making decisions and concentrating, and tiredness can also occur.

Derealization: Describes a feeling in which objects, people or the actually familiar surroundings appear strangely strange or unreal. The phenomenon occurs, among other things, after a traumatic experience or a stroke of fate, but also in connection with other mental illnesses.

Dissocial behavior: Summary of behaviors that are directed against social norms, rules and expectations.

Dissociative disorder: Generic term for mental disorders in which there is a partial or complete loss of the integration of consciousness, memory, identity or perception of immediate sensations or the control of body movements. The disruption can be limited in time or last longer. The symptoms, such as memory loss, movement disorders, disorders of sensitivity, etc., usually develop in connection with psychological stress and often appear suddenly.

Diuretics: Drugs that help drain your body.

Drugs: Psychoactive substances that influence the consciousness and perception of the user. They are used both as luxury goods and as medicinal products. These include, for example, alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, marijuana and cocaine.

Dysmorphophobia: Excessive preoccupation with an imagined or insignificant defect or distortion with regard to the external appearance of oneself. There is usually a big difference in how the affected body part perceives itself and how it is perceived by others. Those affected suffer from constant anxiety, often check their appearance and can hardly avoid the thoughts that arise about the apparent distortion.

Dyssomnias: Generic term for sleep disorders in which the duration, quality or timing of sleep may be impaired, e.g. difficulty falling or staying asleep, increased daytime sleepiness or disorders of the sleep-wake cycle.

Dysthymia: A chronic form of depressive disorder. It usually consists of a mild depressive mood that lasts for several years.

Withdrawal Syndrome: Physical and psychological symptoms that can occur when the repeated, habitual use of a psychotropic substance or an addictive substance (e.g. alcohol) is stopped. The symptoms differ depending on the type of addictive substance.

Eating disorder: Behavioral disorders characterized by constant preoccupation with eating. A distinction is made here between the main forms of anorexia (“anorexia”), bulimia (“eating vomiting”), binge eating (with the secondary disease obesity) and binge eating disorder (“binge eating”).

Fear of flying: The appearance of symptoms of anxiety related to flying. Usually leads to people trying to avoid the use of airplanes. Fear of flying is a common phenomenon and is considered to be treatable with behavioral therapy.

Ganser's Syndrome: Pretending, possibly unconsciously, of a mental illness or mental disorder as the layman can imagine. Ganser's syndrome manifests itself in “talking past” or “negotiating” or “not wanting to know”. Synonyms: pseudodementia, pseudodebility.

Facial pain: Pain that occurs locally in the face. The various possible causes include nerve pain (so-called neuralgia, in the face especially trigeminal neuralgia), pain in inflammatory processes (sinus infections, inflammation in the gums) and pain in herpes zoster (facial / shingles).

Nonviolent Communication (GfK): A concept of communication developed by Marshall B. Rosenberg. It aims to become aware of your own feelings and needs and to name them without evaluating yourself or the other person. The central point is treating yourself and others in an appreciative and empathic manner.

Group therapy: Several people take part in a psychotherapeutic measure together. This can be useful if the participants share a common topic (e.g. self-insecurity, excessive demands at work, mourning a deceased relative, etc.). There are also open-topic groups in which group dynamic processes, interaction patterns of the individual participants or individual questions are dealt with.

Hair pulling out (trichotillomania): Compulsive pulling out of one's own body hair. The impulse cannot be controlled voluntarily, which usually leads to significant hair loss. The pulling out has tension and emotion regulating effects and is associated with a feeling of relief. Trichotillomania is assigned to impulse control disorders in the ICD-10.

Hallucinations (psychosis): Severe and generalized impairment of reality control associated with delusional or hallucinatory beliefs, ideas and disorientation. Usually there is no insight into the disorder.

Organic brain psychosyndrome: Mental changes (e.g. confusion) that occur due to organic brain disorders. Causes can be long-term alcohol consumption, accidents with brain damage, prolonged lack of oxygen or metabolic disorders.

Fear of heights: The occurrence of anxiety symptoms in specific situations that are associated with height, such as hiking in the mountains, climbing a tower, on bridges, ladders, balconies or house roofs. Fear of heights is related to the fear of losing control of the situation and, in the worst case, death by falling. Depending on the severity of the anxiety symptoms, this means that those affected try to avoid such situations if possible.

Hypersomnia: Sleep disorder with excessive sleepiness and sleep attacks during the day or a long delay in waking up after getting up.

Hyperventilation: Faster or deeper breathing

Hypnotic: Sleeping pills

Hypochondriac Disorder: Excessive preoccupation with the fear of having one or more serious physical illnesses. Is characterized by a misperception of harmless physical complaints that are interpreted as clear signs of illness. Those affected suffer from fears of illness and often visit different doctors for repeated assessments. There is hardly any reassurance through reassurance from doctors or relatives about the "harmlessness" of the body symptoms.

Hysteria: Describes a disorder in which the need to be the center of attention, as well as the need for recognition and recognition are superficial. This term is now considered obsolete. Today's terms include histrionic behavior or histrionic personality disorder.

ICD-10 classification: A classification system used worldwide for all forms of diseases in humans. It is published by the World Health Organization and is divided into 22 chapters.

Impulse control: Describes the ability to deliberately suppress impulsive actions or drive actions that appear pleasant in the short term in favor of long-term positive behavioral goals and values. An example of an impulse control disorder disorder is pathological stealing.

Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep for at least one month, waking up early in the morning, unrestful sleep and the associated impairment of wellbeing during the day. Insomnia can also occur as a symptom / side effect of mental disorders (including depression), organic disorders (e.g. endocrinological diseases, chronic pain) or substance-induced disorders (alcohol, drugs, side effects of medication prescribed by a doctor).

Catatonia: Unnaturally cramped posture of the body. Can occur in the context of mental illness (e.g. catatonic schizophrenia)

Claustrophobia: Derived from the Latin word "claustrum" (cage) and the Greek word "phobos" (fear) and describes the occurrence of symptoms of fear in specific situations that are characterized by confined or closed spaces (e.g. in elevators, public transport, department stores, Cinemas, theaters, open-plan offices, in crowds or during medical examinations (MRT / CT) in closed tubes). Those affected often avoid the corresponding situations, which can lead to a significant reduction in lifestyle.

Kleptomania (pathological stealing): Is an impulse control disorder. Affected people cannot resist the impulse to steal things. Usually this action is accompanied by an inner growing tension, which subsides during or after the act and turns into a feeling of satisfaction. The stolen items are not for personal use and are usually thrown away unused, given away or hoarded unopened.

Coma: Counts to the quantitative disturbances of consciousness. The person affected cannot be awakened even by strong external stimuli.

Confabulation: A memory disorder in which memory gaps are filled with spontaneously made up utterances / content that is very often unrelated to the question.

Conversion disorder: Disease in which an internal psychological conflict manifests itself in a physical symptom, e.g. also with a pseudo-neurological failure (e.g. paralysis of individual parts of the body)

Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Intensive preoccupation with a supposedly physical defect in the external appearance. The affected parts of the body (sometimes the whole body) are perceived as repulsive / disfigured, whereupon attempts are made to conceal them / make them less conspicuous.

Korsakov psychosis: Represents a form of pronounced and persistent memory impairment (amnesia); Both long-term and short-term memory are usually affected, although the latter is usually more severely disturbed. As a result, those affected have difficulties in orienting themselves in space and time and in absorbing new content. In most cases, Korsakoff's syndrome is the result of long years of excessive alcohol consumption; but also other brain damage (traumatic brain injury, cerebral haemorrhage, poisoning, encephalitis, infections) can lead to the described clinical picture.

Landau Kleffner Syndrome: A combination of speech disorder with epilepsy occurring in childhood, which is very rare, usually between the ages of 3 and 7 for the first time. Year of life occurs. Boys are affected significantly more often than girls. The language skills previously developed in the child according to their age are lost within days to weeks. In addition, there are often epileptic seizures and abnormalities in the EEG.

Dyslexia: A reading and spelling disorder: learning to read and / or spell is severely impaired. The disease is usually not due to a lack of talent or insufficient motivation to learn.

Anorexia nervosa: Eating disorder characterized by being underweight or losing weight. Those affected have intentionally caused weight loss by avoiding fatty foods. In addition to greatly reduced food intake, excessive physical activity, self-induced vomiting, or abuse of laxatives or drainage tablets can also be responsible.

Mania (manic episode): The mood is euphoric and / or irritable, there is an extreme overestimation of one's own abilities, an increase in drive and disinhibition of social behavior. There is a low need for sleep and an increased urge to talk. Those affected often have no insight into the disease.

Manic-Depressive Disorders (Bipolar Disorders): A disorder of the affect (pathological change in mood), which is characterized by alternating depressive and manic / hypomanic episodes.

Meniere's disease: Neurological disease with acute severe vertigo, unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus. Dizziness is a symptom of many diseases in the area of ​​the inner ear (the location of the organ of equilibrium).

Migraine: Seizure-like, repetitive headache attacks, mostly localized on one side, which are often accompanied by visual disturbances and nausea.

Multiple (dissociative) personality disorder: Affected people form different partial personalities who are alternately present and control the behavior of the person. In some cases, those affected can only vaguely or not at all remember their own actions in the other state. The disorder usually occurs as a result of severe trauma. Multiple personality disorder should not be confused with schizophrenia.

Negativism: Do the opposite of what you are asked to do or do not respond at all.

Neurology: Medical discipline that deals with diseases of the nervous system.

Neurosis: Generic term for mild mental disorders. This is to be distinguished from psychoses, which show a more severe degree of mental disorder.

Couples Therapy: A psychotherapeutic procedure to support couples in coping with relationship problems, crises and to increase the quality of the partnership. Measures that are used are e.g. communication training (appropriate articulation of one's own wishes and needs), teaching of stress management strategies and problem-solving skills.

Panic disorder: Severe anxiety attacks that occur spontaneously and independently of the external situation, begin abruptly and last for a few minutes. Common symptoms are palpitations, tremors, dry mouth, feelings of tightness, difficulty breathing, dizziness, fear of losing control and / or fear of dying.

Paranoid schizophrenia: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness in which thinking, perception and affect are disturbed. The sub-form of paranoid schizophrenia is characterized by paranoid delusions, usually associated with acoustic hallucinations, for example in the form of threatening inner voices.

Parasomnias: Unusual events that occur while sleeping, e.g. nightmares, sleepwalking, pavor nocturnus (night terrors).

Pathological stealing: An impulse control disorder in which it is not possible for those affected to be able to resist the intensely experienced impulse to steal something. Stealing does not go hand in hand with the need for self-enrichment, but is a regulatory mechanism for internal tension.

Pavor nocturnus: Nocturnal awakening with fear, restlessness and great excitement. Usually occurs in the first third of night sleep and lasts less than ten minutes. The person concerned can hardly be reassured by others, and there is often little memory of the experience.

Personality disorder: Permanent deviation from behavior assessed as “normal”. This shows up across many different situations as inflexible and rigid deviations in cognitions, emotions, dealing with needs and in social contacts. It usually begins in late childhood or adolescence.

Personality disorder, dependent (asthenic): When someone has found it difficult to make decisions, to express their own needs, to be alone, to be abandoned since childhood and in all areas of life. The person has an above-average tendency to submit to the needs and desires of others out of a feeling of helplessness.

Personality disorder, anankastic: When someone has had an obsessive compulsive need to obey order and rules since childhood and in all areas of life. The person may find it difficult to complete tasks or come to terms with other people poorly due to strong perfectionism. The person is often experienced as stubborn and stubborn and places performance principles above relationships or pleasure in their value. Much preoccupation with organizing and planning takes place out of feelings of strong doubt or concern.

Anxious-avoidant personality disorder (self-insecure): Persistent and cross-situational tension, anxiety, feelings of inferiority, insecurity and the conviction that you are socially awkward and rejected by others. Frequent avoidance of situations that require contact with others.

Antisocial (sociopathic) personality disorder: When someone has had little empathy for other people since childhood and in all areas of life and disregards social or societal norms. The person is barely able to maintain stable relationships. Aggressive or even violent behavior often occurs against the background of a low level of frustration tolerance. The person shows little insight, remorse and willingness to change their behavior.

Personality disorder, emotionally unstable: If someone shows either a very low tolerance for frustration, a moody mood and a high level of impulsiveness since childhood and in all areas of life (= impulsive type); So e.g. acts without thinking, therefore often gets into arguments and conflicts with others. Or if someone has tended to have a strong instability in self-image and relationships since childhood and in all areas of life (= borderline type). The person often feels empty, has a strong fear of abandonment, and therefore tends to engage in short, intense relationships. In the resulting frequent emotional crises, self-harming behavior occurs again and again.

Histrionic personality disorder: When someone has sought the center of attention in other people since childhood and in all areas of life, and therefore portrays himself in a dramatic or exaggerated manner.Outwardly, the person shows superficial, theatrical emotionality, may behave inappropriately seductive, but can easily be influenced by people and circumstances.

Personality disorder, paranoid: When someone has been very suspicious and sensitive to other people since childhood and in all areas of life. The person finds it difficult to deal with setbacks or criticism, and can poorly forgive others. Often there is a tendency to interpret the actions of others in such a hostile manner that the person is repeatedly experienced by others as contentious, self-centered and inappropriate in their behavior.

Personality Disorder, Schizoid: When someone has shown emotionally cool and indifferent behavior towards other people since childhood and in all areas of life. The person can barely experience joy, shows little interest in relationships, prefers to be self-absorbed, and has little interest in friendships. In social contexts, the person has little sense of norms and conventions.

Personality disorder, schizotypal: Profound behavioral deficit in the interpersonal or psychosocial area with conspicuous behavioral peculiarities, lack of ability to close relationships and distortions in thinking and perception.

Phobia: Strong fear of a certain object (e.g. spiders) or a certain situation (e.g. visit to the dentist), whereby the thought of it is usually enough to trigger strong fears. As a result, many people fear these fearful moments and develop pronounced avoidance strategies in order to escape the fear in the short term.

Phobia, social: Fear of social situations that involve interactions with other people. There are fears of being ridiculous, embarrassing, or humiliating in front of others. When the situation occurs or even thought about it, anxiety symptoms such as blushing, tremors or fear of vomiting occur. Often social situations are avoided as far as possible, which leads to a short-term reduction in fears, but can significantly affect lifestyle in the long term.

Phobia, specific: Clear and unfounded fear of certain situations, e.g. altitude, thunder, flying in airplanes, closed rooms, sight of blood or injuries. If such a situation cannot be avoided, anxiety symptoms such as palpitations, tremors, feelings of oppression, difficulty breathing, dizziness, feelings of lightheadedness and / or fear of loss of control occur.

Polyneuropathy: Generic term for diseases of the peripheral nerve fibers that are damaged in their function and structure. Normal transmission of stimuli can no longer take place, which is expressed in typical "plus" and "minus symptoms", especially in the feet and hands. The "plus symptoms" arise from abnormal stimulation of the nerve, eg tingling, burning, pain, etc., and the "minus symptoms", eg numbness, paralysis, etc., are based on a deficiency in the nerve transmission and indicate an advanced one Damage on. Diabetes mellitus, alcohol addiction or autoimmune diseases are assumed to be common causes.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Is characterized by intrusive memories of the traumatic event, the avoidance of similar situations and permanent tension or fears. A variety of methods are available for treating trauma, e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy or EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing).

Psyche: The “subjective” or “inner” side of human experience, whereby “conscious” and “unconscious” parts can be distinguished.

Psychiatrist: Doctor with specialist training in "psychiatry and neurology", mostly specialized in the drug-pharmacological treatment of mental disorders.

Mental disorder: An experience and behavior deviating from the norm that causes suffering in the person concerned. The disorder can affect thinking, feeling and also acting.

Psychoanalysis: Term for the treatment technique introduced by Sigmund Freud for psychoneurotic disorders through revealing interpretation and transference. Mental disorders are seen as an expression of an unconscious conflict based on the interaction between drive impulses and defense mechanisms.

Psychologist: Job title for people who have completed a university degree in psychology and are active in various fields of application, e.g. healthcare, business, research or administration.

Psychological psychotherapist: A psychologist who, after completing his university studies, has completed a scientifically based further education at a state-recognized training institute in accordance with the Psychotherapists Act. The further training takes place with different focuses, e.g. as a specialization for the treatment of adults or children / adolescents or with regard to the procedure, e.g. behavior therapy or depth psychology or psychoanalysis. The final state examination is followed by the license to practice medicine, i.e. permission to conduct psychotherapy independently.

Psychosis: Serious and generalized impairment of reality control associated with delusional or hallucinatory beliefs and ideas as well as disorientation. There is often no insight into the disorder.

Psychosomatic disorder: Long-term impairment of bodily functions through psychological stress (e.g. conflicts or life issues that appear insoluble).

Psychotropic substances: Substances that change perception. Long-term use can result in dependence. Examples are illegal drugs such as marijuana, ecstasy and heroin, but also legal substances such as alcohol, nicotine and caffeine.

Pyromania: Pathological arson

Rationalization: Process of intellectual or reasonable justification or search for rational reasons for the occurrence of an event

Rett Syndrome: Far-reaching developmental disorder, so far only diagnosed in girls with onset between the ages of 7 and 24. Month of life. There is partial or complete loss of speech, hyperventilation, stereotypes and loss of targeted hand movements. Head growth is slowed down, and there is a different degree of mental impairment.

Rumination: Brooding, circles of thought

Harmful use of psychotropic substances: Consumption of substances that affect the psyche (such as alcohol, cocaine, heroin, cannabis, caffeine, tobacco, sedatives, etc.) and lead to damage to health. This can be both physical (e.g. critically elevated liver values) and psychological consequences (e.g. depressive mood, interpersonal problems, anxiety disorder).

Schema therapy: A newer form of behavior therapy that supplements elements from psychodynamic concepts, gestalt, hypnotherapy and transactional analysis. Developed by Jeffrey E. Young based on Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy. Essential extensions are the therapeutic relationship design (limited parental care), the use of imaginations to correct early childhood experiences and the chair dialogue.

Schizophrenia: Serious mental illness, combined with a diverse, often dazzling mixture of hallucinations, delusions, formal thought disorders, affect disorders, ego disorders and psychomotor disorders.

Sleep disorders (non-organic): Sleep disorders in which emotional factors and psychosocial stress are assumed to be the cause.

Sleepwalking (somnambulism): A phenomenon in which the sleeper (usually in the first third of the night's sleep) leaves the bed, walks around or does activities without waking up. Typically, a sleepwalking episode only lasts a few minutes.

Pain disorder (persistent somatoform): Persistent, excruciating pain that cannot be adequately explained by physical and medical findings, but is related to psychosocial stress and emotional conflicts.

Sedatives: Sedatives.

Somatization disorder: Those affected suffer from multiple, changing and recurring physical complaints, without adequate medical organ findings being able to explain them. The symptoms have been present for at least two years and can be assigned to different parts of the body, including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular complaints, skin or pain symptoms. Different (specialist) doctors are often consulted. Due to the constant preoccupation with the body symptoms, there is significant suffering and impairment in everyday life.

Somatoform disorder: Generic term for mental disorders that are associated with physical symptoms without sufficient medical organ findings being able to be determined as the cause of the complaints.

Gambling addiction: Pathological desire to play, e.g. slot machines, card games, sports betting, internet / PC games or speculation on the stock market. Often the person concerned needs stronger and stronger "kicks" (higher effort, more risk). The strong focus on gaming often results in follow-up problems of a financial, social or professional nature.

Stupor: Motor immobility with given consciousness. Movements cannot be carried out or only slowly.

Addiction: Strong urge to consume an addiction-producing substance (substance-related addiction) or to engage in certain behavior (e.g. playing, eating). The voluntary control over one's own behavior is limited, tolerance development often occurs (dose increase), withdrawal symptoms (physical and / or psychological) and consequential problems when not consuming it, as the addictive behavior continues despite the negative consequences.

Symptom: Sign that indicates an illness, injury or disorder of the organism. The totality of all symptoms forms the symptomatology and gives a specific clinical picture. Symptoms form the basis for making a diagnosis.

Tobacco: Plant that contains the psychotropic agent nicotine.

Tic: Involuntary, independent movements of a muscle (e.g. frowning) or a muscle group (e.g. pulling down the corners of the mouth, jerky lateral head movement, scratching) that occur at irregular intervals and that start suddenly and serve no apparent purpose.

Depth Psychology: The view that experience and behavior in the depths of the unconscious are based on processes of instinctual regulation and conflict processing, which are expressed in failures and dreams, in extreme cases in neurotic disorders and which can be uncovered through interpretative interpretations (psychoanalysis or related methods).

Tourette syndrome: Chronic disorder, which can only be controlled for a short time with the greatest effort of will, which already begins in childhood with numerous tic-like automatic movements and is later associated with situation-independent and purpose-free language production (e.g. the repeated uttering of meaningless or offensive words)

Trauma: An event that is catastrophic in scale and so severe that it can result in a mental disorder. The sequelae are referred to either as an acute stress reaction or, if they last longer than 6 months, as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is when uncomfortable memories of the event keep coming in, when the person tries to avoid situations that could raise those memories and when there is persistent tension or anxiety.

Trichotillomania: Impulse control disorder characterized by the compulsive urge to pull out your own hair (scalp hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, etc.).

Behavior Therapy: Term for scientifically sound and evaluated procedures for changing dysfunctional behavior. Behavior does not only mean the externally visible behavior, e.g. in social interactions, but also thoughts (cognitions), feelings (emotions) as well as the self-image and worldview. Originally based on the laws of learning, behavior therapy has undergone constant further development, e.g. in cognitive therapy (e.g. for the treatment of depression) as well as in the more recent methods of the so-called "third wave", in mindfulness, acceptance and work with the body ( Embodiement) were integrated.

Delusion: Serious and generalized impairment of reality control associated with delusional or hallucinatory beliefs and ideas as well as disorientation. Usually there is no insight into the disorder.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Affected people have to keep thinking certain things (obsessive thoughts) or performing rituals (compulsive actions, e.g. washing hands), which they themselves find exaggerated and stressful. However, the compulsive impulses cannot be stopped, which has a considerable negative impact on the quality of life.