What is Euglena's locomotion

Euglena mutabilis

The kind Euglena mutabilis matters within the familyEuglenaceae to the genus of the eye animals (Euglena). The species is monotypic, therefore no subspecies are known.

description

Appearance and dimensions

Euglena mutabilis reaches a length of about 70.0 to 170.0 micrometers and a width of about 25.0 to 36.0 micrometers. The cells are cylindrical, rounded at the front and tapering at the back. The membrane is striped in a spiral. The nucleus is located at the back. The emergent scourge is longer than the body. On the front one can see the emergent flagellum, the flagellar canal, the stigma and the flagellar pockets. The eye spot is 7.0 microns in diameter. Many spindle-shaped chloroplasts are aligned with numerous ligaments. Furthermore, there are numerous hematochromic granules. The paramylum body (reserve material that is used as an energy reserve) is egg-shaped (Kudo, 1966). The disc-shaped plastids, more than 10 (up to 100), are located below the surface.

Way of life

Euglena mutabilis resembles a worm that rarely swims and moves mostly crawling. The green flagellates occur in large numbers in ponds and streams polluted by acidic drainage from coal mines, which have a pH value of 1.8. Since it is assumed that the eye animals can only survive in fresh water, this species can also live in strongly acidic streams.
Euglena mutabilis
Euglena mutabilis tolerates a higher hydrogen ion concentration for survival and growth than all protozoa in pure culture already reported.

distribution

Euglena mutabilis occurs worldwide and lives in moors and ponds with acidic water. The species has a very short flagellum and moves in a creeping manner.

nutrition

The diet is heterotrophic, i. H. they temporarily reduce the chlorophyll and live on organic substances that are absorbed by pinocytosis. When there is enough sunlight through phototrophy, the species uses chloroplasts, which contain the pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, to produce sugars through photosynthesis. The chloroplasts of Euglena are surrounded by three membranes, while the chloroplasts of plants and green algae have only two membranes. This fact is a morphological indication that the chloroplasts differ from Euglena from a eukaryotic green algae. So there is a fascinating similarity between Euglena and the plants, but not because of their relationship, but because of a secondary endosymbiosis. Molecular phylogenetic analyzes support this hypothesis and is now widely accepted. The chloroplasts contain pyrenoids. The pyrenoid is used to deposit reserve substances and enables this species to survive in times of deprivation.

Reproduction

Euglena mutabilis

Euglena mutabilis experiences an asexual increase. This is the simple and common method of asexual reproduction called binary splitting. Although there are some characteristics in the animals, there is no sexual reproduction. The transverse division includes mitosis (indirect nucleus division), whereby the eukaryotic cell (cell with nucleus) divides the chromosomes into two identically separated nuclei. Therefore, the result is a transverse division of two daughter cells that are genetically identical to one another. The binary splitting of the cell nucleus, the chloroplasts and the basal bodies are halved and then the entire organism is separated in the middle. The division of the cytoplasm creates two daughter cells, each of which has almost the same size and genetic composition as the parent. These daughter cells continue to grow and separate again. The simple cytoplasmic division goes through each level and the transverse division of the cytoplasm coincides with the transverse axis of the organism and the longitudinal division passes through the plane of the cytoplasm. Depending on the level of cytoplasmic division, the binary division occurs into three categories and coincides with the longitudinal axis of the organism. Therefore, it represses itself Euglena mutabilis asexual by the longitudinal division or passes lengthwise through the binary division.

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Literature and sources

Page Categories: Euglenaceae