In phonology what is secondary stress

Stress and Vowel Reduction in English - Stress and vowel reduction in English

Stress is a prominent feature of the English language, both at the word level (lexical stress) as well as at the level of the phrase or sentence (prosodic stress) . The lack of stress on a syllable, or in some cases on a word, is often associated with vowel reduction in English - many such syllables are pronounced with a centralized vowel (schwa) or with certain other vowels described as "reduced" ( or sometimes with a syllable consonant as a syllable core instead of a vowel). Various phonological analyzes exist for these phenomena.

Lexical and prosodic stress

Lexical stress (word stress) is considered phonemic in English. The position of stress is generally unpredictable and can be used to distinguish words. For example, the words are different Insight and incitement in pronunciation only by the stressed syllable. In the Insight emphasis is placed on the first syllable; and in incitement second. Similarly, the noun and the verb increase are made up by placing the stress in the same way - this is an example of an initial stress-derived noun. In addition, lexical stress, even within a certain sequence of letters and a certain part of the language, can distinguish between different words or between different meanings of the same word (depending on theoretical differences about what constitutes a particular word): for example, initial stress pronunciations of offensive / ˈƆfɛns / and defense / ˈDifɛns / in American English denote sport-specific concepts, while pronunciations with an emphasis on the respective second syllable of the words ( offensive / əˈfɛns / and defense / dəˈfɛns /) denote concepts related to the law (and) for which defense , the military) and in sport only as borrowed from the legal field in connection with the assessment of rule violations. British English stresses the second syllable in both athletic and legal fields.

Some words appear in dictionaries with two levels of stress: primary and secondary. For example, the RP pronunciation can be the organization as / ˌɔːɡənaɪˈzeɪʃən /, where the fourth syllable is stressed primarily, the first syllable is stressed secondarily and the remaining syllables are not stressed. For information on different methods of analyzing stress levels in English, see § Degree of Lexical Stress below.

English also has relatively high levels of prosodic stress - certain words within a phrase or sentence are given extra stress to highlight the information they convey. It is also said that there is a natural "tonic stress" that falls on the last stressed syllable of a prosodic unit - see below under § Descriptions with only one stress level.

English is called stress-driven language classified, which means that there is a tendency to speak in such a way that the stressed syllables occur at approximately equal intervals. See Isochrony § Stress Timing.

Reduced vowels

Certain vowels in English are strongly associated with the absence of stress: they appear almost exclusively in unstressed syllables; and vice versa, most (if not all) unstressed syllables contain one of these tones. These are as known reduced vowels and tend to be characterized by characteristics such as brevity, negligence and central position. The exact set of reduced vowels depends on the dialect and the speaker. The most important are described in the following sections.

Black and r-colored black

Schwa, [ə], is the most common reduced vowel in English. It can be spelled out orthographically by one of the vowel letters, like that a in a bout , the e in synth e sis , the O in harm O ny , the u in medi u m , the i in dec i times and the y in s y rings (although the last two are pronounced as a nearly closed vowel by some speakers - see the following section).

In many rhotic dialects, an r-colored schwa, [ɚ] occurs in words like Wat he and stand ar d. Non-Rhotic dialects simply have black in these positions, except when the dialect has a concatenation of R. The r-colored schwa can be analyzed phonemically as / ər /.

Reduced vowels in the near unrounded area

In some dialects of English, a distinction is made between two vowel heights of reduced vowels: In addition to schwa, there is a distinct near central unrounded vowel [ɪ̈] (or equivalent [ɨ̞]). In the British phonetic tradition, this vowel is represented with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩, and in the American tradition ⟨ɨ⟩. An example of a minimal pair that contrasts these two reduced vowels is Ros a 's against Ros e s : The a in pink is a schwa while that e in Roses (for speakers who make the distinction) which is nearly near vowel. See weak vowel fusion.

This vowel is sometimes called informally Schwi In analogy to called schwa .

Like schwa, the spelling of [ɪ̈] does not correspond to a single vowel letter. It can be represented by a (for example you a ge [mɛsɪ̈dʒ], Clim a te [klaɪmɪ̈t], or a nge [ɒɹɪ̈ndʒ]), e ( pupp e t ), i ( lim i t ), u ( min u te ) or y ( pole y p ).

Among the speakers who make this distinction, the distributions of schwa and [ɪ] are very variable, and in many cases both are in free variation: the i in December i times , for example, can be pronounced with any tone. A symbology convention recently introduced by Oxford University Press for some of their English dictionaries uses the non-IPA symbol "compound" ⟨ᵻ⟩ () in words that can be pronounced with either [ɪ̈] or schwa. For example that will noted Word / ˈnəʊtᵻd / transcribed.

The last vowel of words like happy y and coff ee is a not more stressed, unrounded vowel, most commonly represented with [i], although some dialects (including the more traditional received pronunciation) may have [ɪ]. This [i] was previously identified with the phoneme / iː / as in FLEECE. Please refer happy Tension. However, some contemporary reports consider it a symbol of a narrow front vowel that is neither the KIT nor the FLEECE vowel. it occurs in contexts where the contrast between these vowels is neutralized; These contexts include an unstressed pre-vocal position within the word, such as B. react / riˈækt /. However, for some speakers there is a contrast between this vowel and / ɪ / in such pairs as Taxis vs. Taxes and educated vs. Studded . See English phonology: § Unstressed syllables under § Vowels .

Reduced vowels in the tightly rounded area

According to Bolinger (1986: 347-360), there is a reduced rounded phoneme / ɵ / as in Willow / wɪlɵ /, omission / ɵmɪʃən / and thus to form a three-way difference Willa / wɪlə / and Willie / wɪlɨ / or with a mission / ə ˈmɪʃən / and emission / ɨˈmɪʃən /.

The vowel is sometimes called informal schwu In analogy to called schwa .

Analogous to the ⟨ᵻ⟩ symbol mentioned above, Oxford University Press developed the non-IPA symbol ⟨ᵿ⟩ to represent a vowel that can be either / ʊ / or / ə / in free variation. For example can dreadful / ˈƆːfᵿl / can be pronounced / ˈɔːfəl / or / ˈɔːfʊl /. Phonologically, this vowel is an archiphoneme that represents the neutralization of / ʊ / and / ə /.

A rounded vowel [u], corresponding to the [i] happY Vowel, is widely used in British works for words such as Influence u ENCE / ɪnfluəns /, int O / ɪntu /. Phonologically, this vowel is an archiphoneme that represents the neutralization of / uː / and / ʊ /.

Syllable consonants

The other sounds that can serve as the apex of reduced syllables are the syllable consonants. When these occur, there is a syllable without a vowel. The consonants that can be syllables in English are mainly / l /, / m / and / n /. For example it can le in cyc le and Bott le can be a syllabic / l / that m in price m can be a syllabic / m /, and that on in price on can be a syllabic / n /. In rhotic accents / ɜr / and / ər / are also realized as syllables [ɹ] or [ɻ].

A syllable consonant can be analyzed phonologically either as a consonant or as consisting of an underlying Schwa followed by the consonant. For example, the cycle phonemized either as / ˈsaɪkl / or / ˈsaɪkəl /. If a syllable consonant occurs, an alternative pronunciation is also possible. As the le in cyc le speak some people pronounce the black and the dark l while others only pronounce the dark l.

Unstressed full vowels

All full (non-reduced) vowels can occur in the unstressed position (except for theoretical approaches where syllables containing such vowels are routinely assigned secondary or tertiary tension - see § Degree of Lexical Tension below). Some examples of words with unstressed syllables, which are often pronounced with full vowels in the received pronunciation, are given below (the pronunciation may be different in other English variants).

  • Unreduced short vowels: / ɛ / in the last syllable of the Document, when used as a verb (compare the / ə / heard when the word is used as a noun); / æ / in the first syllable of the Ambition ; / ɒ / in the second syllable of neon ; / ʌ / in words with the negative prefix U.N- , e.g. B. unknown (compare / ə / in to ).
  • Long vowels: / ɑː / in the last syllable of the granny ; / ɔː / in the last syllable of the Outlaws ; / uː / in tofu ; / ɜː / in the noun convert ; / iː / in Manatee . Note that this last is in contrast to the lucky ones Vowel can stand at the end of the Humanity is to be found . This contrast is described below under § Distinctions between reduced and non-reduced vowels.
  • Diphthongs: / eɪ / am Monday ; / əʊ / im piano ; / aʊ / in Discount ; / aɪ / in idea ; / ɔɪ / in royale .

Full vowels can often be found in unstressed syllables in compound words, as in bedsh ee t , moonl i t , tentp e G , snowm one n and kettledr u m . However, in some well-established connections, the vowel of the unloaded part may be reduced, as in post man / ˈPəʊstmən /.

Many other unstressed vowels have historically come from stressed vowels that are due to temporal shifts of stress (e.g., to the shift of stress from the last syllable of French loanwords such as ballet and office in British English) or on the loss or change of stress in compound words or phrases (as in óverseas vóyage of Overseas or óverséas plus Vóyage ). However, there is a tendency for such vowels to be reduced over time, especially in common words.

With vowels represented as ⟨ɪ⟩ and ⟨ʊ⟩, it can be difficult to determine whether they represent a full vowel or a reduced vowel. One word that illustrates the contrast is that chauvinism , the first being i the reduced vowel is / ɨ / and the second is not reduced / ɪ /.

Lexical stress level

Descriptions with primary and secondary stress

In many phonological approaches and in many dictionaries, English is presented with two levels of stress: primary and secondary. In every lexical word and in some grammatical words, a syllable is identified as being primarily stressed, although in monosyllabic words the stress is generally unchecked. In addition, longer words can have one or more syllables that are emphasized as secondary. Syllables that have neither primary nor secondary stress are said to be unstressed.

In transcriptions of the International Phonetic Alphabet, primary stress is denoted by ˈ and secondary stress by ˌ. IPA stress marks are placed before the stressed syllable. When quoting words in English spelling, primary stress is sometimes indicated with an acute accent and secondary stress with a heavy accent over the vowel of the stressed syllable.

Secondary stress is often indicated in the following cases:

  • For words where the primary stress falls on the third syllable or later, it is normal for the secondary stress to be marked on one of the first two syllables of the word. In words where the primary tension falls on the third syllable, the secondary tension usually falls on the first syllable rather than the second. For example have " Interjéction " and " Voluútion " their primary stress on the third syllable and their secondary stress on the first syllable. However, for certain words with a primary stress on the third syllable, the second syllable may have a secondary stress that corresponds to the primary stress of a shorter related word or base. For example can electricity is pronounced by some speakers with secondary voltage on the second syllable ( ELECTRICITY ), corresponding to the primary voltage in ELECTRIC . In words where the primary stress falls on the fourth syllable or later, the position of the secondary stress on either the first or second syllable often corresponds to the position of the primary stress in a shorter related word or base. For example have òrganizátion and assòciátion who both have a primary stress on the fourth syllable, a secondary stress on the first and second syllable, respectively: the same positions as the primary stress on the first syllable of to organize and the second syllable of associate .
  • In words in which the primary tension falls from the end to the third or fourth syllable, a following syllable can be marked with secondary tension.
  • In many compound words in which part of the connection is more pronounced; here the stressed syllable of the protruding part of the connection is marked with primary tension, while the stressed syllable of the other part can be marked with secondary tension. For example còunterintélligence [ˌKaʊntər.ɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəns] and cóunterfòil [ˈKaʊntərˌfɔɪl]. Dictionaries are not always consistent, especially if the secondary voltage came after the primary voltage - for example, the foil of Counter-leaf Transcribed in Merriam-Webster dictionaries with secondary voltage, but not in the OED, although both assign secondary voltage to secondary voltage counter of Counterintelligence.
  • In some dictionaries (especially American ones), all syllables that contain a full (not reduced) vowel are assigned at least secondary stress, even if they come after the primary stress (as in the Counter foil Example above). Bolinger (1986: 358-360) notes that such dictionaries use the secondary tension sign to distinguish full vowels from reduced vowels in unstressed syllables because they may not have unique symbols for reduced vowels. John Wells notes, "Some analysts (Americans in particular) argue [...] that the presence of a strong [= full] vowel is sufficient evidence that the syllable in question is stressed. In British tradition we consider it not stressed. "

Note that this latter group of syllables are those assigned to tertiary tension in the approach described in the next section.

Descriptions with primary, secondary and tertiary stress

Some theories have described English as having three levels of stress: primary, secondary and tertiary (in addition to the non-stressed level, which in this approach can also be called quaternary stress). For example our examples would be ²coun.ter.³in.¹ and ¹coun.ter.³foil. Exact treatments vary, but it is common for tertiary stress to be assigned to those syllables that, while not receiving primary or secondary stress, do receive them nonetheless complete Contains vowels (unreduced vowels, that is, those that do not belong to the reduced vowels listed in the previous section). Dictionaries generally do not denote tertiary tension, but as mentioned above, some of them treat all syllables with unreduced vowels as at least secondary stress.

Descriptions with only one stress level

Phoneticists like Peter Ladefoged have found that it is possible to describe English with just one degree of stress, as long as unstressed syllables are phonemically distinguished for vowel reduction. According to this view, the set multiple levels, whether primary-secondary or primary-secondary-tertiary, are only phonetic details and not a real phonemic burden. They report that the alleged secondary (or tertiary) stress in English is often not characterized by the increase in respiratory activity normally associated with primary stress in English or with any stress in other languages. In their analysis, an English syllable can be either stressed or unstressed, and when unstressed the vowel can be either full or reduced. This is all that is required for phonemic treatment.

The difference between what is usually referred to as primary and secondary stress is explained in this analysis by the observation that the last stressed syllable in a normal prosodic unit receives additional intonational or "tonic" stress. Since a word that is spoken in isolation is cited (such as when a lexicographer determines which syllables to stress) receives this additional tonic stress, it appears to be inherent in the word itself, rather than derived from the utterance, in that the word occurs. (The tonic burden may appear elsewhere than on the last stressed syllable if the speaker is using contrast media or some other prosody.)

This combination of lexical stress, phrase or clause-closing prosody and the lexical reduction of some unstressed vowels creates the impression of multiple stress levels. In Ladefoged's approach, our examples are phonemically called cóunterintélligence /ˈKaʊntər.ɪnˈtɛlɪdʒəns/ with two stressed syllables and cóunterfoil / ˈKaʊntərfɔɪl / transcribed with a. In citation form or at the end of a prosodic unit (marked with [‖]), additional stress arises from the utterance, which is not inherent in the words themselves: cóunterin tel ligence [ˈKaʊntər.ɪnˈˈtɛlɪdʒəns‖] and cóun terfoil [ˈˈKaʊntərfɔɪl‖].

To determine where the actual lexical stress is in a word, one can try to put the word in a phrase with other words before and after, with no pauses in between to pronounce to eliminate the effects of tonic stress: in the còunterintèlligence commúnity, z For example, one can put secondary (ie lexical) stress on two syllables of the Listen to counter-espionage, since the primary (tonic) stress is on the Community has relocated.


The following table summarizes the relationships between the above analyzes of stress level in English: Ladefoged's binary account (which only detects a level of lexical stress), a quaternary account (which detects primary, secondary and tertiary stress) and typical dictionary approaches (which detects primary and recognize secondary stress, although their interpretations of secondary stress vary).

description example Binary
Quaternary approach Dictionary approaches
The best known syllable when speaking a word alone. organ za tion Stressed Primary stress Primary stress
Other phonetically distinctive syllables in a word. or organization Secondary stress Secondary stress
Other syllables with unreduced vowels. Counter foil Unencumbered Tertiary stress Secondary stress (esp. US) or unstressed
Syllables with reduced vowels. counts he foil Not stressed (quaternary stress) Unencumbered

As discussed in the section above, the binary report explains the distinction between "primary" and "secondary" stress that results from the prosodic, tonic stress that naturally falls on the last stressed syllable in a unit. It also recognizes the distinction between unstressed syllables with full vowels and unstressed syllables with reduced vowels, but regards this as a difference that involves vowel reduction rather than stress.

Differentiation between reduced and non-reduced vowels

As mentioned in the previous section, some linguists make a phonemic distinction between syllables that contain reduced vowels (as listed above - syllable consonants are also included in this category) and those that, while phonetically unstressed, still contain a full (unreduced) . Vocal. In some analyzes, syllables of the latter type are ascribed secondary tension (those of the former type are considered completely unstressed), while in others the reduced / unreduced distinction is seen as one of vowel quality that does not involve a voltage difference. This last approach is followed by linguists such as Ladefoged and Bolinger, who therefore believe that there are two "levels" of vowels in English, full and reduced.

A distinction of this kind can be used for analyzing a possible contrast between words such as humanity , Chicory , Tremble and Manatee , Chickaree , Shivaree come in handy . If a separate set of reduced vowels is adopted, the former can end with / ɨ / while the latter can end with an unreduced / iː /. Another example for some speakers is the words Farrow and Pharaoh . The former can end with a reduced / ɵ /, while the latter can end with the unreduced / oʊ /. Alternatively, these reduced vowels can be analyzed as instances of the same phonemes as full vowels. In this case, it may be the phonemic secondary voltage that distinguishes these words.

Reduced vowel set Secondary stress No distinction
trembling - shivaree / ˈƩɪvərɨ - ˈʃɪvəriː / / ˈƩɪvəriː - ˈʃɪvəˌriː / / ˈƩɪvəriː / (both)
Farrow - Pharaoh / ˈFærɵ - ˈfæroʊ / / ˈFæroʊ - ˈfæˌroʊ / / ˈFæroʊ / (both)

Some linguists have observed phonetic consequences of vowel reduction that go beyond the pronunciation of the vowel itself. Bolinger (1986) notes that a preceding unvoiced stop is likely to maintain its striving before an unstressed full vowel, but not before a reduced vowel; and that the flutter of / t / and / d / in American English is possible before a reduced vowel, but not before a full vowel. Hence that would be / t / in Manatee an aspirated [tʰ], while that in the mankind unaspirated [t] or a flap [ɾ]. Wells (1990) explains such phenomena by claiming that in the absence of morphemic boundaries or phonotactic restrictions, a consonant between a full and a reduced vowel generally belongs to the syllable with the full vowel, while a consonant between two reduced vowels belongs to the preceding syllable . After this analysis, Manatee is /mæn.ə.tiː/ and the mankind is /hjʊ.mæn.ᵻt.i/; it is then asserted that unvoiced stops are only sucked in at the beginning of syllables and / t / can only be fluttered at the end of a syllable (as in I could /maɪt.aɪ/ → [mʌɪɾaɪ] against my tie / maɪ. taɪ / → [maɪtʰaɪ]).

Change between full and reduced vowels

It is a feature of English that reduced vowels often alternate with full vowels: a particular word or morpheme can be pronounced with a reduced vowel in some cases and a full vowel in other cases, usually depending on the degree of stress (lexical or prosodic ). given.

Change depending on the lexical stress

When the stress pattern of words changes, the vowels in certain syllables can switch between full and reduced. For example, in the photography and photography where the first syllable is stressed (at least secondary) and the second syllable is not stressed, the first O with a full vowel (the diphthong of GOAT) and the second O pronounced with a reduced vowel (schwa). In the photography and at taking photos , where the stress shifts to the second syllable, the first syllable now contains schwa, while the second syllable contains a full vowel (that of LOT).

Change depending on the meaning

There are a number of English verb-adjective pairs that are characterized solely by vowel reduction. For example, in some dialects, the separation as a verb (as in "What separates nation from nation") a complete ending vowel [ˈsɛpəreɪt], while the corresponding adjective (as in "They sleep in separate rooms") has a reduced vowel: [ˈsɛpərət] or [ˈsɛprət]. A distinction between a verb and a noun can be made in a similar way as in the case of a Document (pronounced with a schwa in the last syllable of the noun and sometimes pronounced with a full vowel / ɛ / in the last syllable of the verb). Finally, differences in syllable loading and vowel reduction (or the lack of the latter) can distinguish between meanings even within a particular part of the language, with the most well-known pairs being in American English attack and Defense are (each with the first syllable) accentuated in the context of sport and the second syllable accentuated in the legal context).

Change depending on the type of pronunciation

In some words, reducing a vowel depends on how quickly or carefully the speaker pronounces the word. For example that will O in obscene usually reduced to schwa, but with more careful pronunciation it can also be pronounced as a full vowel (that of LOT). Compare this to that O in gallon which is never a full vowel, no matter how carefully you pronounce it.

Weak and strong word forms

Some monosyllabic English function words have one weak form with a reduced vowel, which is used when the word has no prosodic load, and a phonemically different one strong form with a full vowel that is used when the word is stressed (and as a citation or isolation form when a word is mentioned on its own). For many such words, the strong form is also used when the word comes at the end of a sentence or phrase.

An example of such a word is the modal verb can . If you appear unstressed within a sentence and rule a verb (like i can do it ), the weak form / kən / is used. However, the strong form / kæn / is used:

  • when the word is stressed: I did not to have to do it, but I do can do it
  • If the word is final, i.e. without a regulated verb: We won't, but you can if you want
  • when the word is referred to in isolation: The verb "can" is one of the English modalities.

For most words with such alternate forms, the weak form is much more common (since functional words relatively rarely receive prosodic stress). This is especially true for the English article the , a , a , The strong forms are only used in normal sentences on the rare occasions when definiteness or indefiniteness is emphasized: Did you find the cat? I have a [eɪ] Cat found. (i.e. maybe not the one you were referring to). The weak form the is usually [di] in front of a vowel starting word ( the Apple ), but [də] before an initial consonant word ( the pear ), although this distinction is lost in the United States. A similar distinction is sometimes made with to : to Oxford [do] vs. to Cambridge [tə].

The exact amount of weak-form words depends on the dialect and the speaker. The following is a list of nouns of this type in the received pronunciation:

Always reduced:
a , a , and , becomes , been , but , he , you , him , be , just , I , or , you , as , that (as a connection), the , you , we , we , the , you , Your .
Reduced, but emphasized at the end of a sentence:
as , at , For , of , of , to , some , There .
Reduced, but emphasized at the end of a sentence and with the negative when concluding a contract Not :
Clock , are , can , could , to do , does , would have , Has , to have , got to , should , should , was , were , become , would .

In most of the above words, the weak form contains schwa or a syllable consonant in the case of those ending with / l /, / m / or / n /. But in be , he , I , you , we , been , he the vowel can be the reduced form / ɪ / or also [i]; and in do , who , you it can be the reduced form of / ʊ / or [u]. (For the and to , see above.) These different tones are described in the § Reduced Vowels section above.

The weak form from that is only used for the conjunction or the relative pronoun ( I said you can; the man you saw ) and not for the demonstrative pronoun or adjective ( put that down; i like this color ).

Another common word with a reduced form is our but this is inferred by smoothing rather than vowel reduction.

Other words that have weak forms in many styles of English are Your (weakly pronounced as [jə] or [jɚ] in rhotic accents) and my (pronounced [mɨ] or [mi]). These are sometimes given the eye dialect spellings yer and me .

Weak forms can be avoided in highly formal registers with overly careful pronunciation. An example is singing, where strong forms can be used almost exclusively, apart from (usually) from a although weak forms can be used more often as the tempo increases and the note values ​​shorten.

The vowel reduction in weak forms is accompanied by other sound changes, such as h-dropping, consonant elision and assimilation. For example and can by assimilation with a following velar like at Lock and key can be reduced to [ən] or only to the syllable consonant [n] or [ŋ]. Also compare certain article reductions.

Acts synchronously ' em [əm] as a weak form of them although historically it is derived from another pronoun, Old English hem .

The homonymy that results from using some of the weak forms can create confusion when writing. the identity of the weak forms to have and of sometimes leads to misspellings such as "would from", "could from" etc. for would have , would have etc.

Weak English forms are different from the clitic forms found in some languages, which are words fused with an adjacent word, like Italian Mangiarla "to-eat-it".

See also




  • Bolinger, Dwight (1986), Intonation and its parts: melody in spoken English , Stanford University Press, ISBN
  • Celce-Murcia, Marianne; Brinton, Donna M .; Goodwin, Janet M. (1996), Teach Pronunciation: A reference for English teachers to speakers of other languages , Cambridge University Press, ISBN
  • Hirst; Di Cristo (1998), Intonation Systems: An Overview of Twenty Languages
  • Jones, D .; Roach, Peter; Setter, J .; Esling, J. (2011), English Pronouncing Dictionary, 18th ed. , Cambridge University Press
  • Katalin (2008), English dialectology for beginners
  • Knight, Rachael-Anne Knight (2012), Phonetics- A course book , Cambridge University Press
  • Kreidler, Charles (2004), The pronunciation of English , Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2006), A course in phonetics , Thomson
  • Garcia Lecumberri, M. Luisa (2000), English transcription course , Oxford University Press US, ISBN
  • McCully, C. (2009), The Sound Structure of English , Cambridge University Press
  • Roach, Peter (2009), English Phonetics and Phonology, 4th ed. , Cambridge University Press
  • Upton, C; Kretzschmar; Konopka (2001), Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English , Oxford University Press
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English , Volume 2: The British Isles (pp. I-xx, 279-466), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-52128540-2
  • Wells, John C. (1990), "Syllabification and Allophony," in Ramsaran, Susan (Ed.), Studies in the Pronunciation of English , Pp. 76-86
  • Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed. , Longman
  • Wells, John C. (2012-06-07), HappY Again , accessed on July 31, 2015