Did Napoleon inherit or undermine the French Revolution?

University and City Library Cologne

USB Cologne catalog room G 3402

Pamphlets on the Brabant and Liège Revolution

and the following years

edited by

Bruno Haak

The printed manuscript is in the catalog room of the USB Cologne, location: G 3402.
The leaflets themselves can be ordered for use in the reading room at the reading room counter.


The present inventory catalog shows the form and content of the individual and collective publications of the 'Sammlung Alff', which the University and City Library of Cologne received from the Bremen history professor Dr. Alff and the cataloging of which was co-financed by the German Research Foundation. Unfortunately, the history of this collection cannot be reconstructed, as corresponding inquiries in Bremen went unanswered.

The vast majority of the collection consists of pamphlets and comprises 618 bibliographical units. Some of the fonts are bound - they are the fonts with the signature sequence Alff.A (current document number) to Alff.J (current document number) excluding the letters F and I. Most of them Unbound issues are given the signature Alff.K (current document no.)

The content of the pamphlets and a few newspaper editions refer to the revolutionary events in the Austrian Netherlands and the Principality of Liège at the end of the 18th century. A few pamphlets date from the beginning of the 19th century. The focus is on the years 1790 and 1791. The density of pamphlets for 1791 is remarkable in the context of this collection.

The number of pamphlets published during the Brabant and Liège Revolutions is estimated at several thousand, so that only a small section of the pamphlet literature is gathered here. The time span spans from 1781 to around 1825.

Thematically, the pamphlets encompass the whole spectrum of the disputes, discussions and reform proposals of this time. The many documents on the question of the legality of the Brabant Council in 1791 are striking. The volume Alff.C essentially contains pamphlets on the memorandum of Grand Duke Leopold of March 2nd, 1790 and the Emperor's Frankfurt Declaration of October 14th, 1790. The volume Alff.E reflects the conflicts in Brussels during the first French occupation in 1792/93. The volume Alff.G contains only writings on the question of the civil oath on the French Republic. The disputes over the general seminar in Leuven are only documented in a few writings; the collection, however, contains an edition of the declaration of the Archbishop of Mechelen, Cardinal Franckenberg, on the orthodoxy of doctrine at the Löwener General Seminary of June 26, 1789. Although there is no copy of Vonck's 'Considérations impartiales' in the collection, the lesser-known publication 'Redenvoering ...' from 1792 by Vonck can be found in the collection. The document by d'Outrepont, 'Qu'allons-nous devenir', which was so important for the controversy over the Brabant Constitution, is in the collection as an edition from 1789. Economic issues are also discussed in some pamphlets. The numerous diatribes and ridiculous pamphlets give an insight into the state of mind of the Belgians at that time.

The directory, the core of which is the content summaries of each individual font, was created according to the following criteria:

It was recorded according to bibliographic units. The reason for this lies in the fact that, without extensive comparative material, it is difficult to decide whether the writings that are apparently only bound are not a collective publication after all. Multiple copies that apparently belonged to one edition were grouped together in one entry using a slash (e.g. No. 157/158). In the case of bilingual editions, bound documents or single-sided, unpaginated double-sheet prints which contain a separate title on each printed page and which can be assumed to have either appeared as separate publications or are listed under their second title in other catalogs the title incorporated into the catalog with reference to the main font.

As far as is known, the author or publisher is placed in front of each font in square brackets. If there was no reference to the author, nothing was recorded. Pseudonyms and collective terms were recorded in the following form: [anonymous, 'PSEUDONYM':]. Author names and corporate bodies were usually translated into French and normalized. As far as technically possible, the title of each pamphlet was recorded diplomatically faithfully. This also applies to all information on the signature, censorship, authentication or the date on which the text was written at the end of a letter. If the title page is missing or if single or double page prints are made, the beginning of the text was also noted. In this way, the fonts, whose titles are often identical, can be better differentiated.

The title recording is followed by the collation. The dates were made according to the principle of the earliest possible publication. This ensures a certain consistency in the often uncertain dating.

The sequence of signatures in the scripts was reproduced as it was presented in the respective script. A title sheet, which encompasses the entire writing like an envelope, was noted as follows: (t), ..., (). It can happen that the last sheet still bears a signature, which is then put in brackets, e.g. (t), ..., (E). If this notation appears in the following form (), ..., (), combined with the statement 'Broschur' at the end of the collation, this means that the first page of the font is unprinted. This notation was introduced in order to be able to distinguish these prints from prints that show a sheet with the signature X2 at the end of the script.

The fingerprint was not given, as it is too insecure to use and too imprecise for many shorthands. In addition, there are further developments today that appear to be more promising, but without being able to be used in this catalog.

The content information, which always contains a subjective element, could be freely designed, as there were no specifications whatsoever. The summaries that my predecessor had already written were recreated based on deeper knowledge. On the one hand, the workload increased, on the other hand, the contents could be standardized. The contents are structured in such a way that they first name the topic or the reason for the publication. Then the content of the text is summarized on the basis of the content structure. Comments were generally avoided. In spite of this, the way in which the script was written is noted in some places or an indication of the classification of the script is given.

Regarding the terminology, it should be said that for the sake of simplicity the Austrian Netherlands has been referred to as Belgium. In order to avoid listing the titles (e.g. Duke of Brabant etc.) the term Kaiser was always used for the Austrian rulers.

I owe special thanks not only to Dr. Klinger, who contributed the summaries for the Latin scripts.

References to the documents in other libraries or inventories had to be dispensed with, as there was no sufficient opportunity to inspect other pamphlet collections on site over a longer period of time and the few lists of Belgian pamphlets of this time often describe the documents too imprecisely to make a specific assignment to be able to.

The often undated prints have been arranged in alphabetical order to facilitate orientation. Articles are not considered to be classification words. In addition to the alphabetical order, there is a register following the catalog section, which lists the fonts in chronological order with a reference to the serial number. An author and pseudonym register concludes the volume.

Since a literature list had to be dispensed with, the following publications are mentioned here, with the help of which one can get an initial overview of the Brabant Revolution. The monograph by H. Schlitter, 'The government of Josef II in the Austrian Netherlands', is still indispensable for the German reader. Vienna, 1900. Fundamental are the Belgian history of H. Pirenne and the writings of Suzanne Tassier, of which the following monograph is indicated: Suzanne Tassier, 'Les démocrates belges de 1789. Étude sur le vonckisme et la révolution brabançonne.' Brussels 1930. This work has been reprinted on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the Brabant Revolution. The anthology 'Actes du Colloque sur la révolution brabançonne 13-14 octobre 1983' illuminates various aspects of the Brabant Revolution. ed. by J. Lorette, P. Lefevre and P. de Gryse, Brussels 1984. Janet L. Polasky presented her revised dissertation in 1985 under the title, 'Revolution in Brussels 1787-1793', Brussels 1985. This small selection of literature can of course only offer an incentive for further occupation with the topic and many works of equal rank must be disregarded here.

There is no discussion of the term pamphlet, although some new aspects for defining the pamphlet have been found in the work on the documents and the term is by no means clearly defined.

Finally, I would like to thank everyone who has contributed to the success of the work. My special thanks go to the Belgian colleagues for their support, especially the director of the library in Leuven, Dr. Roegiers. I would also like to especially mention Priv. Doz. Wolfgang Schmitz, whom I could ask for advice at any time.

Cologne, December 23, 1992Bruno Haak

Serial no .: 001

[anonymous, 'UN VRAI CITOYEN':]


1790. [9.4.1790], s.l., 10 p., 8 °;


Call on the sovereign Belgian people to no longer passively accept the usurpation of their sovereign rights by the estates. The sovereignty of the people was to be visibly given expression by a renewed act of surrender by the fortress troops in Antwerp, this time in front of an elected delegation of the people.

Alff.K 1

Serial no .: 002



SUpplient en très profond respect les états du pays & comté de Hainau, disent que, d'après le traité de Reichenback (!) [...].

[P.4:] Chez N.J. Bocquet, Lib. Imp. Des États & de la Ville, rue de la Clef, à Mons., S.d., [02.1791],, 4 p., 8 °;

[sign .:] YOU PRÉ

Submission to the Governors General with the request that the renewed restrictions on the general amnesty, which had been guaranteed in the Treaty of The Hague of December 10, 1790, be withdrawn.

Alff.B 14

Serial no .: 003


A property owners les Etats de Brabant en leur Assemblée Générale.

LES Syndics des Nations de cette Ville de Bruxelles, tant comme constitués d'icelles, que du troisième Membre de la Ville d'Anvers, & des troisième & quatrième Membres de la Ville de Louvain, ne doivent pas s'efforcer de prouver la fidélité à toute épreuve, [...].

s.d., [13.8.1787], s.l., [Bruxelles], 13 p. [p. 7-10 loss], A5, 8 °;

Publication of two letters from the 'Nations' from Brussels to the Brabant Estates. In the first (incomplete) letter to the estates, the 'nations' complain about the negative effects of the imperial concentration of troops at the country's borders on the population, as well as the attacks by the local military. In the second letter they complain about the shortage and rise in food prices - partly to blame for the government's poor economic policy - which would have ruined many people economically and, in their desperation, would have driven them to use violence. To prevent further attacks, they demand temporary export bans for certain agricultural products and the ordering of the usual measures in the event of an outbreak of famine.

Alff.K 2

Serial no .: 004


A BRUXELLES. 1791. [2.3.1791], 7 p., A4, 8 °;

In response to the declaration of the Société des amis du bien public of February 25, 1791 (see No. 377), which precedes the text, the author calls for the dissolution of this emerging Jacobin club. The events of February 24th were by no means the expression of the general will of the people, but only that of a seduced youth. Those loyal to the emperor trusted Leopold's wise government, which would not allow a constitution based on the French model. The members of the society were mistaken when they counted on the support of their ideas from the Austrians.

Alff.K 3

A Messieurs du Magistrat de cette Ville de Bruxelles ... see number 33

Serial no .: 005


A SA MAJESTÉ L'EMPEREUR ET ROI en son Conseil Souverain de Brabant.

REmontre le Lieutenant-General Baron de Beaulieu, [...].

[P.8:] De l'imprimerie D'EMM. FLON, rue de la Putterie., S.d., [10/12/1791], s.l., [Bruxelles], 8 p., 8 °;

[sign. S.7:] Bruxelles, 10 October 1791

Beaulieu calls on the Brabant Council to condemn the estates as leaders of the uprising against the philanthropic Emperor Joseph II to pay his compensation claims - his country estate had been devastated during the 1790 revolution. The three short documents attached show that the author's request has been granted and that his submission has been submitted to the Estates for comment.

Alff.K 4

Serial no .: 006

[anonymous, QUELQUES RÉFUGIÉS ':]


SIRE! "C'est le coeur navré de la plus vive douleur que nous nous jettons aux pieds de VOTRE MAJESTÉ [...].

s.d., [after 2.3.1790], s.l., 16. S., A8, 8 °, paperback;

[sign .:] ..., QUELQUES RÉFUGIÉS.

In Leopold's declaration of March 2, 1790, some government officials living in exile see the abdication of the monarchy in favor of an oligarchy of estates. In their loyalty to the imperial family, always ready to make sacrifices, the authors feel that this memorandum has betrayed them. In considering the current situation, they recommend Leopold to show leniency only if the people admit their mistakes. Otherwise he should use military force to restore peace, take tough action, take this opportunity to abolish traditional privileges and implement reforms. In the final part of the work, the authors ask Leopold to pay more attention to their worries and needs.

Alff.K 5

Serial no .: 007

A Son Excellence le Comte Mercy Argenteau, Ministre Plénipotentiaire de Sa Majesté l'Empereur.

CINQ mille Citoyens, au moins, qui ne signent pas la présente, pour éviter toute espèce de difficulté, [...].

s.d., [02.18.1791], s.l., 2 S, 2 leaves, 8 °;

[P.2:] Bruxelles, le 18 Février 1791.

Appeal to the Minister Plenipotentiary to banish the Abbot of Tongerloo for his leading role during the Revolution.

Alff.K 6

Serial no .: 008

A tous & un chacun.

IL est constant, qu'il n'y a ni Royaume, ni République, qui puisse se soutenir ou (!) Le crime, la trahison, restent impunies, [...]

s.d., [after June 24, 1790], s.l., unpag, [5 p.], 4 sheets, 8 °, paperback;

The estates of the provinces, especially of Hainaut, which the author of Vonckist endeavors suspected, were called upon to take stronger action against the traitors in the army and in Congress. The too mild treatment of the rebels by Congress suggests that Congress was deliberately working in the hands of Leopold. The people demand justice and punishment of the guilty.

Alff.K 7

Serial no .: 009



LES consaux, faisant les États de la Ville Cité, Banlieue & district réuni de Tournay, ont fait remettre par leurs Députés le 14 de Juin 1791 [...].

s.d., [after June 20, 1791], s.l., 7 p., 8 °;

Annotated publication of the replies from the authorized minister and the governors-general to a memorandum of the Tournai Estates (see No. 376), which is referred to in the introductory letter of the Estates and in which the mere return to the situation under Maria-Theresa is rejected (see no No. 346, Leopold's memorandum of 2.3.1790).Rather, the estates demand a precise definition of the rights and duties of the sovereign and the people in order to avoid future misunderstandings. The proposals of the stands are rejected.

Alff.D 15

Serial no .: 010


A tout Ecclésiastique, Noble Homme d'Epée & de Robe, Bourgeois, Commerçant & Homme de la Campagne, à tout Magistrat, Serment, Corps de Métier, Communauté, Compagnie & Société, & à tout Particulier de tout Etat, Ordre & Condition dans toutes les classes des Citoyens des Provinces Belgiques.

Ayant plû à l'Eternel de prendre à lui JOSEPH II, Empereur Roi, Notre Seigneur, j'en ai donné information aux Etats de votre Province par ma Lettre, dont la teneur suit: [...].

s.d., [02/28/1790], s.l., [Luxembourg (?)], 4 p., 8 °;

[signed:] Luxembourg, le 28 Février 1790. J. PH. COBENZL.

Cobenzl reports the death of Joseph II to the Belgians. He confidently makes the following proposals for a return to imperial rule: 1. Immediate withdrawal of troops from the provinces of Limburg and Geldern, as well as from parts of the province of Luxembourg; 2. Lifting the siege of the citadel in Antwerp and supplying the garrison there; 3. Suspension of all further arming and preparation for war; 4. Release of all prisoners. In return, all prisoners in the Luxembourg Fortress are released; 5. Prohibition of printing inflammatory literature that is fueling the unrest; 6. Dispatch of a negotiator with whom he can speak about the means to be taken to restore law and order, about the homage to Leopold, the new ruler and about the inauguration of Leopold.

Alff. C 1

Serial no .: 011

[BOUVET, (Abbé):]

L'ABC DES PRÊTRES, OU Instructions en forme alphabétique, pour apprendre aux Ecclésiastiques leurs Devoirs & les remettre à l'A, B, C de leur état. Par un PRETRE connu & amateur de l'ordre.

1791. [beginning 1791 (?)], S.l., 43 p., A8-B8, C4, D2, 8 °;

In 59 short articles - according to the 59 paragraphs of the Joyeuse Entrée (?) And lexically sorted by keywords - the author castigates the excessive materialism and the Inquisition of the Church, which contradict Christian teaching (evidenced by examples and quotations from the apostles, the Church fathers etc.).

Alff.K 8

Serial no .: 012

ACTENS VAN DE PROPOSITIEN AEN ALLE DE CORPORATIEN VAN VLAENDEREN GEDAEN, Raekende de Huldinge van Zyne Majesteyt followed the Keyzer LEOPOLDUS the II. Met de Resolutien daer op.

1791. [17.5.1791], s.l., [Gent (?)], 33 p., (T), A8-B8, (), 8 °;

to the Count of Flanders. Mainly on the basis of the Treaty of The Hague of December 10th, 1790 (see No. 190), all corporations approve the project. Taking up the suggestions of some committees, the estates want to press for reparation for all violations of the constitution by means of a petition to the emperor.

Alff.D 1

Serial no .: 013/014

ACTES AUTENTIQUES DES CONVENTIONS PRÉLIMINAIRES CONCLUES A REICHENBACH. Entre Sa Majesté le Roi d'Hongrie & de Bohême, & les Cours Médiatrices.

A LA HAYE. 1791. 27 S., (t), A8, B4, (), 8 °;

Publication of the three declarations of the Reichenbacher Convention and some related documents. Austria declares its readiness to conclude an armistice on the basis of the status quo ante with the gate and to enter into peace negotiations with Turkey, through the mediation of the Triple Alliance. In separate declarations, the naval powers and Prussia guarantee Austria its sovereign rights in the Belgian provinces. The guarantee is given on the condition that the Belgians, in the event of voluntary submission, are granted a general amnesty and minor constitutional amendments, which, however, must not endanger the core of the constitution. In the event of a violent solution, the restoration of the old constitution should remain.

Alff.K 9 / Alff.K 10

Serial no .: 015


[P.3]: A BRUXELLES, Chez T'SERSTEVENS, rue de la Montagne., S.d., [11/30/1789], 3 p., 8 °;

[signed:] ... dans Notre Assemblée du 30 November 1789. Etoit signè (!) J.F. Rohart, ...

The union treaty shown here between the estates of Brabant and Flanders to secure regained freedom should, according to Van Eupen's proposals, be converted into joint rule over both provinces. The sovereignty is to be transferred to a congress that has yet to be formed. As a sign of their special bond with Brabant, the Flemish estates accept this plan, with the restriction that the contracting parties decide for themselves whether this congress may only be entrusted with the defense of common interests.

Alff.B 3

Serial no .: 016


Actum on April 26, 1790. in generale Vergaederinge van de Collatie of the city of Gend.

At voornoemden daege de Collatie communicatie received lifting van den brief in date April 23, 1790., [...].

s.d., [April 26, 1790], s.l., [Gent (?)], 3 p., 8 °;

[signed:] C.J. Oudaert.

The 'Collace' of the city of Ghent turned to the city's magistrate with the request that they forward their statements as a report to the stalls. She expresses her concern about the arrest of General Van der Mersch in the citadel of Antwerp, which had taken place at the instigation of the Congress without a previous trial. Van der Mersch's safety is not guaranteed in Antwerp and a transfer of the general to Flanders guarantees an impartial verdict in the event of an indictment. She regrets that this rendition is not being pursued more forcefully and points to the economic and military consequences that the rumors about the arrest of the general are already having on the troubled population.

Alff.K 11

Serial no .: 017



J.-G. HULEU, Archipresbyteri Mechliniensis.

TYPIS MECHLINIAE, Apud P.J. HANICQ, Bibliopalam. 1798., [Mechelen], 47 p., 1 Errataliste, A8-C8, 8 °;

Huleu first deals with an anonymously distributed manuscript in which criticism of the content of his Flemish work "Pligen van allen catholyken Borger" is made. He quotes passages from the writing of his critic, who claims to be a young theologian, and presents his opposing position. He affirms his view that the oath demanded by the clergy relates only to state and not to spiritual matters. The state authority is to be recognized. Religious freedom and free exercise of worship are guaranteed. In a second part, entitled "Ad Crisim duram opusculi Veritatis Aurora nuncupati Responsio mollis", Huleu answers the criticism of the same unknown author of his work "Veritatis Aurora" (see No. 583). He points out that he had already dealt with some of the objections in the 2nd edition of his work, and challenges the accusation that he had objected to the decision of the College of Cardinals in relation to the oath. In an appendix, Huleu finally goes into the fragment of a letter placed in his hand that was slipped under the Archbishop of Mechelen. According to this, the nuncio in Brussels is said to have announced that it was not allowed to swear the required oath. The letter is bogus, and the statements refer to the oath of 1791.

Alff.G 2

Serial no .: 018


1791. [1 (?). 1791], s.l., 12 pp. A6, 8 °;

Five songs in which the ineptitude and unscrupulousness of the estates (especially their leaders: Van der Noot, La Pineau and the Abbot of Tongerloo), who cannot get over their loss of power, are sarcastically denounced. It was only thanks to the Austrians that the country escaped the total ruin and that Leopold's rule can look forward to a carefree future.

Alff.K 12

Serial no .: 019

[anonymous, 'VRYHEYDS BORG, DE':]

ADDRESS aen Myne Mede-borgers en Vrienden van den Platten-Lande.

MYne Mede-borgers end of special landsvriends ik hebbe U meermaels te know Gegeéven [...].

s.d., [11 / 12.1792], s.l., 7 p., 8 °;

[sign .:] ... DE VRYHEYDS BORG.

The author accuses the Vonckists of being paid agents of Austria of deceiving the heroic General Dumouriez, who was fighting for the freedom of Belgium, about their real intentions to bring Belgium back into Austrian slavery. He gives his fellow citizens ten pieces of advice to prevent the freedom of the Belgians from being jeopardized again by the schemes of the Vonckists (see also nos. 282, 600, 613).

Alff.E 14

Serial no .: 020

[anonymous, 'LE VICOMTE DE R ***':]


A BRUXELLES. 1791. [1 (?). 1791], 16 p., A8, 8 °;

The author first explains the lack of enlightenment of the Belgian people with the fact that there are no Flemish translations of the Enlightenment pamphlets and that the monks only commented disparagingly on the ideas of the Enlightenment. He warns, however, against the extreme of theocratic rule of the monks (as a negative example, he cites a conversation between a Capuchin monk and a married young woman in a confessional, which shows how women use the Monk is abused.) To fall into the 'philosopher's rule' on the model of the French National Assembly (he portrays Joseph II as a victim of the 'philosophers' and refers to the negative consequences of the French Revolution.). As a middle ground, he recommends reconciliation with the emperor and reconciliation between the Belgians.

Alff.K 13

Serial no .: 021


BELGES, ne vous écartez pas de la promesse de la brave NATION FRANÇAISE. [...].

s.d., [11/27/1792], s.l., [Bruxelles?], 8 p., 8 °;

[signed:] Bruxelles ce 27 November 1792

The author denounces the elected 'Représentants provisoires' of Brussels (18.11.1792) - he considers the electoral circumstances and the electoral mode to be intolerable - as Austrian agents, and he calls on the Belgians and French to fight this new tyranny of the 'royalists', in order to be able to preserve the old Brabant constitution (see also No. 19, 282, 600).

Alff.E 19

Serial no .: 022



O Belges, mes chers Compatriotes! que j'ai toujours aimés, [...].

s.d., [after 6.3.1790?], s.l., 7 p., A4, 8 °;

In a pathetic appeal, the Belgians are implored to renounce war (with reference to the appeal of Pope Pius VI. And with reference to Leopold's manifesto of March 2, 1790?) And to restore and close peace together with the magnanimous Emperor Leopold II preserve.

Alff.K 14

Serial no .: 023

[anonymous, 'UN DÉMOCRATE':]


NOUS devons bénir la divine Providence qui nous a servi autant & même plus que la force de nos armes, [...].

s.d., [9.1.1790?], s.l., 8 p., 8 °, half-title;

The author denounces the usurpation of sovereignty by the Brabant estates and calls for the first act of people's sovereignty to convene a national assembly in which the representatives of the people are elected.

Alff.K 15

Serial no .: 024

[anonymous, 'DÉMOPHILE':]

ADDRESS AUX HABITANS DES CAMPAGNES, Sur les Cabales des mauvais Prêtres & Curés.

COMME ils nous trompent, comme ils abusent cruellement de notre crédulité, [...].

s.d., [11 / 12.1790?], s.l., 6 p., A4, 8 °;

[sign .:] DÉMOPHILE.

Diatribe against French priests who refuse to take the oath on the constitution (11/27/1790). Their aim is only to spread discord and provoke a civil war. To illustrate the aberrations of the priests, the author refers to the misdeeds of the clergy in Brabant. He suggests that religion should not be touched.

Alff.K 16

Serial no .: 025


Address de la part des Bourgeois de la cité capitale du Brabant, à Monsieur le Commandant de la même Ville, convoquant le Peuple de Louvain on 22 & 23 de November 1792.

MONSIEUR, Il est inutile de faire des instances ultérieures pour nous surprendre [...].

s.d., [11/23/1792], s.l., 3 p., 8 °;

[Sign:] Fait en Brabant, le 23 Novembre 1792.

Submission of citizens of Brussels to the city commander of Brussels, General Berneron, in which they uncompromisingly insist on the preservation of the old Brabant constitution against the vote of a minority. As the most important basis of social life and well-being in the province, one will fight to the blood if necessary to maintain this constitution.

Alff.E 5

Serial no .: 026



A FRANCFORT. s.d., [12/18/1792], 8 p., 8 °;

[sign. P. 6:] Les Bourgeois de Francfort. Francfort le 5 Novembre 1792.

Imprint of a petition from Frankfurt citizens to General Custine, in which they consider any change in their liberal order to be harmful and hope that the contributions will be withdrawn, as they would mean the ruin of the entire citizenship. In the opinion of the commentator, the rejection of their wishes led to the massacre of the French garrison troops by the Frankfurt citizens and the Prussian military - excerpts from an article in the Journal de Paris dated December 18, 1792. The commentator sees this as an urgent warning to all who oppose the will of the people.

Alff.E 3

Serial no .: 027


ADDRESS OF THE HABITANS DE LA PROVINCE DE NAMUR. A LEURS ETATS, Concernant le Mémoire que ceux-ci ont présenté le 18 Janvier à Son Excellence le Comte Mercy-Argenteau.

1791. [18.1.1791], s.l., 13 p., 6 sheets, 8 °

Reply of the "people" of the province of Namur to the memorandum of their estates to the Austrian minister. In this, the "people" dissociate themselves resolutely from the demands of the estates (transfer of soldiers from the former patriot army to the imperial army, no occupation of administrative offices in the province with former incumbents, etc.). The estates alone are responsible for all the consequences of the revolution, since they never had a popular mandate. The memorandum is seen as an affront to the kindness of the emperor, who could react irritably (see also No. 70).

Alff.K 17

Serial no .: 028


Aen de Seer Eerweerde ends Noble Heeren Staeten van Brabant in hunne general Vergaederings.

VErthoonen met alle eerbiedinge die uyt de Negen Natien, ..., hôe dat sy op den 10 Mey 1791, [...].

s.d., [14.6.1791], s.l., [Brussel?], 4 p., 8 °;

[subs .:] J. Oppalfens, qq. H.A. Verrassel, qq. J. Ducaers, qq P.J. Vereycken, qq. N. Parys, qq. A. Smeesters, qq. J.F. De Noter, qq. J.B. Vanden Elsken, qq. Egidius Brisbarb, qq. Brussels 14 Juny 1791.

After the Magistrate of Brussels also after the submission of the 'Syndiki' from 28.5. (see No. 32) persists in his negative attitude, the Syndiki turn directly to the estates of Brabant, because on the one hand they are not entitled to address the sovereign or his deputies directly due to an additional provision of August 12, 1700, on the other hand view the Brabant Council as unconstitutional in its current composition. They ask the estates, emphasizing their common goals, to support their demands (see No. 174, u. 521/22).

Alff.D 12

Serial no .: 029


WEl Mannen, wat dunkt U-L. van de standvastigheyd of the Army States of Brabant. [...]

s.d., [11/28/1791], s.l., 2 p., 8 °;

[sign .:] Maestricht 28 9ber 1791.

In connection with the arrest of the four members of the Committee of Estates on November 26th, 1791 due to the inflexibility of the Brabant Estates in the dispute over the legality of the Brabant Council, the author calls on everyone, especially the Third State of Brabant, for the rights of the nation fight; Especially since Marie-Christine’s request to the English ambassador to approve the approval of taxes and subsidies for an unlimited period of time, with reference to the Reichenbach Convention and the observance of privileges and the Joyeuse Entrée, had been rejected, and Marie-Christine then the four MPs on November 28th. set free again (see also nos. 59, 139).

Alff.K 18

Serial no .: 030



TOT GENT, en got dead BRUSSELS, By DE TREZ, Drukker, in de Boter-straete 1790. [November 8, 1790], 8 p., 8 °;

[signed, p.6:] DE VOLONTAIREN VAN VLAENDEREN. November 8, 1790.

The volunteers from Flanders are determined to fight the enemy inside and outside to the last.They proudly report to Congress in Brussels that 40,000 rural volunteers have been recruited within eight days, and they encourage Congress, underlining their absolute loyalty, to give them the green light to go ahead. In a further letter to the volunteers of Brussels (Seer Lieve ende Beminde Confraters de Heeren VOLONTAIREN der Stad Brussel) they propose an alliance of the voluntary associations of both provinces so that the Congress does not find an excuse to conclude an agreement with Leopold due to a lack of defense capacity.

Alff.K 19

Serial no .: 031


Aen MYNE Eerw. HEEREN the Borgemeesteren, Schepenen and Raed dezer Stad Antwerp.

VErtoonen met alle eerbiedinge the Dekens zoo of Hoofd-Ambachten [...].

s.d., [7.4.1788], s.l., [Antwerpen], 16 p., 8 °;

[signed:] Antwerp 7 April 1788. Waeren onderteekent J. De Clyn. J.F. Van Bortel. P.J. Bouwens. Joannes Verheyen. P.J. Van Pelcom & loco Norbertus Hermans. Jacobus Eeckelaers. J.B. Segers. Petrus Carolus Anthoni fils ainé & loco J.B. Olislaeger. P. Leemans & loco J. van Hal. Joannes Vriendts. Peeter De Meyer. Michael Jos. Brackeniers. P. Ombelet. J.F. Deckers. J.H. You Moulin.

G. Bisschop. Cornelius J.J. Mens. J.B. Segers. P.J. Cant. J.V.d. Bergh. P.J. Van den Bemden. J.B. Molyn. P. Mortelmans. J.C. De Craen. P.J. Geens. Petrus Lauwers. Judocus De Craen. Ferdinandus F. Lambrechts. J.B. Van Dyck. Jacobus Van Berckelaer. Cornelius De Ruyter.

Nicolas B. Wouters. A.H.J. Van Wamel. Hend. La Rivier. Josef Clerinckx. Joannes Sellekaers. G. Kerckhoven. C. Claessens. Cornelius Van Bussel. Joannes Goossens. J.J. Pauwels. J.J. Hantsom. J.J. Van Overmeeren. J.P. Van Hencxthoven. C.F. Schroots. Adrianus W. Ruys. end J.B. Goris.

In their submission to the city administration, the Dekens point out the harmful consequences of the abolition of the University of Leuven, the episcopal seminaries and monasteries and the establishment of the general seminary for state and church. Because of its Brabant character, the university enjoys privileges that cannot be unilaterally canceled. The breach of the constitution that has been committed must be reversed. The measures taken not only curtail the rights of individuals in an unjustified manner, but also lead to a shortage of priests, brutalization of morals, supply difficulties with large families and the spread of heresy.

Alff.K 20

Serial no .: 032


Aen Myne Heeren the Borgemeesters, Schepenen, Tresoriers, Rentmeesters end of the city of Brussels.

VERTHOONEN met behoorelycke eerbiedinghe the sworn uyt de Negen Natien, uytmaekende het derde deser Stads Leden, dat zy met de aldergrootste bewonderinghe te rugh hebben ontfangen [...].

s.d., [28.5.1791], s.l., [Bruxelles], 7 p. 8 °;

[subordinate:] J.OPPALFENS, qq. H.A. VERRASSEL, qq. J. DUCAERS, qq. P.J. VEREYCKEN, qq. N. PARYS, qq. A. SMEESTERS, qq. J.F. DE NOTER, qq. J.B. VANDEN ELSKEN, qq. EGIDIUS BRISBARB, qq. Brussel 28 Mey 1791.

In their answer to the resolution of the Brussels administration (see No. 163, 174) the 'Syndiki' of the nine nations try to substantiate their allegations against Mayor De Vieusart, in order to allow the administration to withdraw the resolution and to advise the re-submitted Entry from May 10th, 1791 to be moved (see No. 28 and 521/22). In addition, the 'Syndiki' protest against the appointment by the administration of an embassy from the capital cities for the inauguration ceremony of Leopold, without their knowledge and without their consent, and demand that more commoners be admitted to the embassy.

Alff.D 7

Serial no .: 033


Aen Myne Heeren die Wethouderen der Stad Brussel./A Messieurs du Magistrat de cette Ville de Bruxelles.

VErthoonen the Boetmeesters der Natien in the name of zelve dat de Keyzerlyke en Koninglyke Depeche van Syne Majesteyt in date 3 July 1787 [...] ./ LEs Syndics des Nations exposent au nom de leurs Commettans, que suivant la Lettre de Sa Majesté en date du 3 Juillet 1787, [...].

s.d., [March 26, 1788], s.l., [Brussel], 8 p., 8 °, paperback, ndl./frz., two columns.

[sign .:] Brussel 26 Meert 1788./ Bruxelles le 26 Mars 1788. Signés A. vander Stricht, Jean Joseph Sagermans, H. de Puyt, P.J.C. Beeckman, J.C. Schruers, J.B. van Lack, E. Adan, J.F. van Campenhout, J.B. van den Sande.

Submission of the Syndiki to the magistrate, in which they assure the emperor of the people's loyalty and, on behalf of the people, express their desire to restore the old constitution, as announced in the Governor General's declaration of September 21, 1787. In particular, the crackdown on members of the University of Loewen is frowned upon.

Alff.K 21

Aenmerking, (*) geschreeven door den graef van Trauttmansdorff ... see number 395

Serial no .: 034

[anonymous, '**':]


1791 [1/2 (?). 1791], s.l., 51 p., (T), A4-F4, (), 8 °;

The author sees in the violent enforcement of the "last breken" (unloading of ship cargo and further transport of this cargo by another ship) by the Ghent inland navigation a violation of the principle of free trade, which not only affects the inland navigation in other parts of the country, but the whole Damages the economy and drives it to ruin. He considers the privileges to which the Ghent boatmen refer to in three memoranda to be invented. In order to avert further damage to the economy, the author calls for the restoration of free inland navigation and the lifting of the lawsuits and foreclosures by Leopold II. In addition, a commission should clarify all questions related to the Ghent stacking law and the modalities of any compensation to be paid to the Set Ghent.

Alff.K 22

Serial no .: 035



Printed in de Vaderlandsche Drukkerye. 1790. [03/11/1790], s.l., 18 p., (T), A8, (B), 8 °;

Flemish edition of the "Lettre patriotique aux Belges ..." expanded to include a few explanations and appeals (see No. 340 for content). In his appeals, the author calls on the people not to listen to the pernicious promises and reform demands of the royalists and Vonckists, so that God's protective hand may continue to accompany the revolution and that no discord may again surrender the Belgians to Austrian despotism.

Alff. C 12

Serial no .: 036


1791. [10.2.1791], s.l., 54 p., (T), A4-F4, G2, (), 8 °;

Because of his register of sins, the Abbot of St. Bernard (?) Is in limbo between the door to purgatory and the door to hell. Without being able to influence it, the consequences of his actions on earth determine whether he succumbs to eternal damnation or not. In conversation with the bouncers (four angels guarding the entrances to the Martyrs' District, Heaven, Purgatory and Hell), he learns that it is mainly the revolutionary leaders and their supporters as well as most of the clergy (reference to "Den Nederlandschen Koolkant ", No. 390) go to hell, while their victims (eg Van Kriecken, see No. 554) are accepted into the circle of martyrs or into heaven. In this situation, after admitting his guilt for having consented to the deposition of Joseph II, he tries to come back to earth to further educate the people and to warn about the deeds of the clergy. However, this request is not fulfilled. Instead, three letters are written through the prophet Elias: to the estates of Brabant, to the council of Brabant and to the Belgians. The estates are accused of having acted against Article 59 of the Joyeuse Entrée and without a mandate from the people. This means that Joseph II's declaration of deposition is invalid. The Brabant Council is charged with participating in and sanctioning the political upheavals. He should have waited for the real ruler, Leopold II, whom God sent. The third letter shows the people how the majority of the clergy have distanced themselves from the preaching of the Gospel and surrendered to the deification of Van der Noot on the one hand and to the condemnation of the Vonckists on the other. The Belgians are encouraged to elect a new and more capable parliament.

Alff.K 23

Serial no .: 037

[anonymous, 'BATAN, FRÈRE':]

L'AME, OU PETIT CATÉCHISME PORTATIF A l'usage des bons Citoyens.

DIEU. D. QU'est-ce que Dieu? R. Dieu est un Etre infiniment parfait. LOI. [...].

s.d., [before June 15, 1791], s.l., 4 p., 8 °;

The civic order of the Vonckists, which this little catechism reflects, is characterized by the rule of law, to which the king is subject, contrary to the view of some royalists. The virtuous Vonckists, loyal to the law and kings, are opposed to the lawless, anti-royal and fanatical aristocrats, patriots (followers of Van der Noot) and fanatics (volunteers and monks) at the bottom of the hierarchy. Since only the virtuous worships the prince, the true citizen can only be a Vonckist.

Alff.K 24

Serial no .: 038

[anonymous, 'UNE JOLIE FLAMMANDE':]

L'AMI DES BELGES. Sur l'Air: La danse n'est pas ce que j'aime.

DANS ma Patrie, hélas! que j'aime, La liberté n'y regne pas, [...].

s.d., [10 / 11.1790?], s.l., 1 p., 1 sheet, 8 °;

[sign .:] Par une jolie Flammande.

In order to put an end to despotism in the country and to promote public welfare, the author of the three-verse song suggests that Leopold II be appointed as law-abiding sovereign.

Alff.K 25

Serial no .: 039

[anonymous, 'L'AMI DU PEUPLE ET DE LA PAIX':]

L'AMI DU PEUPLE ET DE LA PAIX, A tous les citoyens sans distinction d'état & de condition.

VOILA, cependant, chers concitoyens, la paix & la tranquillité que plusieurs de vous, [...].

s.d., [1 / 2.1791?], s.l., 4 p., 8 °;

Appeal to all Belgians, after the rebels have been driven out, despite the justified anger over the crimes committed against the innocent, to renounce all kinds of vengeance in order to ensure a prosperous future for the country.

Alff.K 26

Serial no .: 040

[anonymous, 'SCEVOLA BELGIQUE':]

L'ANCIEN ET LE NOUVEAU DESPOTISME. Parallel extrait de la Préface de la Vie de Philippe II, Roi d'Espagne & Duc de Brabant.

TOUS les Despotes furent & sont des ignorans. [...].

s.d., [11.1.1793], [ms. P.1: 17 Jan 1793], s.l., [Bruxelles?], Unpag., 4 leaves, 8 °;

[Sign:] SCEVOLA BELGIQUE, Habitant Constitutionel de Bruxelles. 11 Janvier 1793.

Agitatory writing - annotated text passages from the foreword of a biography of Philip II, which are intended to clarify the parallels between old and new tyranny - against the 'Représantants provisoires' of Brussels, which, in the opinion of the author, as agents of the Austrian government, redesigned the old despotism revive (election processes in Brussels, November 18 and November 29, 1792, arrests). Finally, a call to the French to stop being deceived and to keep their promise to give the Belgians a free hand in the choice of their constitution. Otherwise there is a threat of a popular uprising, and the Belgians would ask the guarantee powers of the old constitution, England, Prussia and the States General for support (see also No. 108 and No. 540).

Alff.E 25

Serial no .: 041


LILLE. 1791. [4/13/1791], 80 S. N ° I: 1-32; N ° II: 33-56; N ° III: 57-80), A8-C8, D4, E8, F4, 8 °, [S.2:] conditions of the subscription;

As the programmatic foreword (pp. 3-14) shows, the weekly magazine sees itself as the voice of reason that does not feel obliged to any party (motto: Un Roi, une Nation). The following topics are dealt with in the first three editions, which are bound here:

N ° I: a) The rivalry between France and England and its effects on the French Revolution (1st part of the "Lettre familière de quelques philantropes au peuple français"), pp. 15-23; b) Riots in Douai and assessment of the relevant legislation by the French National Assembly, pp. 23-32; c) Notice of the papal bull on the excommunication of all French priests who have taken the citizenship oath, p. 32; N ° II: a) the essence of the monarchy. First part of a natural history of freedom, which is supposed to show that freedom is subject to reason and cannot be unlimited. It ends in the Golden Age, when the happiness of the individual coincides with the well-being of the community. In order to reach this age again, only those things that benefit the community should exist, pp. 33-45; b) Justification for the harmfulness of the required priesthood. Among other things, he conjures up the danger of civil war, p. 45; c) Second part of the Lettre familière .... Peace can only be secured through a union of the four great powers of Europe, Spain, France, Austria and Russia. The interests of the individual powers, including Prussia, are analyzed and warned against an externally supported Jacobin conspiracy, pp. 46-54; d) Letter of protest from Ghent aldermen of April 7th, 1791. The payment of the debts incurred by the estates during the revolution through the city sack is to be refused, with reference to the illegality of the estates rule, pp. 55-56; N ° III: a) First analysis of the first two parts of the text "Observations sur la constitution primitive et originaire des trois etats de Brabant" (see No. 418), pp. 57-74; b) Reprint of the "Lettre aux Etats de Brabant par l'agent en cour Sandelin" (see No. 318). Sandelin responds to the criticism of the stands against the Amis du bien public. He firmly rejects the accusations of dividing society and working against the constitution, pp. 74-80.

Alff.K 27

Serial no .: 042

[anonymous, 'ADOLPHE BELGEAMI':]


AUX PAYS-BAS, A LA JOYEUSE ENTRÉE, Chez les Libraires Constitutionnels. s.d., [ms. Title page: 17 Jan 1793], 16 p., 8 °, inside title page: hymn to freedom;

[sign .:] ADOLPHE BELGEAMI. Bruxelles ce, & c.

Urgent warning of the author against reforming or abolishing the old Brabant constitution, as this opens the door to despotism, as demonstrated by the example of General Moreton's declaration of November 26, 1792 and the usurpation of sovereignty by the 'Représentants provisoires' in Brussels seeks to explain.

Alff.E 24

Serial no .: 043/044

APOLOGIE DE MONSEIGNEUR LE CARDINAL ARCHEVÊQUE DE MALINES; Où l'on prouve par un fait très-récent qu'il est incapable de faire le mal, s'il n'y étoit entraîné par quelques individus qui ont eu l'art de le subjuguer.

1791. [ms. Title page: 15.10.], S.l., 12 p., 8 °, [No. 43, ms. P. 12: La lettre pastorale dans cette apologie est fausse et n'a jamais été faite par le Cardinal ni par son ordre mais par un Royaliste ce que des expressions designent assez];

Annotated publication of the supposedly original, unadulterated version of the last pastoral letter of the Cardinal of Mechelen. This alleged original text is supposed to prove that the cardinal condemns the false Belgian theology from the time of the revolution and calls on all clergymen, including themselves, to return to the true teaching of Christ and atone for their crimes. The author claims that this text was published by them as "Lettre pastorale sur l'adoration perpétuelle" (see also nos. 339, 290, 489) - the content of this text was falsified by the cardinal's bad advisers, especially by Duvivier.

Alff.K 28 / Alff.K 29

Serial no .: 045


APPEL A LA NATION BELGIQUE, Contre l'injuste proscription que les Etats de certaines provinces voudroient faire prononcer contre les anciens serviteurs du Prince.

QUAND l'Empereur donne à l'univers le plus mémorable exemple de clémence, [...].

s.d., [3.1791?], s.l., 4 p., A2, 8 °;

Exposure of the campaign against the emperor's former officials as a means of the power-hungry and criminal classes to smuggle their own followers into influential offices in order to be able to fend off claims for compensation from many Belgians. The officials are only ready to resign if they have lost the confidence of the entire Belgian nation through misconduct and not because of the demands of the estates, which do not recognize them as the voice of the people.

Alff.K 30

Serial no .: 046



Le Citoyen Feigneaux fit le 18 de ce mois de Janvier aux Représentans provisoires du Peuple Souverain de la ville libre de Bruxelles, [...].

s.d., [27.1.1793], s.l., 7 p., A4, 8 °;

Publication of several documents by the secretary of the Brussels Finance Committee Feigneaux to counter the impression that he was a slanderer:

1. Feigneaux petition of January 18, 1793 to the 'Représentants provisoires' of Brussels, pp. 1-2; Proposal to have a monthly detailed list of income and expenses drawn up, checked and published by the finance committee, in order to remove the ground from any mistrust and to prevent a few unchecked and unchecked running the business on their own.

2. Opinion on the Feigneaux petition of January 25, 1793, pp. 2-3; Request to Feigneaux to clarify the allegations and to name the people whom he suspects of abuse of office. Without these details, his statements will be regarded as defamation.

3. Disconcerted by the style of the report, Feigneaux rejects the accusation of defamation (January 26, 1793, pp. 3-5) by pointing out that he had not made any concrete allegations and only with civic intentions on the growing distrust of the population want to draw attention. Various incidents (unfounded salary payments, accumulation of offices, exclusion from meetings) are likely to shake confidence in the assembly of the Représentans provisoires.

4. Without a response to his letter and quoted in court, Feigneaux submitted his resignation as secretary of the finance committee because he fears for his reputation (27.1.1793, pp. 5-6).

5. Letter from Feigneaux to the Jacobin Club in Brussels dated January 27, 1793. In this he supports La Faye's motion of January 22, 1793 on the accountability and accountability of the Finance Committee. At the same time he stressed that he had never had any influence on the management and was therefore not responsible for the actions of the committee.

Alff.K 31

Serial no .: 047

APPEL de la Nation Belgique contre tout ce que pourroient décerner les Etats de Brabant de contraire a la constitution du Pays.

LEs Etats de Brabant, légalement considerés, n'existent plus; [...].

s.d., [01/26/1789], s.l., 8 p., 8 °;

A leaflet containing the following four texts:

1. Letters of protest from all real citizens against the request of the first two estates under the military pressure of the government to grant subsidies that no longer have to be approved each time as ongoing payments by the estates. In the event of such a breach of the constitution, one calls the guarantee powers for help (pp. 1-3)

2. Diatribe against the 'pensioner' Van Schelle (?) (P. 4-7), who is called upon as a traitor to the country and the people to resign from his office ("Aen den vermaerden pensionaris Van Schel tot Brussel"; the same text finds again in "Versamelinge van verscheyde stukken ...", pp. 65-67, no. 588; for Van Schelle see no. 496 and no. 530)

3. Announcement of the next examination date for the granting of the 'mission canonique' (Missio) by Franckenberg to the emperor with reference to the exclusivity of this bishopric right ("Representation de SE le cardinal Archeveque de Maline au sujet du concours", pp. 7-8 )

4. Quatrain as a dedication to Franckenberg, in which he is placed on the same level as Ambrosius and Athanasius in his confidence in faith ("Quatrain dedié a son Eminence l'Archevêque de Malines, Primat des Pays-bas", p. 8; a Dutch version can be found as a handout in the collection, see No. 607, "Waer afbeeldzel van zyne Eminentie")

Alff.K 32

Serial no .: 048


IL paroit une brochure qui a pour titre: LES VRAIS INTÉRETS DE S. M. [...].

s.d., [2.1791?], s.l., 4 p., 8 °;

Sharp and sometimes abusive attacks against Van der Hoop - list of his crimes during the revolution - and his work "Les vrais intérêts de S. M." (see No. 604). The author accuses Van der Hoop, as one of the main pillars of the former nootist despotism, of having the audacity to recommend to the emperor a lawless arbitrary rule with the help of the estates as a form of government appropriate to the Belgians.

Alff.K 33

Serial no .: 049


1791, [2.1791], s.l., 23 p., A8, B4, 8 °;

With an ironic undertone, the author shows by indirect comparisons, by juxtaposing persons and events from the time of the Catholic League and the Belgian Republic, that the worst abuses are hidden under the guise of religion. Unlike at the time of the wars of religion, however, the emperor did not have any of the religious zealots killed after his return, and therefore the clergy should endeavor to serve religion and the fatherland in selflessness.

Alff.K 34

Serial no .: 050



REMONTRENT très-humblement Messieurs les Maire, Echevins & Conseil de la ville de Mons, qu'ayant été nommés par S.M. pour exercer les fonctions [...].

s.d., [3/12/1791], s.l., 4 p., 8 °;

[signed:] DE BISEAU de Familieureux, par commission.

Request from the mayor, the lay judges appointed by the emperor and the council of the city of Mons to the council of Hainaut to declare the occupation of the city treasurer dated December 18, 1790 by the then council of the city unconstitutional and therefore invalid.

Alff.K 35

Serial no .: 051

[anonymous, 'UN CITOYEN':]


M DCC XC I. [3/23/1791], s.l., 10 p., 8 °;

The author advocates the election of new representatives on the basis of provincial assemblies, since the old representatives of the estates are only illegitimate usurpers and the old constitution must be reformed if one does not want to remain in slavery. In order to get the broad approval of the population for his cause, he proposes to set up societies of educated people in all places along the lines of the Brussels model, in order to educate the rural population in particular about their real interests before the establishment of the election assemblies. These societies should exchange ideas with one another and publish their ideas. In order to reduce the general distrust of the provincial assemblies, the author points out at the end of his writing that there will be no civil constitution of the clergy based on the French model, and that religion remains a cornerstone of the constitution.

Alff.K 36

Serial no .: 052/053

L'AUTEUR DES OBSERVATIONS Sur les lettres d'ajournement impétrées au Conseil de Brabant par Pierre Van Schoor de Bruxelles, comme cessionnaire de J. Gosuin de Liege, à charge de Messieurs le Baron de Hove, Kemmetter, J.F.L. Vander Noot de Wannick, Baillet de Geves, le Chevalier de Nieuport, Commandeur, le Comte d'Ives, & S. Smeesters, convaincu d'absurdités à chaque page.

PREMIERE ABSURDITÉ, page 1 & 2. LE faiseur d'observations débute en posant en fait que [...].

s.d., [1791?], s.l., 12 p., A6, 8 °;

In his reply to the "Observations sur les lettres d'ajournement ..." the author tries to expose the inconsistencies of the arguments of the defender of former leading insurgents on six points. The dismissal of Joseph II was not constitutional, nor was it true that Joseph II had not restored the constitution before his death with the consequence that his successor Leopold II could no longer assert any rights in Belgium. It is also strange to first emphasize the centuries-long immutability of the constitutional foundations, but then to make the foundation of the constitution dependent on the three guarantee powers, only to deny this dependence a little later, since the three guarantee powers would have made it possible for Leopold to return to Belgium. The guarantee powers are also responsible for the weakness of the Belgian military.

Alff.K 37 / Alff.K 38

Serial no .: 054

[anonymous, 'UN BELGE':]


M.D. CC. XCIII. [1.1793?], S.l., 34 p., (T), [A8] -B8, (C), 8 °;

Call on the Belgians to adhere to their original constitution and to resist the propagated introduction of popular rule based on the French model, which makes the constitution just a plaything of the passions of the people and the danger of civil war. In a direct comparison of the aristocratic and the democratic form of government, supported by examples from history and literature citations, the author first shows the advantages of aristocratic rule, insofar as it excludes the extremes of tyranny and oligarchy as in 1790 (government of the best, rational, for the common good oriented rule of law, balance of power, particular interests without influence on government), in order then to present the moderate aristocratic form of rule as the best government, as it is modeled in the old Belgian constitution.

Alff. E 32

Serial no .: 055


LE différend survenu entre le Maréchal Baron de Bender & M. le Ministre de Prusse, Baron de Senfft [...].

s.d., [13.1.1791], s.l., 8 p., A4, 8 °, two columns;

The author bases his harsh commentary on the selfish diplomacy of the Prussian court in the matter of the termination of the Liège in an excerpt from the letter from the Prussian ambassador Dohm of January 13, 1791 (see also No. 149, and especially pp. 11-14) to General Bender Revolution. The main demands of Dohm, not to implement the decisions of the Reich Chamber of Commerce in their original form and to let the Austrian troops only ensure peace and order, are sharply rejected as unjustified interferences in the judiciary of the Reich and the powers of the emperor. Although Bender had presented the letter as forged in order to save Dohm's honor, the young Minister Senfft had nothing more important to do than demand clarification of the facts (see also No. 257).

Alff.K 39

Serial no .: 056


BELGES, les ruses autrichiennes sont a leur Comble [...].

s.d., [12.1791 / beginning 1792], s.l., unpag., [4 p.], 2 sheets, 8 °;

Call on all Belgians to resist the coalition of despots that want to prevent the advance of democracy. In order to be able to better enslave France, the Belgians seem to be allowed anything just to calm them down. The Belgians, united with England, the Netherlands and the Liège, should rush to the aid of the French so that everyone could live in freedom.

Alff.K 40

Serial no .: 057


ENFIN, mes chers concitoyens, le moment est venu où vous allez repondre devant l'Europe entier [...].

s.d., [5.11.1790], s.l., [Bruxelles?], 6 p., A3, 8 °;

[P.6:] BRUXELLES November 5, 1790.

In response to the Imperial Manifesto from Frankfurt of October 14, 1790, the author calls on the Belgians to defend their religion and their freedom. Not the emperor's cause but that of the Belgians is just; the Pope himself had outlawed Viennese theological teaching. With united forces and trusting in God's help, the Belgians are to face the imperial superiority with dignity, so that all of Europe can recognize that the emperor is waging an unjust war. The Dutch edition of this text can be found under the title "Tot de Nederlanders", No. 569/70.

Alff. C 22

Serial no .: 058


O BELGES! réveillez-vous, réveillez-vous! il est tems; une de vos plus belles Provinces [...].

s.d., [4 (?). 1790], s.l., 4 p., 8 °;

Strong warning against the supporters of a democratic government and the ambitious nobles and generals who were only after their own glory. Through hypocrisy and lies, they try to sow discord and to put the Belgians in chains. General Delomieux, for example, lets his soldiers complain about the inadequate supply, although he himself sells clothes from the state magazines. For Van der Mersch, the Belgians should not let themselves be blinded by titles and honors such as 'Liberator of the Fatherland' for Van der Mersch and should fight the enemies of the republic consistently (see also No. 95).

Alff.K 41

Serial no .: 059


VOILA Souverains de la terre les principes justes & sages de celui que vous devriez prendre [...].

s.d., [15.11.1791], s.l., 26 p., 14 sheets, (), [A4] -C4, (D) ;, 8 °, paperback;

[P.26:] Le 15 November 1791.

In the first part of the document, the author comments on the dispatch from the Governors General of November 3, 1791 (see also No. 157/58), which he also prints. He accuses the government of not adhering to the constitution, especially in the important dispute over the reinstatement of the five judicial councils who were deposed after the revolution. In the second part, the arrest of four members of the estates (see also No. 29, 139), which in the author's opinion was carried out under scandalous circumstances, is branded as a grave crime of the government under Leopold II. The author calls on the estates to stand up to pressure and intimidation from the government. He demands the punishment of all government officials who have committed a breach of the constitution through their behavior. If there is no punishment, the author interprets this fact as the consent of the emperor to the measures taken by his government. In this case, the author announces the then legitimate resistance of the people against the emperor, which can ultimately lead to an armed uprising.

Alff.K 42

Serial no .: 060

AUX ÉTATS DE BRABANT. Un petit mot à l'oreille.

MESSIEURS, L'Opinion publique est un moyen que les Ministres de Joseph ont négligé; [...].

s.d., [02.26.1791], s.l., 6 p., 8 °;

The author calls on the estates to resign because of their offenses, as this is the only way they can escape the possible vengeance of the people whose trust they have gambled away.

Alff.K 43

Serial no .: 061


Chers Amis, chers Freres. Nous sommes trahis, bientôt nous serons vendus. Les Ai (!) Lemans reviendront [...].

s.d., [ms. Title sheet: November 15, 1792], s.l., 1 p., 1 sheet, 8 °;

Appeal to all Belgians to take part in the armed struggle for the preservation of the Belgian constitutions, in order to prevent a return of the Austrians, made possible by the intrigues of their agents. The French are asked not to listen to the traitors to the fatherland mentioned by name and not to admit any committees that would only re-enslave the Belgians (see also No. 62).

Alff.E 8

Serial no .: 062


Aux François aux Belges.

CHERS AMIS, CHERS FRERES! NOus sommes trahis, bientôt nous serons vendus malgré la genérosité Fraternelle & les armes Victorieuses de la Republique Française, [...].

[S. 3:] De l'Imprimerie d'un Citoyen pour la Patrie & la Constitution, s.d., [15.11.1792], s.l., unpag, [3 p.], 2 sheets, 8 °;

Slightly expanded text of leaflet No. 61. On the one hand the author emphasizes the merits of the French, on the other hand the barbaric character of the Austrians and their despotism in order to win the French and Belgians together for the struggle for freedom and against the traitors to the fatherland.

Alff.E 13

Serial no .: 063


LILLE. M. DCC. XCI., [7/28/1791], 14 p., 8 °;

[P.14:] De notre Assemblée secrette tenue à V ....... le 28 Juillet 1791.

Under the motto 'Unity makes you strong', the author calls on the Belgians to stand together in the fight against the Austrians. It must be prevented that the already existing disagreement among the Belgians is increased by the injustices and excesses of the soldiers and the royalists (a brief, one-sided outline of the course of the revolution and description of the crimes committed up to now), only so that the Austrians would be freer in their shameful conduct Hand. Since subjugation of the French would only exacerbate the tyranny of the Austrians in Belgium, the Belgians should defend the constitutions of their countries together with the French.

Alff.K 44

Serial no .: 064


1791. [1.1791?], S.l., 6 p., 8 °;

Praise of the statecraft of Leopold II, condemnation of the deeds of Van Eupen and his accomplices Brosius and Feller and a promise to always stand up for the cause of the emperor, in the form of a poem whose last lines of each stanza end with one or more Latin words, one after the other read the Ave Maria devoted.

Alff.K 45

Avertissement .... see number 98

Serial no .: 065



LES ÉTATS DE FLANDRE, LES États respectives du Pays-Bas ont reçus certain manifestos au nom de S. M. le Roi LÉOPOLD, [...].

[S. 4:] De l'imprimerie de G. Huyghe, Marché aux Fromages,, s.d., [7.11.1790], s.l., [Bruxelles], 4 p., 8 °;

[Sign:] Actum dans notre Assemblée, ce 7 November 1790. Étoit signé, J. F. ROHAERT.

Announcement by the Estates of Flanders of the general armament of the people and the creation of two lines of defense in the provinces of Brabant and Hainaut, which the Congress in Brussels had ordered in response to Leopold's manifesto of October 14, 1790 and the expected invasion of the imperial troops. Linked to this is the request to the Flemish volunteers to report in large numbers in case of an emergency defending these lines of defense. The stands expect until November 18th. the sending of corresponding lists by the magistrates (see also No. 91, the Dutch edition with identical content).

Alff. C 32

Serial no .: 066



MESSIEURS du Magistrat de cette Ville étant informés, que le retour si désiré de LL. AA. RR. l'Archiduchesse MARIE-CHRISTINE d'Autriche et le Duc ALBERT CASIMIR de Saxen-Tesschen, aura lieu [...].

[S. 1:] De l'Imprimerie de G. Huyghe, Marché aux Fromages. , s.d., [6.1791, before June 15, 1791], [Bruxelles], unpag., [1 p.], 1 sheet, 8 °;

Announcement of the route that the Governors General will take on their arrival in Brussels on June 15, 1791 to their palace, combined with an invitation to a warm welcome.

Alff.D 13

Serial no .: 067



IL m'est parvenu, que les mal-intentionnés répandoient derechef le bruit, [...].

s.d., [10.9.1790], s.l., 2 p., 8 °;

[signed:] Luxembourg le 10 September 1790. BENDER, MARE'CHAL DES ARME'ES.

In order to prevent desertions, General Bender countered the renewed rumors that there would be no troop reinforcements from Germany and that negotiations would end the unrest. He quotes from the dispatch of the governors general of September 8th, 1790, from which it clearly emerges that the emperor wants to recapture the Belgian provinces militarily if necessary, if the insurgents do not use the time until the troops are brought up to submit to peaceful submission.

Alff.K 46

Serial no .: 068


L'on a lú dans le Supplément au N °. 2 du Tome XXII de l'Esprit de Gazettes, [...].

s.d., [July 16, 1790], s.l., 2 p., 8 °;

[sign .:] ... les Bourguemaîtres de la ville de DINANT, COSTER. B. THIBAUTT. DINANT ce 16 Juillet 1790.

The report of a heroic attack on an Austrian battery and the capture of two artillery pieces by the patriotic army is presented as false by a reply from the magistrate of the city of Dinant to the Austrian General de Corti, since the letter shows that it was partial Destruction of a bridge over the Meuse and the removal of two cannons acted as unauthorized preventive measures by the patriot army.

Alff.K 47

Serial no .: 069

AVIS A LA NATION. Relation de ce qui s'est passé à Namur.

INtimement persuadé de l'attachement inviolable de tous les bons Citoyens pour la liberté, & le bon ordre; [...].

[S. 3:] De l'Imprimerie de J.L. De Boubers. Imprimeur du Département Général de la Guerre. s.d., [2.4.1790], s.l., [Bruxelles], 3 p., 8 °;

The leaflet contains the following two documents:

1. Report on the rebellious activities of the officers in Namur who are under Van der Mersch's command. They are accused not only of forming a criminal organization, but also of appointing plenipotentiaries for Congress and violating the confidentiality of letters. One reacts indignantly to Van der Mersch's approval of these measures and denies any participation by the estates or citizens of Namur. Signed: DE SELLIERS.

2. Lettre circulaire envoyée à tous les Commandans des Troupes de la Flandre (p. 3), signed: JOSEPH F. DE BAST.

The Flemish estates condemn the officers' petition of March 30, 1790 as suitable to split the army into factions and to instigate a riot throughout the country and demand unconditional submission to the orders of the Congress and the officers newly appointed by it, under penalty of punishment in the event of a violation.

Alff.K 48

Serial no .: 070

AVIS AU PEUPLE DU COMTÉ DE NAMUR, SUR Le Mémoire présenté le 18 Janvier 1791, par les Etats de cette Province, à son Excellence le Comte de Mercy-Argenteau, Ministre Plenipotentiaire de Sa Majesté l'Empereur & Roi, au gouvernement des Pays- Bas.

1791. [18.1.1791], s.l., 38 p., [A8] -B8, C4, 8 °;

In a sharp dispute with the Memorandum of the Estates of Namur of January 18, 1791, the author tries to enlighten the population of the County of Namur about the concealment maneuvers of the first two Estates, which only serve to preserve their tyrannical rule and their feudal privileges. Fearing that they will be held accountable, they intrigue against the reinstatement of those who are loyal to the emperor into their previous offices, as they fear that they will expose their system of oppression. The author accuses the stands of failing to provide evidence of their vague allegations and therefore of being implausible. He himself underpins his accusations against the estates of suppressing the people at their expense with numerous examples (dissemination of rumors to anger the people against the judicial reform of 1787, since it harms them; failure to publish imperial declarations of intent to abolish internal tariffs; procrastination reform to improve poor welfare; contradiction between the praise of the imperial memorandum of March 2, 1790 and its sharp rejection at the time; call for a crusade against the Austrians in late summer 1790 in a hopeless situation; attempt to remove disliked officials from their offices by slander; unjustified Deposition of the emperor because the government never violated the constitution;). The general amnesty granted was interpreted by the estates as meaning that no insurgent could be brought to justice and that any claim for compensation would therefore be rejected. The debts, which had arisen through the extravagance of the estates, can easily be carried out by the estates foregoing their tax exemptions and by the monasteries forgoing all pomp. The author calls on the population, as in Flanders and Brabant, to demand redress for abuses and to demand a new, fairer representation of the people. On pages 36 to 38 the author presents the draft of such a new popular representation (Projet de nouvelle Réprésentation pour le peuple du Comté de Namur), which increases the number of freely elected third-tier members, a limitation on the term of office and a Proposes to vote by head (see also No. 27).

Alff.K 49

Serial no .: 071


BON Peuple du Hainaut, le salut & le sort de votre province dépend, dans ce moment-ci, de votre conseil [...].

s.d., [22.2.1791], s.l., [Bruxelles?], 4 p., 8 °;

[P.4:] Bruxelles, ce 22 Février 1791.

The author tries to make it clear to the people of Hainaut, using the example of the dispute over the reoccupation of the supreme judicial council of the province, that their fate depends on selfish councils that are only committed to their own interests. Only the emperor can save the people from another threatening abyss.

Alff.K 50

Serial no .: 072



DES mal-intentionnés ayant distribué in various Cantons & Paroisses de la Province de Limbourg des bruits, faux, [...].

[S. 4:] A BRUXELLES, Chez A.J.D. DE BRAECKENIER, Imprimeur-Libraire, Quai aux Poissonniers, coin de la Rue de la Mâchoire. s.d., [7/8/1790], 4 p., 8 °;

[sign. P. 2:] Fait à Liege le 7 Aout 1790. H. J. VANDERHOOP, Commissaire député pour le Limbourg.

Denial of rumors that on their return the patriot army will burn down all the villages that supported the last Austrian incursion into the province of Limburg. Van der Hoop puts the affected villages under the protection of Congress, guarantees those involved impunity and asks the residents to remain quiet in their homes. This is followed by two addresses of allegiance from the 'Ban de Sprimont' and from Housse on the same day, in which the immediate publication of the Vanderhoops announcement and the execution of the orders are indicated. A short report on page 4 shows why the residents armed themselves.

Alff.K 51

Serial no .: 073


L'ON avertit le public que, pendant le courant de ce mois, l'on vendra à l'hôtel-de-ville de Bruxelles, [...].

s.d., [1.1791?], s.l., 4 p., 8 °;

Satire on the end of the class domination in the form of an allusive sales advertisement, which depicts the class representatives as bloodthirsty and repulsive through the characterization of the sales items.

Alff.K 52

Serial no .: 074


Août 1790. LE moment approche qui va fixer votre sort, le règne oppressif des usurpateurs va finir; [...].

s.d., [8.1790], s.l., 4 p., A2, 8 °;

The call to the Belgians to arm themselves and to convene assemblies in the parishes in order to elect new, real MPs there is preceded by an appeal not to take blind revenge on the representatives of the estates after the foreseeable end of the tyrannical rule of the estates, but to punish them to leave ordinary jurisdiction. The sincerity of the members of the Estates who are ready to resign their mandate should be checked by taking a democratic oath. Ten 'Règles & instructions générales pour le choix des Représentans du Peuple dans toutes les Provinces Belgiques' follow: those heads of families who either own a house or an apartment or have rented it for at least one year are entitled to vote; they form the primary assemblies in which the electors are elected according to a certain key; the elections' assemblies then elect the new representatives for a year; the representatives of the people vote in their assemblies according to their heads, upon request a class structure can be reintroduced.

Alff.K 53

Serial no .: 075


CHERS concitoyens, il est inconsevable qu'on ne veut pas ouvrir les yeux sur l'abîme [...].

s.d., [4 / 5.1791?], s.l., 7 p., 8 ° ,;

Urgent warning of an inauguration by Leopold II. Since he has not yet remedied the legal violations of his predecessor and acts similarly to his brother (expulsion of religious communities, degradation of the Brabant Council, mockery of the assembly of estates on February 24th, looting of the Capuchin monastery in Brussels on February 25th , arbitrary arrests and the imposition of corporal punishment according to the former regulations of the 'Capitaines de Cercles' from 1787, replacement of the competent judges by an imperial body), consent to its inauguration would contradict Article 59 of the Joyeuse Entrée and the earlier resistance of the estates against Joseph II.

Alff.K 54

Serial no .: 076


ON vendra publiquement, lundi prochain 6 December 1790, devant l'hôtel du ci-devant congrès, [...].

s.d., [2.12.1790?], s.l., unpag., [1 p.], 2 sheets, 8 °;

Satire on the machinations of the former revolutionary leaders and the clergy (Van der Noot, Van Eupen, Franckenberg) in the form of an allusive sales advertisement in which the titles of the fictional books for sale and the material of their bindings provide information about the aims and character of the rebels.

Alff.K 55

Serial no .: 077

AVIS aux Belges.

OUVREZ les yeux sur votre sort, mes Chers Concitoyens, et reconnoissez avec moi que nous ne somme qu'à deux doigts de notre perte. [...].

s.d., [11/18/1790], s.l., unpag., [4 p.], 2 sheets, 8 °;

Exposure of the alleged treason committed by Van der Noot and leading members of Congress. The proof is a copy of a secret agreement between Vander Noot and General Bender (Copie authentique de l'accommodement sécret fait par Mr. Henri Van der Noot, au nom des Etats Généraux, avec son Excellence le Général Bender), the provisions of which are unimpeded To enable occupation of the Belgian provinces by the Austrians. In the opinion of the author, only Van der Mersch could still avert such a disaster in Belgium. He therefore calls on the population to force the estates, if necessary by force, to release Vander Mersch and to transfer supreme command to the general.

Alff.K 56

Serial no .: 078


SI vous avez fait connoître à toutes les Nations la Justice de votre Cause, [...].

[S. 3:] A BRUXELLES, Chez A. J. D. BRAECKENIER, Imprimeur-Libraire, Quai aux Poissonniers, Coin de la rue de la Machoire., S.d., [30 Octobre 1790], 3 pages, 2 sheets, 8 °;

Appeal to defend the freedom gained against the devious despot Leopold II, in order to repel the imperial troops with the help of God and to avoid renewed slavery (see also No. 512).

Alff. C 21

Serial no .: 079


LE BUREAU CENTRAL DE CORRESPONDANCE avec les Départemens, établi rue de la Jussienne, pour obtenir la liquidation [...].

s.d., [7.5.1801?], s.l., 4 p., 8 °;

Official notification of the new address and the offer of extended services in financial transactions of the 'Bureau Central de la Correspondance' - responsible for the repayment of public debts - to the residents of the Réunis departments. Attached is a list of the various possible financial transactions in the réunis departments by the Bureau Central.

Alff.K 57

Serial no .: 080



IL se repand dans Bruxelles un imprimé ayant pour titre [...].

s.d., [12.1789], s.l., unpag, [1 p.], 1 sheet, 8 °;

[signed:] J. F. VONCK

Vonck rejects the assumption that he was the author of the book 'Les Autheurs secrets de la Révolution présente' and distances himself from the content of this book in order to avoid a dispute about the real authors of the revolution and their merits.

Alff.K 58

Serial no .: 081

[anonymous, 'UN CITOYEN':]

AVIS D'UN CITOYEN Sur la motion adoptée par la Société des amis du bien public, ayant pour titre EXHORTATION D'UN VONCKISTE A SES CONCITOYENS.

MESSIEURS, LES sentiments que vous manifestez dans votre exhortation à vos concitoyens prouvent [...].

s.d., [28 Février 1791], s.l., [Bruxelles?], 3 p., 8 °;

[P.3:] Bruxelles 28 Février 1791.

After the author has recognized the correct principles of the 'Amis du bien public', as expressed in their writing of February 26, 1791, the 'Exhortation d'un vonckiste ...' (No. 254/55), he suggests that they replace the term Vonckist with 'bon citoyen' so that that unfortunate social division does not break out again and that everyone dedicates themselves energetically to the sole goal of the welfare of the fatherland under the benevolent rule of Leopold II.

Alff.K 59

Serial no .: 082

AVIS ET SENTIMENS D'UN HOMME Qui ne prétend s'attribuer que du sens commun pour juger de la conduite de Pierre Léopold Grand Duc de Toscane & c. & du caractere de ceux qui forment des voeux pour ce Prince, & qui demandent pourquoi ses propositions n'ont pas été acceptées par les Belges.

Time que tous ceux, qui du premier comme du dernier mouvement de leur coeur ne sont pas pénétrés d'horreur à l'idée d'un accommodement [...].

s.d., [29.5.1790], s.l., 3 p., 8 °;

The author distrusts the proposals and promises of Leopold in his memorandum of March 2, 1790 (reinforced by the telegram from the governors-general of May 29, 1790) and considers those who see the emperor's cause to be despicable; for how can the emperor, who recognizes the deposition of Joseph II by the Belgians and thereby surrenders his successor rights, answer the Belgians' free decision against him as their possible sovereign with war, if not by rejecting the indubitable rights of the Belgians?

Alff. C 29

Serial no .: 083

AVIS POUR LE TIERS-ÉTAT DE BRABANT: SERVANT de Supplément à l'Esquisse de la Constitution de la Province.

MR. DE VOLTAIRE a peu près la même pensée dans Rome Sauvée, & la révolution dont la Province paroît menacée, [...].

s.d., [12.1789 / 1.1790?], s.l., 9 pages, 6 sheets, (t), A4, (), 8 °, paperback;

The author first shows the need for an independent judiciary for smooth interaction between the legislature and the executive. He sees the origins of the Brabant Council at the beginning of the 14th century, when the shedding of feudal rule and the formation of communes and the third civil class made the establishment of a judicial authority necessary. According to the author, the Charter of Cortembergh 1312 guarantees the Brabant council participation in all laws and participation in government in the absence of the sovereign.From this he deduces the right of the council to its own right of appointment, to the irremovability of its members and to the immutability of its composition without its express consent. Therefore all attempts on the part of the prince or the first two estates to undermine the powers of the council by enacting laws and treaties without his participation are inadmissible and legally ineffective (see also No. 289).

Alff.K 60

Serial no .: 084


LORSQUE deux puissances ont la guerre, la politique générale veut qu'ils ayent un médiateur, [...].

s.d., [1.1791?], s.l., 4 p., 8 °;

Announcement of the arrival of Archduke Charles in Belgium, who as the ideal mediator between the Belgian nation and the Emperor will peacefully resolve the existing conflicts for the good of Belgium.

Alff.K 61

Serial no .: 085

AVIS SECRET DONNÉ L'AN 1664, PAR LE CONSEIL D'ÉTAT AU ROI DE FRANCE LOUIS XIV ET A LA REINE-MERE, ANNE D'AUTRICHE, SUR les maximes & règles à garder en la conquête des Pays-Bas. Tiré de l'histoire de la Maison d'Autriche. Avec des notes & des réflexions de l'Editeur.

1790. [3.1790?], S.l., 16 p., A8, 8 °;